Figures
Explore figures and images from publications
Figure 1 - uploaded by Goneri Le Cozannet
Content may be subject to copyright.
Global mean sea level time series and associated uncertainty based on tide gauge data over the twentieth century (left panel; data from Church and White [2011] and satellite altimetry data over 1993-2012; average data from different groups; see text).

Global mean sea level time series and associated uncertainty based on tide gauge data over the twentieth century (left panel; data from Church and White [2011] and satellite altimetry data over 1993-2012; average data from different groups; see text).

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... temporal evolution of the global mean sea level from satellite altimetry between January 1993 and December 2012 is shown in Figure 1 (right panel). This curve is based on an average of six sources of sea level data: data from the five satellite altimetry processing centers (AVISO: http://www.aviso.oceanobs.com/en/news/ocean-indicators/mean-sea-level/, ...
Context 2
... shown in Figure 1 (left panel), the twentieth century sea level curve is not purely linear. Sea level rate appears to increase with time. ...

Citations

... Global tidal flats have been lost at a rate of approximately 0.55% per year over the last 30 years (1984-2016) (Murray et al. 2019). This is caused by human activities such as coastal development but also the effects of climate change, such as rising sea levels, coastal erosion, and reduced sediment flux from rivers (Cazenave & Le Cozannet 2013, Murray et al. 2014. The establishment of protected areas (PAs) is a major tool for habitat and biodiversity conservation management (Hanawa 2002, Barr et al. 2011. ...
Article
Burrow-dwelling shrimps, formerly known as “thalassinids,” are attracting the attention of researchers as ecosystem engineers. This review focuses on the ecology of upogebiid shrimps worldwide, especially their life history and burrow traits. The mud shrimp has a larval period consisting of three to four zoeal stages with one decapodid stage. The time required for maturity and longevity has been estimated to be 1–3 years and 3–5 years, respectively. However, data on shrimp lifespan may be updated with the development and application of age determination methodologies. The structure of the shrimp burrow is mainly U- or Y-shaped and is similar among species but with some interspecific differences. Mud shrimps are filter feeders due to the ventilation activity in the U-shaped structure, and inhabit burrows with an inner diameter that fits their body. Burrow connections were recorded between burrows of males and females. Some juvenile mud shrimps may branch off from adult burrows to create their own burrows. This review discusses the response of shrimp populations in areas affected by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Owing to long maturation times, the recovery of these populations was slow in habitats affected by tsunamis. These results highlight the future effects of climate change on shrimp populations.
... Globally, coastal areas are becoming more vulnerable to the impacts of increased extreme weather events, storm surges, and sea-level rise due to climate change (Barnard et al. 2019;Cazenave and Le Cozannet 2014;Mölter et al. 2016;Neumann et al. 2015) that pose threats to health, safety, and livelihoods of the coastal dwellers (Elrick-Barr et al. 2015;Nicholls et al. 2011;Burkett and Davidson 2012). Aside from pressure resulting from the growing coastal population, most coastal areas are increasingly affected by climate change-induced coastal erosion and/or flooding (Barnard et al. 2019) resulting from sea-level rise (Cazenave and Le Cozannet 2014) and possible changes in wind/wave conditions and storm regimes (Ruz et al. 2020;Mölter et al. 2016). ...
