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Glyphosate applied to corn, cotton and soy crops in the surveyed states. 

Glyphosate applied to corn, cotton and soy crops in the surveyed states. 

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Many neurological diseases, including autism, depression, dementia, anxiety disorder and Par-kinson's disease, are associated with abnormal sleep patterns, which are directly linked to pineal gland dysfunction. The pineal gland is highly susceptible to environmental toxicants. Two pervasive substances in modern industrialized nations are aluminum a...

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... first interest was in tracking the adoption of genetically engineered (GE) herbicide resistant (Roundup Ready) crops. As can be seen from Figure 1, only cotton had greater than 10% coverage in 1996, whereas by 2012 all crops had become around 90% herbicide resistant. The increase in glyphosate use on soy and corn crops closely tracks the adoption of herbicide-resistant, GE crops, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The total amount of glyphosate applied to soy, corn and cotton crops in the states surveyed by the USDA is shown in Figure 4. The survey states comprise approximately 90% of the total of these crops planted in the US As can be seen from Figure 5, during the interval from 1998 to 2010, the estimated number of diagnoses at hospital discharge with ICD9 codes related to sleep disorder (ICD 327, 780.50 -59, 307.41 -49) have been in- creasing steadily, precisely in step with the increase in glyphosate usage on corn and soy crops (R = 0.97; p < 0.000013). Figures 6-10 show similar statistics drawn from the hospital discharge data for the following neuro- logical diseases, which are all associated with insomnia: autism (R = 0.98), ADHD (R = 0.95), anxiety (R = 0.95), schizophrenia (R = 0.88) and dementia (R = 0.93). In addition, anemia, which we identify as a key initiat- ing factor in sleep disorder and in neurological disease, is also rising in step with glyphosate usage on corn and soy crops, as shown in Figure 11. Data from death certificates are consistent with hospital discharge data. Suici- de by overdose of prescription drugs (R = 0.95) is shown in Figure 12. Age-adjusted deaths from Alzheimer's disease ( Figure 13) and from dementia (Figure 14) are both also highly correlated with glyphosate usage. The correlation with deaths from dementia is 0.991, with p-value ≤ ...

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... Different studies indicated that pineal gland calcification was significantly associated with age, sex, low altitude, low sunlight exposure, ethnicity, light, cell phone, fluoride intake, nutrition, and neurodegenerative diseases [7]. A modern lifestyle like using electromagnetic field (EMF)-emitting material such as cell phones and audio/video players; using fluoride in mouthwash, toothpaste, and tab water; and using herbicides were also considered as the critical risk factors for pineal gland calcification [12,28,29]. The prevalence of pineal gland calcification was highest in older age individuals compared with those of young and also highest among obese. ...
... In this study, there is a high prevalence of pineal gland calcification detected by CT scan and most studies showed that males have a high prevalence of pineal gland calicifcation [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Even though there is no clear justification for this variation of pineal gland calcification by sex of individuals, many other studies link such differences to the effect of melatonin on gonadotropins [28][29][30]. As a limitation, most of the studies lack clinical and laboratory data on the function of the pineal gland, making it difficult to extrapolate these findings to neurodegenerative changes in a clinically relevant way. ...
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Background Pineal gland calcification is the formation of corpora arenacea predominantly composed of calcium and phosphorus. It plays an important role in regulating the light/dark circadian changes to synchronize their daily physiological activities like feeding, metabolism, reproduction, and sleep through the secretion of melatonin. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the pooled prevalence of pineal gland calcification. Methods A systematic review was done using published research articles from different electronic databases. Cross-sectional studies were included for systematic review and only studies conducted on the human population were included for quantitative analysis. Published articles were selected by assessing the title and abstract for relevance to the review objectives. Finally, the full text was retrieved for further assessment. Results The pooled prevalence of pineal gland calcification was 61.65% [95% CI: 52.81, 70.49], with a heterogeneity of I² = 97.7%, P ≤ 0.001. According to the qualitative analysis, an increase in age, male sex, and white ethnicity are the major socio-demographic characteristics that increase the prevalence of pineal gland calcification. Conclusion The pooled prevalence of pineal gland calcification was higher compared with reports from previous studies. Different studies reported pineal gland calcification was most prevalent in the adult population compared with the pediatric age groups. According to the qualitative analysis, an increase in age, male sex, and white ethnicity are the major socio-demographic characteristics that increase the prevalence of pineal gland calcification.
