Gloss dependences of contrasting cards with a layer of model cosmetics containing (1) kaolin; (2) Kronos 2971 pigment; (3) Kronos 1171 pigment; (4) ST-HFIP-T1 and (5) ST-CO2-T1 aerogels, as a function of time after the model sebum application. (6) White card is given as a reference.

Gloss dependences of contrasting cards with a layer of model cosmetics containing (1) kaolin; (2) Kronos 2971 pigment; (3) Kronos 1171 pigment; (4) ST-HFIP-T1 and (5) ST-CO2-T1 aerogels, as a function of time after the model sebum application. (6) White card is given as a reference.

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SiO2‒TiO2 binary aerogels obtained by the methods of low-temperature (carbon dioxide) and high-temperature (isopropanol, hexafluoroisopropanol and methyl tert-butyl ether) supercritical drying are considered as multifunctional cosmetic pigments with high anti-shine power and photoprotective properties. The composition and structure of SiO2–TiO2 aer...

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... the composition [Ti(acac)2(iPrO)2] is formed [64], which has high stability, similar to other titanium complexes with acetylacetone [65]. The IR spectroscopy data of the ST-CO2 sample are consistent with the thermal analysis data, indicating a significant weight loss corresponding to the oxidation of organic substances at temperatures 350-450 С (Fig. ...
Context 2
... to the thermal analysis of aerogels (Fig. S3), annealing at a temperature of 600 °C led to the complete removal of organic compounds from the materials. Annealing at a temperature of 600 °C for 1 h led to crystallisation of anatase in the aerogel obtained by 14 supercritical drying in hexafluoroisopropanol (Fig. 1). Thermal treatment under identical conditions did not lead to ...
Context 3
... characteristics were studied for TiO2-SiO2 aerogel samples, which demonstrated the most promising photoprotective properties. Fig. 3 shows the gloss dependences of contrasting cards with model cosmetics applied to the surface, as a function of time after the application of model sebum. In all cases, at the initial stage, an increase in gloss was observed associated with the wetting of the film with the model sebum of the cosmetic layer, then the gloss decreased, and ...

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... Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is widely used in a variety of applications, including photocatalysis, [1,2] paints, [3,4] cosmetics, [5] air and water purification, [6][7][8] photodegradation of organic pollutants, [9,10] and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). [11,12] This all attributes to its availability, photostability, nontoxicity, cost-effectiveness, and special optical properties. ...
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Titanium dioxide was prepared using titanium-based metal–organic framework (MOF) i.e., NH2-MIL-125(Ti) as a metal precursor. NH2-MIL-125(Ti) was synthesized then calcined at 400 °C, 500 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C. The properties of NH2-MIL-125(Ti) and produced TiO2 were investigated using various techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe surface morphology and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to analyze elemental composition of prepared samples. PXRD pattern confirms TiO2 anatase phase formation when Ti-MOF was calcined up to 500 °C, whereas the formation of TiO2 rutile phase at calcination temperature of 600 °C. The photocatalytic activities of produced TiO2 photocatalysts were investigated for the cycloaddition reaction of CO2 to propylene oxide.
... Ce(PO4)(HPO4)0.5(H2O)0.5 and NH4Ce2(PO4)3 are comparable with the values of conventional inorganic UV-filters; the sun protection characteristics of NH4Ce2(PO4)3 coincide with those for commercial anatase[74] (see ...
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This paper reports on a comprehensive study of the UV-shielding properties (namely, the sun protection factor and the factor of protection against UV-A radiation) and cytotoxicity (including photocytotoxicity) of amorphous and crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates. It has been shown that cerium(IV) phosphate NH4Ce2(PO4)3 is characterised by UV-shielding properties that are comparable to nanocrystalline TiO2 and CeO2. Moreover, cerium(IV) phosphates do not show toxicity towards cell cultures of NCTC L929 line mouse fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells, in a wide range of concentrations, and even enhance the proliferative activity of the latter. In a model study of the photoprotective properties of cerium(IV) phosphates on human mesenchymal stem cells, the pronounced protective effect of NH4Ce2(PO4)3 was observed, which was comparable to the shielding action of nanocrystalline CeO2. The results show the tetravalent cerium phosphates can be considered as promising UV-filters for sunscreen applications.
... We pioneered [297] in examining the photoprotective properties of the SiO 2 -TiO 2 aerogels synthesized from titanium alcoholates chelated by acetylacetone using the standard ISO 24443 method. The phase composition of the aerogels was shown to substantially RUSSIAN determine their photoprotective characteristics, and the phase composition can purposefully be specified by choosing the solvent used at the stage of SC drying of the material (CO 2 , isopropanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, hexafluoroisopropanol). ...