... Globally, coastal areas are becoming more vulnerable to the impacts of increased extreme weather events, storm surges, and sea-level rise due to climate change (Barnard et al. 2019;Cazenave and Le Cozannet 2014;Mölter et al. 2016;Neumann et al. 2015) that pose threats to health, safety, and livelihoods of the coastal dwellers (Elrick-Barr et al. 2015;Nicholls et al. 2011;Burkett and Davidson 2012). Aside from pressure resulting from the growing coastal population, most coastal areas are increasingly affected by climate change-induced coastal erosion and/or flooding (Barnard et al. 2019) resulting from sea-level rise (Cazenave and Le Cozannet 2014) and possible changes in wind/wave conditions and storm regimes (Ruz et al. 2020;Mölter et al. 2016). Climate change will therefore increase the vulnerability of the coastal areas to hazards. ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to climate change, coastal areas are becoming increasingly susceptible to more frequent and severe environmental catastrophes that endanger the health, safety, and way of life of coastal dwellers. Understanding the social perceptions of risk and hazard-related concerns can help in the development of adaptive capacity and associated management strategy preferences. This study employed structured questionnaires to obtain basic information on how the households of the Anlo Beach fishing community in the Western region of Ghana perceived and responded to coastal hazards. The respondents ranked coastal erosion and salinization first and second, ahead of seawater flooding and other hazards in terms of important risks in the study area. Responses illustrated high levels of knowledge and awareness about coastal hazards but low levels of trust in government and commitments in terms of taking personal mitigation measures. To varying degrees, respondent characteristics such as length of residency and occupancy status are positively and significantly associated with coastal hazard perception whereas the level of education was negative. Generally, the findings illustrated the need for better education and awareness campaigns about self-mitigation actions such as discontinuing beach sand utilization and exploiting mangroves as firewood and embracing the restoration of mangrove ecosystems. More importantly, the government should reconsider her earlier shelved plan of relocating the entire community to a safer location
... The climate change-induced increase in the earth's temperature is responsible for the melting of icebergs and glaciers, resulting in rising sea levels and more water in the riverine systems, respectively (Cazenave and Cozannet, 2014;Prakash et al., 2021a). Melting of glaciers, heavy precipitation, tectonic activities, and avalanche in the Himalayan region results in glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). ...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is defined as altering the atmosphere's composition by human activity and natural change in climate over specific time periods. The rapid growth in human civilization and the need for accelerated economic development have enhanced the rate of climate change. The use of fossil fuels to meet the energy demand of the growing population over the past decades has resulted in increased global carbon emissions (2.7% annually over the past decade) and increased global temperature. Climate change contributes to many negative impacts on ecosystems and human health. The article highlights the role of climate change as a contributing cause of flooding, the spread of microorganisms, and the emergence of zoonotic diseases.
... Global megacities with populations of more than 10 million are mainly located in coastal lowlands and river deltas (Kulp and Strauss, 2019). The low-lying coastal lands are sensitive to global climate change, such as coastal flooding, storm surges and bank erosion that caused by sea level rise (SLR) (Cazenave and Cozannet, 2014;Nicholls and Cazenave, 2010;Syvitski et al., 2022;Williams, 2013). At the same time, coastal lowland population centers that coincide with hydrocarbon production, fisheries, and, agriculture suffer from serious subsidence (Allison et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive coastal deltas in the world are subsiding due to natural or anthropogenic activities. As the widest and youngest river delta in the world, serious coastal subsidence in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) has exacerbated the relative sea level rise (RSLR) and increased the risk of soil salinization and coastal flooding. However, there are rarely relevant studies that quantitatively separate the contributions from different driving factors to subsidence. In this work, we aim to provide a detailed and comprehensive analysis of coastal subsidence related to coastal brine pumping activities in YRD. We investigate the land deformation of the entire YRD by time series InSAR analysis (TS-InSAR) of Sentinel-1 images acquired between 2016 and 2021. The results reveal that fast subsiding funnels larger than 50 mm/yr are mainly distributed in the coastal brine mining clusters. We further used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract the principal components and temporal patterns from the deformation time series. Taking geological data, precipitation, temperature, and human activities into consideration, we quantitatively separate the driving factors of coastal subsidence in sub-areas. We find that underground brine mining contributes to more than 94 % of the coastal subsidence of the YRD. In addition, precipitation is the most important natural factor that can affect the process of land subsidence in YRD, whereas other driving factors from soil consolidation, oil extraction and other activities are not noticeable. This study is expected to offer a cost-effective method for detecting and characterizing coastal subsidence in global sinking deltas, which will contribute to more accurate dynamic monitoring of coastal subsidence and a better understanding of land subsidence responses to anthropogenic activities.
... Globally, since the 20th Century, sea levels have risen by 17 cm due to a combination of effects including increase in global temperatures, melting of glaciers and icecaps, thermal expansion of sea waters and vertical land motion [45][46][47][48]. The impacts of sea level rise include inundation and flooding, coastal erosion, saline intrusion into ground water sources, degradation of coastal habitats [48]. ...