... Brazilian Journal of Development, Curitiba, v.9, n.1, p. 1104-1124, jan., 2023 Aparte de la Declaración de la IARC, hay evidencia abrumadora de la relación entre los melanomas malignos y la exposición al glifosato; en el caso de Paraguay, la tasa de mortalidad por cáncer aumenta cada año (gráfico N° 1) de 60,9 por 100.000 habitantes a 66,2 100.000 en 2020. En el 2007 la tasa en cuestión fue de 54,3 muertes por 100.000 habitantes.Numerosos estudios se focalizan en daños neurológicos que van aumentando y que son causadas por agroquímicos, particularmente se investiga sobre los efectos del glifosato en la salud prenatalSeneff et al (2015) presentan evidencias de la incidencia sinérgica del glifosato y el aluminio en patologías de la glándula pineal, un pequeño órgano del cerebro que produce melatonina, que están relacionadas con disfunciones intestinales y alteraciones neurológicas. Disfunciones de la glándula pineal están asociadas con desórdenes de la ansiedad, enfermedad de Parkinson y pautas anormales de sueño.Gráfico Nº 1 Tasa de mortalidad por tumor maligno Fuente: Dirección General de Información Estratégica en Salud (2022) Esta glándula es altamente sensible a dos sustancias con mucha presencia en las naciones industrializadas que son el aluminio y el glifosato, un ingrediente activo del herbicida Roundup; conforme lo señalan estos autores el glifosato interfiere en el funcionamiento intestinal afectando el metabolismo de sustancias necesarias para el cerebro. ...
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... Based on the impacts on human health as early as the 90s of the last century, investigations of research centers of excellence in the northern hemisphere has proved the highly harmful effects on human health of the herbicide 2-4D used in the Vietnam War, particularly its carcinogenic effect, the damage to the nervous system, and deformations in descendants of the population exposed to its use (Fogel, 2001). In recent years, new research has focused on the growing neurological damage caused by agrochemicals and particularly on the effects of glyphosate on prenatal health (Bellinger et al, 2016;Falnoga et al., 2000;Mesnage et al., 2013;Mesnage et al., 2014;Nevison, 2014;Seneff et al., 2015;Seralini et al., 2014;Swanson et al., 2014). ...
... us, Seneff et al. (2015) present evidence of the synergistic incidence of glyphosate and aluminum in pathologies of the pineal gland, related to intestinal dysfunctions and neurological diseases. Various neurological disorders including autism, depression, dementia, anxiety disorders, Parkinson's disease are associated with abnormal sleep patterns directly linked to dysfunctions of the pineal gland; various neurological disorders including autism, depression, dementia, anxiety disorders, Parkinson's disease are associated with abnormal sleep patterns directly related to dysfunctions of the pineal gland; in turn, this gland is highly susceptible to two substances with a strong presence in the industrialized nations which are aluminum and glyphosate; the latter is an active ingredient in the Round Up herbicide. ...
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... Segundo os estudos, a combinação entre alumínio e glifosato, especificamente, interrompe o funcionamento da glândula pineal, induzindo danos neurológicos, inclusive com evidências de relação com o autismo. Além disso, o glifosato interfere em caminhos importantes da absorção de aminoácidos no sistema gastrointestinal, destruindo a flora intestinal, que é essencial à saúde e responsável pelo sistema imunológico, com efeitos nefastos e envelhecimento precoce 25 . ...