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Aerogels are unique solid-phase materials characterized by very high open porosity and specific surface area. Owing to these features, aerogels are widely used as heat and sound insulators, gas filters, sorbents, and others. In addition, aerogels are promising matrices for manufacturing selective catalysts, gas sensors, luminophores, etc. Methods and approaches of coordination chemistry provide new possibilities for designing novel hybrid materials characterized by a combination of practically important physicochemical properties inherent in aerogels and metal complexes. The modification of aerogels with coordination compounds gives polyfunctional materials characterized by high porosity and specific surface area along with excellent catalytic, photocatalytic, magnetic, luminescence, and other properties. The approaches of coordination chemistry providing the chemical binding of coordination compounds with the aerogel matrix to form aerogels with new functional properties are generalized and examined for the first time. The known examples for the successful accomplishment of these approaches, including those proposed earlier by the authors, are considered. The data on the practical use of thus prepared materials are presented.
... We pioneered [297] in examining the photoprotective properties of the SiO 2 -TiO 2 aerogels synthesized from titanium alcoholates chelated by acetylacetone using the standard ISO 24443 method. The phase composition of the aerogels was shown to substantially RUSSIAN determine their photoprotective characteristics, and the phase composition can purposefully be specified by choosing the solvent used at the stage of SC drying of the material (CO 2 , isopropanol, methyl tert-butyl ether, hexafluoroisopropanol). ...
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Аэрогели представляют собой уникальные твердофазные материалы, характеризующиеся крайне высокой открытой пористостью и удельной поверхностью. Благодаря этим особенностям аэрогели широко используются в качестве тепло- и звукоизоляторов, газовых фильтров, сорбентов и др. Кроме того, аэрогели являются перспективными матрицами для создания селективных катализаторов, газовых сенсоров, люминофоров и т.д. Методы и подходы координационной химии открывают принципиально новые возможности для конструирования новых гибридных материалов, характеризующихся сочетанием практически важных физико-химических свойств, присущих аэрогелям и комплексам металлов. Модификация аэрогелей координационными соединениями позволяет получать полифункциональные материалы, обладающие высокой пористостью и удельной поверхностью в сочетании с превосходными каталитическими, фотокаталитическими, магнитными, люминесцентными и другими свойствами. В настоящем обзоре впервые обобщены и проанализированы подходы координационной химии, обеспечивающие химическое связывание координационных соединений с матрицей аэрогеля и позволяющие получать аэрогели с новыми функциональными свойствами. Рассмотрены известные примеры успешной реализации указанных подходов, в том числе предложенные ранее авторами обзора, а также приведены сведения о практическом применении получаемых таким образом материалов.
... The TiO 2 -SiO 2 system is important for interpreting the interaction of titanium and silicon dioxides in the production of ceramics, glass ceramics, and glasses. Based on the components of the system, it is possible to create fundamentally new materials with unique mechanical, optical and catalytic properties [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. In addition, the components of the system themselves have a variety of properties that are promising for modern technology [38][39][40]. ...
Article
This paper analyzes the available data on phase equilibria in the TiO2-SiO2-ZrO2 system. The advantages of specialized databases and software systems for the analysis of information on phase equilibria are pointed. Phase diagrams are kind of a roadmap for the design of materials. As shown in the review, nanomaterials are no exception to this. Data on phase equilibria, such as eutectic points, solubility limits, binodal and spinodal curves, make it possible to predict the possibility of the formation of nanoscale structures and materials based on them. In its turn during the transition to the nanoscale state, the mutual component solubility, the temperature of phase transformation may change significantly, and other features may become observable. This provides additional variability when choosing compositions and material design based on the phases of a given system. As an example, for design of nuclear fuel assemblies that are tolerant to severe accidents at nuclear power plants, mixed carbides (so-called MAX-phases) are considered as one of the most promising options as nanoscale layers on fuel cladding. It is suggested that the materials of the TiO2-SiO2-ZrO2 system, which are the product of oxidation of some MAX-phases, can serve as an inhibitor of their further corrosion. Ensuring the stability of materials based on MAX-phases expands their prospects in nuclear power. This requires comprehensive information about phase equilibria and formation conditions of nanostructured states in the analyzed system.
... A silica aerogel is a mesoporous solid with outstanding properties, including low thermal conductivity, a low dielectric constant, a low refractive index, and high specific surface area. Silica aerogels are considered as promising materials for thermal insulation [1,2], anti-reflection coatings [3], low dielectrics [4], supports for cosmetics [5], adsorbents [6][7][8], and viscosity agents [9]. ...
Article
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A spherical silica aerogel powder with hydrophobic surfaces displaying a water contact angle of 147° was synthesized from a water glass-in-hexane emulsion through ambient pressure drying. Water glass droplets containing acetic acid and ethyl alcohol were stabilized in n-hexane with a surfactant. Gelation was performed by heating the droplets, followed by solvent exchange and surface modification using a hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS)/n-hexane solution. The pH of the silicic acid solution was crucial in obtaining a highly porous silica aerogel powder with a spherical morphology. The thermal conductivity, tapped density, pore volume, and BET surface area of the silica aerogel powder were 22.4 mW·m−1K−1, 0.07 g·cm−3, 4.64 cm3·g−1, and 989 m2·g−1, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the silica granule surface was modified by Si-CH3 groups, producing a hydrophobic aerogel.