Article
Many economies in small tropical islands are built on tourism, using their sun, sea and sand to entice visitors. However, climate variability and climate change are affecting these small islands, threatening many livelihoods and their fragile economies. There is limited information on the adaptation strategies and perception of climate change within key sectors of these economies, including the accommodation sector. Hence a study which examines the experiences of Antigua Island in the Caribbean and Efate Island in the South Pacific. The uniqueness of this study is that there are few published articles on this topic especially those comparing two islands. This study found that whilst all hoteliers perceived changes in precipitation, temperature and sea level only a limited number implemented few adaptation measures. We conclude that there is need for government regulation of the accommodation sector as it relates to managing the impacts of climate change, to help build resilience within the sector and wider economy.
... If current tendencies of increasing global mean temperatures continue, there is a growing potential of catastrophic, large-scale singular events occurring, such as the melting of Arctic ice sheets [5][6][7] . A substantial melting of Greenland's ice sheets would generate an additional input of freshwater into the North Atlantic, leading to a substantial rise in sea level and the weakening (or even complete shut-down) 8,9 of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) 6 -a key element of the global climate system. The potential melting of Greenland's ice sheets is expected to weaken the AMOC, which is responsible for a large amount of meridional heat transportation, resulting in a deceleration of climate warming, but increasing dissimilarities with regional climates [9][10][11][12] . ...
... Even when melting scenarios encompass a slowdown in global warming (Supplementary Figs. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11], they also entail greater changes to the present-day scenario than RCP 8.5-i.e., larger differences in maximum temperature of warmest month and precipitation of driest month-( Supplementary Figs. 12-19). ...
Article
Full-text available
Rising temperatures can lead to the occurrence of a large-scale climatic event, such as the melting of Greenland ice sheet, weakening the AMOC and further increasing dissimilarities between current and future climate. The impacts of such an event are still poorly assessed. Here, we evaluate those impacts across megadiverse countries on 21,146 species of tetrapods and vascular plants using the pessimistic climate change scenario (RCP 8.5) and four different scenarios of Greenland's ice sheet melting. We show that RCP 8.5 emission scenario would lead to a widespread reduction in species' geographic ranges (28-48%), which is projected to be magnified (58-99%) with any added contribution from the melting of Greenland. Also, declines in the potential geographical extent of species hotspots (12-89%) and alterations of species composition (19-91%) will be intensified. These results imply that the influence of a strong and rapid Greenland ice sheet melting, resulting in a large AMOC weakening, can lead to a faster collapse of biodiversity across the globe.
... Sea level rise is an important and established effect of global warming (Cazenave and Cozannet 2014;Dasgupta et al. 2009). In a state like Kerala with densely populated coastal lands and highly developed coastal cities, a small rise in the sea level is still significant. ...
Chapter
The phenomenon of climate change has been high on the research agenda in the last few decades (Krishnan et al. 2000; Maslin 2004; Pai et al. 2014; Singh et al. 2015; Sovacool and Linnér 2016). Most of the mainstream academic engagements on climate change and asso�ciated disasters are devoid of political economic orientation. Such discussions are citing global warming and climate change as a phenomenon that is neutrally formed (Murthy et al. 2016, 2017; Pandey et al. 2015; Tanner et al. 2018). Studies on climate change that proceed in a linear view with a focus on techno-centric policy formulation consider all human beings to be equally responsible and vulnerable to climate change and associated natural hazards. In such studies, the overemphasis given to the collective actions of indi�vidual actors of the society obscures the wider political economy playing behind the pollu�tion and exploitation of the physical environment. Geographical political economy evolved with the radical geography in the early 1980s. It deals with all the social, political, and economic processes which transform nature into a commodity through the production pro�cess which reproduces and reinforces the spatial injustice in development (Sheppard 2011).The present chapter attempts to address the question of the role of political economy in mak�ing the weaker sections of the society more vulnerable to climate change disasters. Generally, studies on climate change rarely address the political economy of climate change (Bisht et al. 2014; Dutta et al. 2013; Mandal et al. 2020; Singh et al. 2013; Tomar et al. 2014; Yadav et al. 2014). As per the popular notion, all are equally susceptible to environmental disasters, in point of fact the poor sections of the society are more vulnerable to all-natural disasters than the upper class of the society. While analyzing the recent disasters that take place in Kerala, it can find that the poorest communities like Adivasi, Dalits, fishermen, and other economically deprived classes are the most affected in almost all disasters.