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... Otherwise, a low-quality ecological study that linked U.S. national-level data on glyphosate agricultural applications and various neurological outcomes, including hospital discharge rates, mortality rates, and childhood autism case counts, was identified but not considered further in our weight-of-evidence analysis due to its ecological design and other methodological weaknesses (Seneff et al. 2015) ( Table 2 and Supplemental Table 1). ...
... Ever vs. never use is an extremely limited classification of exposure that obscures a wide range of potential usage scenarios and cumulative doses. Adding the latter seven studies using ever vs. never exposure classification to the six studies with residential proximity-based or ecological exposure metrics (Caballero et al. 2018;Nevison 2014;Rull et al. 2006;Seneff et al. 2015;von Ehrenstein et al. 2019;Yang et al. 2014) and two other low-quality studies that assessed ever vs. never glyphosate use (Garry et al. 2002;Wechsler et al. 1991), three quarters of the available epidemiological studies of glyphosate and neurological outcomes (17 of 23, 74%) offer little to no information on the extent of any individual person's exposure frequency or likely dose of glyphosate. ...
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Purpose Human health risk assessments of glyphosate have focused on animal toxicology data for determining neurotoxic potential. Human epidemiological studies have not yet been systematically reviewed for glyphosate neurotoxicity hazard identification. The objective of this systematic literature review was to summarize the available epidemiology of glyphosate exposure and neurological outcomes in humans. Methods As of December 2021, 25 eligible epidemiological studies of glyphosate exposure and neurological endpoints were identified and assessed for five quality dimensions using guidance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Studies that assessed personal use of glyphosate were prioritized, whereas those assessing indirect exposure (other than personal use) were rated as low quality, since biomonitoring data indicate that indirect metrics of glyphosate exposure almost always equate to non-detectable glyphosate doses. Results Overall, the scientific evidence on glyphosate and neurotoxicity in humans is sparse and methodologically limited, based on nine included epidemiological studies of neurodegenerative outcomes (two high quality), five studies of neurobehavioral outcomes (two high quality), six studies of neurodevelopmental outcomes (none high quality), and five studies of other and mixed neurological outcomes (one high quality). The five high-quality studies showed no association between glyphosate use and risk of depression, Parkinson disease, or peripheral nerve conduction velocity. Results were mixed among the eight moderate-quality studies, which did not demonstrate consistent associations with any neurological endpoints or categories. Low-quality studies were considered uninformative about possible neurotoxic effects due primarily to questionable assessments of indirect exposure. Conclusions No association has been demonstrated between glyphosate and any neurological outcomes in humans. To move the state of science forward, epidemiological studies should focus on scenarios involving direct and frequent use of glyphosate while collecting information on validated health outcomes, concomitant agricultural exposures, and relevant personal characteristics.
... Since none of the variables of interest can be definitively ruled out as a potential causative factor in an eventual ASD outcome, they must be considered as additive -or even multiplicative as the toxicology shows (Haley, 2005;N. Z. Miller & Goldman, 2011;Seneff et al., 2015;Kennedy et al., 2016) -increasing risk of adverse vaccination outcomes leading to autism and/or related neurological disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD The authors' use of Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting Adjustment can only lead to an introduction of error falsely named to imply some kind of "correction". The only error being committed is to regard a known toxicant as if it were a negligible placebo or something of that sort. ...
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... In keeping with this, early postnatal pesti-cide exposure has been demonstrated to influence brain development, and a growing body of research suggests that early pesticide exposure has neurobehavioral implications (Heyer and Meredith, 2017). Furthermore, an epidemiological survey found a direct association between the increased use of agricultural chemicals and the prevalence of multiple neurological illnesses at various ages, including autism, dementia, and anxiety disorder (Seneff and Li, 2015). Biochemical markers that might express energy distribution characteristics or be linked to other individual endpoints, such as breeding or development and population health viability, can assist investigators in better understanding the processes associated with environmental stressor exposure (Sokolova et al., 2012). ...