... Recently, aerogels, as a group of nanomaterials with an immense number of possible applications, have been gaining significant interest in the research community. These compound materials are dried gels with several specific properties such as high specific surface area, high porosity, low apparent density, large volume of open micro and mesopores, high thermal and acoustic insulation, low refractive, and low dielectric constant [1][2][3][4]. Aerogels can be obtained from carbon [5][6][7][8][9], polymers [10][11][12][13][14], or inorganic compounds, namely, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , and others [1,4,[15][16][17]. ...
... These compound materials are dried gels with several specific properties such as high specific surface area, high porosity, low apparent density, large volume of open micro and mesopores, high thermal and acoustic insulation, low refractive, and low dielectric constant [1][2][3][4]. Aerogels can be obtained from carbon [5][6][7][8][9], polymers [10][11][12][13][14], or inorganic compounds, namely, SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , and others [1,4,[15][16][17]. ...
... Such kinds of peaks are characteristic of anatase formation and were observed in all samples [22]. These peaks can be attributed to the conversion of Ti(OH) 4 to TiO 2 (dehydroxylation) and occurred during the crystallization of anatase [35,36]. To confirm the contribution of the determined exothermal peaks in the range of 366-560 • C in the DTA curves to the anatase phase formation, part of the samples was calcined at 500 • C for two hours. ...
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The aim of this investigation was to synthesize high porosity TiO2 aerogel by applying sol-gel and subcritical drying methods and to identify the influence of reagent’s nature and synthesis conditions on their structural and optical properties. Methods of XRD, FT-IR, BET, STA, SEM, and UV-vis were applied to investigate and compare the properties of synthesized TiO2 aerogels and to determine the most effective synthesis route. The structural parameters of the synthesized materials can be varied by changing the precursor type (titanium (IV), isopropoxide (TIP), or tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT)) and the nature of the solvent used for additional exchange (n-hexane (nH), cyclohexane (CH), or diethyl ether (DE)). All of the subcritical dried samples show the amorphous structure, which tends to crystallize into the anatase phase after calcination. The number of micro and mesopores and the specific surface area depends on the synthesis conditions. The pores with the highest diameter have been found for additionally nH exchanged and aged aerogel synthesized from precursor TIP. Despite the imperfections in the structure, the produced aerogels show structural and optical properties typical of the TiO2 structures mentioned in the literature.
... In the context of application, of particular interest are multicomponent aerogels whose functional characteristics and textural properties can be set by their chemical composition, preparation and subsequent processing parameters [4][5][6]. SiO 2 -TiO 2 binary aerogels are the best studied of these materials; they have high catalytic activities in some organic syntheses and have pronounced photocatalytic or UV protective properties [5,[7][8][9][10][11][12]. Importantly, the composition requirements for catalytic and photocatalytic SiO 2 -TiO 2 materials differ significantly: high catalytic activity is provided by a high concentration of Si-O-Ti bonds, which is achieved in amorphous aerogels with high degrees of cross-polymerization of oxide components [13][14][15]. ...
... In the context of application, of particular interest are multicomponent aerogels whose functional characteristics and textural properties can be set by their chemical composition, preparation and subsequent processing parameters [4][5][6]. SiO 2 -TiO 2 binary aerogels are the best studied of these materials; they have high catalytic activities in some organic syntheses and have pronounced photocatalytic or UV protective properties [5,[7][8][9][10][11][12]. Importantly, the composition requirements for catalytic and photocatalytic SiO 2 -TiO 2 materials differ significantly: high catalytic activity is provided by a high concentration of Si-O-Ti bonds, which is achieved in amorphous aerogels with high degrees of cross-polymerization of oxide components [13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Structural analysis in the range of characteristic sizes from 1 nm to ~1.5 μm was performed for SiO2-TiO2 aerogels prepared in supercritical CO2 , isopropanol, hexafluoroisopropanol, or methyl-tert-butyl ether using small-angle X-ray scattering and neutron scattering complementary methods. A two-level model that accounts for scattering by individual inhomogeneities and their aggregates, which have fractal properties, satisfactorily describes the aerogel structures over the entire range of scales. It is shown for the first time that the titania concentration is the key factor in the small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering by SiO2-TiO2 aero-gels. The phase composition of an aerogel does not significantly affect the aerogel structure in the range of scales from 1 nm to ~1.5 μm, as probed by small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering.
Article
Porous silicon has found increased attention as a drug delivery system due to its unique features such as high drug payloads, surface area and biodegradation. In this study supercritical fluid (SCF) assisted drying of ultrahigh porosity (> 90%) silicon particles and flakes was shown to result in much higher mesopore volumes (∼ 4.66 cm³/g) and surface areas (∼ 680 m²/g) than with air-drying. The loading and physical state of the model drug (S)-(+)-Ibuprofen in SCF dried matrices was quantified and assessed using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, gravimetric analysis, gas adsorption and electron microscopy. Internal drug payloads of up to 72% were achieved which was substantially higher than values published for both conventionally dried porous silicon (17-51%) and other mesoporous materials (7-45%). In-vitro degradability kinetics of SCF-dried matrices in simulated media was also found to be faster than air-dried controls. The in-vitro release studies provided improved but sustained drug dissolution at both pH 2.0 and pH 7.4