... The combination of both can rectify one another towards the severity of the impacts. One widely known the cause of flood is global warming that eventually leads the rise of global sea level (Fritgerald et al., 2008;Rodolfo & Siringan, 2006;Cazenave & Cozannet, 2014). The rise of sea level may increase the vulnerability of low-lying lands and coastal areas to flooding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flood disasters are ubiquitous and may occur anywhere as long as certain hydrological, hydrometeorological and topographical conditions are met. The impacts of floods may include social, economic and environmental aspects, and therefore the losses due to floods are usually varies with respect to the wide range of its tangibility and intangibility. One of the standards of analysis of a flood control project is economic viability, the elements for this analysis could be either tangible or intangible component of costs and benefits. While the tangible benefit components are usually effortless to quantify, the intangible ones are, in contrary, complicated and challenging. This study attempts to quantify the intangible benefits of the flood control works in monetary terms, as an effort to develop transfer functions to translate intangible benefits to the quantifiable ones. The study was undertaken by reviewing extensive numbers of sources of concepts and best practices all over the world.
... Extreme waves due to intense storms are of great risk to coastal communities [1,2] particularly in the context of global sea level rise. Along with tides and storm surges, waves play a key role in coastal processes (e.g., [3,4]), being one of the main drivers of coastal erosion [5,6], flooding [7,8], sediment transport [9] and thereby changing the shape of the coast (IPCC report: [10][11][12][13]. Most importantly, waves influence the entire climate system due to their complex interactions with the atmosphere, sea ice, and the underlying ocean [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is focused on the impact of different parameterizations in the state-of-the art wave model WAVEWATCH3 (WW3) in describing the present climate and future wave climate projections. We have used a Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6)-derived single-wind forcing (from EC-EARTH) to produce a dynamic wind-wave climate ensemble for its historic (1995–2014) and future (2081–2100) periods. We discuss the uncertainty due to the wave model (intra-model uncertainty) in simulating the present and future wave climate. The historical wave climate runs were compared against the ERA5 reanalysis and found to be in good agreement for the significant wave height. This gives a good degree of confidence to investigate the intra-model uncertainty in WW3 using the available physics packages such as ST2, ST3, ST4, and ST6. In general, for the historic period, ST3 and ST4 physics packages perform better in the tropics whereas ST6 performs better in the extratropics, based on M-Score performance assessment. The study also reveals that the extratropical South Indian Ocean and tropical eastern South Pacific areas exhibit a larger amount of uncertainty, mainly induced by the ST2 physics package. The results of this study shed new light on the impacts associated with the use of multiple physics parameterizations in wave climate ensembles, an issue that has not received the necessary attention in scientific literature.
... Global warming, in response to the accumulation of anthropogenically produced greenhouse gases inside the atmosphere, has increased Earth's mean temperature and ocean heat content. This is resulting in glacier and ice sheet melt, and consequently causing global sea level rise (Cazenave and Le Cozannet 2014;Slangen et al. 2016;Jevrejeva et al. 2009;Gornitz et al. 1997). The potential impact of sea-level rise on coastal zones has become a question of growing interest to the public, because of the far reaching social and economic consequences (Pednekar and Siva Raju 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Southeast Florida (SF) is among the most vulnerable regions to sea-level rise in the United States of America. The consequences associated with sea-level rise (SLR) are already apparent, including coastal inundation and erosion. The Coral Gables Canal watershed is located in SF and can be considered representative of the effects of combined mean and extreme SLR. In this research, the effect of concurrent mean and extreme sea-level rise on coastal inundation in the Coral Gables Canal watershed is explored. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model for Biscayne Bay and the Coral Gables Canal is presented. The model is used to estimate water surface elevations throughout the model domain, and map inundation due to an extreme water-level event (Irma Hurricane) occurring alongside mean SLR scenarios. A comparison of the inundation coverage calculated in this research to estimations made by several online tools shows that the online simulators underestimate flooding areas by 72% to 85%. This is a consequence of underpredicting maximum water surface elevations occurring under combined SLR in the Coral Gables Canal. The model predicts that under the NOAA Intermediate High SLR scenario (year 2100), 40% of the CGC watershed will be inundated (water depths > 0.6 m), and 70% of the area will be flooded with water depths greater than 1.6 m in year 2120. Under the NOAA High SLR scenario at least 70% of the Coral Gables Canal watershed would be inundated in 2100 (water depths > 1.0 m). In year 2120, 90% of inland sub-basins will be flooded (0.6 m < depths < 2.2 m). These results are significant for planning flooding/inundation risk management strategies.