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... Amygdala [92,93] Antioxidant enzyme activity [94] Axonal transport [95] Brain Mitochondria [96] Brain Cancer [97][98][99][100][101][102] Cholinergic Neurons/Pathways [103] Cerebellum [90,104] Cerebral Cortex [104][105][106][107][108] Dopaminergic Neurons/Pathways [109,110] Functional Networks [91] Glutaminergic Neurons/Pathways [111] Glial Cells [111] Hippocampus [92,93,105,111] Neuronal Tubulin [112] Oxidative Stress [113,114] Parkinson's Disease [25,50,54,60,63,83,[114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132] Pineal Gland [133] Somatosensory Cortex [111,134,135] Striatum [105] Animal [92][93][94][95][96][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113]127,134] Case-Control [60,63,83,97,100,101,115,116,[119][120][121]125,126,[130][131][132][136][137][138] Cohort [50,54,98,99,122,124,128,129,132] Cross-Sectional [117,139] Ecological [118] Human Imaging [90,91] Longitudinal [133,135] Molecular Cellular [102,114,123] Pesticides are generally associated with negative impacts on brain health. ...
... Amygdala [92,93] Antioxidant enzyme activity [94] Axonal transport [95] Brain Mitochondria [96] Brain Cancer [97][98][99][100][101][102] Cholinergic Neurons/Pathways [103] Cerebellum [90,104] Cerebral Cortex [104][105][106][107][108] Dopaminergic Neurons/Pathways [109,110] Functional Networks [91] Glutaminergic Neurons/Pathways [111] Glial Cells [111] Hippocampus [92,93,105,111] Neuronal Tubulin [112] Oxidative Stress [113,114] Parkinson's Disease [25,50,54,60,63,83,[114][115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128][129][130][131][132] Pineal Gland [133] Somatosensory Cortex [111,134,135] Striatum [105] Animal [92][93][94][95][96][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113]127,134] Case-Control [60,63,83,97,100,101,115,116,[119][120][121]125,126,[130][131][132][136][137][138] Cohort [50,54,98,99,122,124,128,129,132] Cross-Sectional [117,139] Ecological [118] Human Imaging [90,91] Longitudinal [133,135] Molecular Cellular [102,114,123] Pesticides are generally associated with negative impacts on brain health. ...
... Of the 104 total journal articles reviewed here, 57 investigated the relationship between pesticide exposures in agricultural work and known areas of the brain. Of the 57 articles concerning pesticide exposure, 20 considered all pesticides without mentioning subcategories, nine focused on insecticides [96,98,100,104,105,109,113,116,149], six focused on organophosphate pesticides [92,93,95,103,112,117,123,139], three focused on herbicides [111,133,136], and the rest focused on either a specific pesticide (e.g., cypermethrin) [134], or a type of pesticide defined by the type of agriculture where it's used (e.g., pesticides used on vineyards) [137]. Because some reviews exist on certain specific types of pesticides, we included all chemicals used to eliminate insects, fungi, and unwanted plants in our definition of pesticides and do not separate them into subgroups below [24,27,42,150,151]. ...
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Certain exposures related to agricultural work have been associated with neurological disorders. To date, few studies have included brain health measurements to link specific risk factors with possible neural mechanisms. Moreover, a synthesis of agricultural risk factors associated with poorer brain health outcomes is missing. In this systematic review, we identified 106 articles using keywords related to agriculture, occupational exposure, and the brain. We identified seven major risk factors: non-specific factors that are associated with agricultural work itself, toluene, pesticides, heavy metal or dust exposure, work with farm animals, and nicotine exposure from plants. Of these, pesticides are the most highly studied. The majority of qualifying studies were epidemiological studies. Nigral striatal regions were the most well studied brain area impacted. Of the three human neuroimaging studies we found, two focused on functional networks and the third focused on gray matter. We identified two major directions for future studies that will help inform preventative strategies for brain health in vulnerable agricultural workers: (1) the effects of moderators such as type of work, sex, migrant status, race, and age; and (2) more comprehensive brain imaging studies, both observational and experimental, involving several imaging techniques.
