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Global map of the value of ecosystem services. See Supplementary Information and Table 2 for details.

Global map of the value of ecosystem services. See Supplementary Information and Table 2 for details.

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The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem s...

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... Table 2 for details. data were from ref. 17 as summarized in ref. 4 with additional information from a number of sources [18][19][20][21][22] . We also used data from ref. 23, as a cross-check on the terrestrial estimates and refs 24 and 25 as a check on the marine estimates. The 32 landcover types of ref. 17 were recategorized for Table 2 and Fig. 2. The major assumptions were: (1) chaparral and steppe were considered rangeland and combined with grasslands; and (2) a variety of tropical forest and woodland types were combined into 'tropical ...

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... Protected areas (PAs) provide a series of fundamental services for the constituents of human well-being the so called Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits people obtain from ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997;MA, 2005;TEEB, 2010). These include provisioning services such as food and water; regulating † Corresponding author. ...
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... Protected areas (PAs) provide a series of fundamental services for the constituents of human well-being the so called Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits people obtain from ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997;MA, 2005;TEEB, 2010). These include provisioning services such as food and water; regulating † Corresponding author. ...
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... The socio-economic analysis includes any aspect which relates to the restoration project and doesn't have only an ecological connotation but also human, financial, and subjective features relating to the concept of ecosystem services. Reef ecosystems have a financial value that depends also on the benefits provided to the communities through direct activities conducted within the reef 34 as well as the indirect effects of a healthy ecosystem on the environment through, for example, increased fisheries or shoreline protection [140][141][142][143] . ...
... In order to estimate the total ES values, a benefit transfer approach was used, using the modified ES coefficients for the Munessa-Shashemene area in Ethiopia, which is similar to the study landscape. The ES coefficients were modified by Kindu et al. [6] from global ES coefficients developed by Costanza et al. [39] and a valuation database of the Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) through a benefit transfer method based on expert knowledge of the study area. The modified coefficients are considered as conservative value coefficients compared to global ES coefficients to estimate the total ES values, and they were used in this study (Table 1). ...
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... Ecosystems provide a range of goods or services that satisfy human production and livelihoods, known as ecosystem services (ESs) [1,2]. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) classifies ESs into four broad categories: provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services [3]. ...
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... The transformation of highly intensive land development and utilization caused by the entry of highly polluting enterprises with high energy consumption and the expansion of rural cultivated land accompanied by deforestation and reclamation have jointly changed the land utilization composition, which is one of the main reasons for the change in the ecological environment [6]. The type, pattern, and intensity of land utilization have either a direct or indirect impact on ecosystem service functions [7,8]. The evolution of land utilization exerts an influence on the structure and function of ecological space, thus resulting in the erosion, fragmentation, and isolation of ecological patches. ...
... CONTAG = −0.577ODSS core-woodland + 20.822 (8) It can be seen from the above that there is a significant positive correlation between the value of CONTAG and both ODSS core-cultivated land and ODSS loop-cultivated land , with the positive correlation coefficient reaching 0.62 and 0.547, respectively. However, there is also a significant negative correlation between the value of CONTAG and ODSS core-woodland , with the negative correlation coefficient reaching −0.577. ...
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... Overall, these three wellbeing constructs provide the critical dimensions of HWB found within the greenspace-human relationship and serve to simply categorize the types of benefits and interaction with greenspace that affect HWB to the best degree possible. The concept of ecosystem services (ES) or natural capital (Smith et al. 2013; Millenium Ecosystems Assessment (MEA) 2005; Costanza et al. 1997) is prevalent within literature when articulating such relationships, but is limited in social sciences by subjective measurements and human responses in that ecological processes are conceptually translated into value-laden entities or components (Costanza et al. 2014). The concept for ES grew from economicbased goals within conservation. ...
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... Local onde a zoologia, a botânica e a entomologia encontram-se fundidas entre si, matriciando todos os possíveis cenários ecológicos, mediados pelo mercado e pelas representações simbólicas e com projeções em escala planetária. O imbricamento destes estudos com as questões políticas que tencionam a relação da Amazônia com o estado brasileiro; com a problemática de territórios e povos na região; com o desenvolvimento econômico e os serviços ambientais da região destacando as questões das fronteiras com os demais países amazônicos e as suas formas de ocupação que também incluem a problemática urbana (Costanza et al.;1997); e finalmente, com suas representações simbólicas e sua inserção mundial assimétrica constituem desafios e preocupações do estado brasileiro durante o século 21. ...
... Local onde a zoologia, a botânica e a entomologia encontram-se fundidas entre si, matriciando todos os possíveis cenários ecológicos, mediados pelo mercado e pelas representações simbólicas e com projeções em escala planetária. O imbricamento destes estudos com as questões políticas que tencionam a relação da Amazônia com o estado brasileiro; com a problemática de territórios e povos na região; com o desenvolvimento econômico e os serviços ambientais da região destacando as questões das fronteiras com os demais países amazônicos e as suas formas de ocupação que também incluem a problemática urbana (Costanza et al.;1997); e finalmente, com suas representações simbólicas e sua inserção mundial assimétrica constituem desafios e preocupações do estado brasileiro durante o século 21. ...
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Não há vacina ou antídoto para imunizar as pessoas e o planeta contra os efeitos de sua depreciação ecológica. O compromisso com os futuros do planeta e da humanidade é de todos nós Nota de esclarecimento: uma proposta mais ampla para a educação científica dos povos indígena amazônicos foi apresentada por este autor, na Reunião Nacional da Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciência realizada em Julho de 2009 na Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus. RESUMO Este artigo apresenta uma proposta de licenciatura plena para formar professores indígenas em ensino de ciências. Propor formar um professor indígena compromissado com a docência de ensino de ciências integrada à complexidade cultural e ecológica da Amazônia; imprimir um caráter interdisciplinar ao seu projeto pedagógico; incorporar eixos temáticos situados na fronteira da filosofia com as ciências da natureza e as ciências humanas; e incluir abordagens e inovações técnicas que entrelacem os conteúdos da ciência ocidental ao conhecimento tradicional são predicados desta proposta inovadora. Propõe, também, uma plataforma de inclusão científica e o acesso dos povos indígenas às temáticas educacionais contemporâneas fortalecendo e ampliando suas formações culturais, e estabelecendo os fundamentos da Universidade Indígena da Amazônia. PALAVRAS CHAVE: Professores indígenas, Amazônia, educação científica, natureza, interculturalidade 1. Construindo a educação indígena na Amazônia Que programa de formação científica deve-se propor aos povos indígenas da Amazônia? Que eixos temáticos devem fundamentar a estrutura acadêmica deste programa? Como articulá-lo com a sustentabilidade, na perspectiva dos 70 povos indígenas do Estado do Amazonas? Como estruturar as ciências da natureza, as ciências humanas e a matemática, os conteúdos pedagógicos e o conhecimento tradicional na organização de um programa de licenciatura em educação científica que atenda os interesses desses povos? Estas são questões instigantes que são apresentadas neste texto, incluindo os fundamentos e a estrutura acadêmica de uma proposta para a educação científica dos 70 povos indígenas do estado Amazonas. Em agosto de 2009, a Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA) escreveu um novo capítulo na história da educação brasileira: implantou o curso de licenciatura plena em pedagogia intercultural para formar, simultaneamente, 2600 professores indígenas em 52 municípios do Estado do Amazonas. Este programa desconstrói e desmistifica as versões