... Melatonin is a methoxyindole hormone. Roundup disrupts pineal function and reduces melatonin production (99). Melatonin (10 mg/kg b.w.) administration with Roundup (500 mg/kg b.w.) for 7 days improved reproductive parameters, reduced lesions at the implantation site, reduced serum TBARS and GSH levels, and corrected oxidative damage in female Wistar rats that was induced by GLYP (42). ...
Article
Glyphosate (GLYP) is a widely used pesticide; it is considered to be a safe herbicide for animals and humans because it targets 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase. However, there has been increasing evidence that GLYP causes varying degrees of toxicity. Moreover, oxidative stress and metabolism are highly correlated with toxicity. This review provides a comprehensive introduction to the toxicity of GLYP and, for the first time, systematically summarizes the toxicity mechanism of GLYP from the perspective of oxidative stress, including GLYP-mediated oxidative damage, changes in antioxidant status, altered signaling pathways, and the regulation of oxidative stress by exogenous substances. In addition, the metabolism of GLYP is discussed, including metabolites,metabolic pathways, metabolic enzymes, and the toxicity of metabolites. This review provides new ideas for the toxicity mechanism of GLYP and proposes effective strategies for reducing its toxicity.
... Chronic exposure to glyphosate is however noxious and commonly associated with a plethora of human pathologies including epithelial (Samsel and Seneff, 2013;Seneff et al., 2015), neural (Mesnage et al., 2015(Mesnage et al., , 2017Thongprakaisang et al., 2013), cardiocirculatory and muscular disorders (Manas et al., 2009;Sritana et al., 2018;Thongprakaisang et al., 2013), neoplasia, and teratogenic effects (Hokanson et al., 2007;Koller et al., 2012;Kwiatkowska et al., 2017;Richard et al., 2005;Wozniak et al., 2018). According to some studies (Gasnier et al., 2009;Hokanson et al., 2007;Richard et al., 2005) GLY concentrations one hundred times lower than those used in agricultural practices can interact with estrogenic and androgenic receptors on the surface of cells (Cattani et al., 2014;Li et al., 2013b;Parajuli et al., 2015) and behave as a competitive aromatase inhibitor (Hokanson et al., 2007;Richard et al., 2005;Wozniak et al., 2018). ...
... The inhibitory effect as referred for aromatase extends to other cytochrome P450 isozymes constituting the Phase I detoxification pathway in mammals. As a consequence, there is an increment in foodborne chemical residues and other xenobiotics (Seneff et al., 2015). On the other hand, it has been observed that GLY-DNA interaction results in the oxidation of pyrimidines that can induce teratogenic and carcinogenic effects (Koller et al., 2012;Kwiatkowska et al., 2017;Manas et al., 2009;Wozniak et al., 2018). ...
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Glyphosate (GLY) is the main ingredient in the weed killer Roundup and the most widely used pesticide in the world. Studies of the harmful effects of GLY on human health began to become more wide-ranging after 2015. GLY is listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a carcinogenic hazard to humans. Moreover, GLY has the property to complex with transition metals and are stable for long periods, being considered a high-risk element for different matrices, such as environmental (soil and water) and food (usually genetically modified crops). Since that, it was noticed an increment in the development of new analytical methods for its determination in different matrices like food, environmental and biological fluids. Noteworthy, the application of electrochemical techniques for downstream detection sparked interest due to the ability to minimize or eliminate the use of polluting chemicals, using simple and affordable equipment. This work aims to review the contribution of the electroanalytical methods for the determination of GLY in different food and environmental matrices. Parameters such as the electrochemical transduction techniques based on the electrical measurement signals, receptor materials for electrodes preparation, and the detection mechanisms are described in this review. The literature review shows that the electrochemical sensors are powerful detection system that can be improved by their design and by their portability to fulfil the needs of the GLY determination in laboratory benches, or even in situ analysis.