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Global electricity demand of data centers 2010-2030. 

Global electricity demand of data centers 2010-2030. 

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Article
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This work presents an estimation of the global electricity usage that can be ascribed to Communication Technology (CT) between 2010 and 2030. The scope is three scenarios for use and production of consumer devices, communication networks and data centers. Three different scenarios, best, expected, and worst, are set up, which include annual numbers...

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... believe that CT driven optimization of the electricity systems is a strong trend and a prerequisite for renewable power sources. In Figure 4 below the electricity usages for data centers are shown. The details for Figure 4 are shown in the Supplementary Materials file, section "DataCenters". ...
Context 2
... Figure 4 below the electricity usages for data centers are shown. The details for Figure 4 are shown in the Supplementary Materials file, section "DataCenters". The worst-case scenario is exorbitant, however not totally unrealistic. ...

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This presentation outlines an estimation of the global electricity usage that can be ascribed to Communication Technology (CT) in the coming decade. The scope is two scenarios for use and production of consumer devices, communication networks and data centers. Two different scenarios— best and expected—are set up, which include annual numbers of so...

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... Por otro lado está el consumo energético asociado a las tecnologías digitales. La creciente producción, uso y desecho de estas tecnologías ha supuesto un considerable gasto energético (Andrae y Edler, 2015;Malmodin y Ludén, 2018) 426 . Las estrategias de mitigación del calentamiento global apuntan la necesidad de que se reduzca dicho consumo, así como la urgencia de transitar hacia un modelo de provisión de energía basado en la electricidad de fuentes renovables 427 . ...
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... Data centres are heavily energy-intensive. Some predictions suggest that data centres could use as much as 13% of the world's electricity by 2030, compared to 1% in 2010 (Andrae and Edler 2015). If data-intensive circular businesses require electricity consumption at this level, then many of the environmental aspirations of the circular economy could be undermined. ...
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... This, in turn, has facilitated the search for more efficient models. Furthermore, researchers have estimated that carbon emissions from the Communication Technology sector could use as much as 51 percent of global electricity and contribute up to 23 percent of global carbon emissions by 2030 (Andrae & Edler, 2015). While autonomous driving is still an open problem, researchers are being mindful of what the future looks like without fossil fuels and heavily reduced carbon emissions. ...
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In this paper, we investigate the two most popular families of deep neural architectures (i.e., ResNets and Inception nets) for the autonomous driving task of steering angle prediction. This work provides preliminary evidence that Inception architectures can perform as well or better than ResNet architectures with less complexity for the autonomous driving task. Primary motivation includes support for further research in smaller, more efficient neural network architectures such that can not only accomplish complex tasks, such as steering angle predictions, but also produce less carbon emissions, or, more succinctly, neural networks that are more environmentally friendly. We look at various sizes of ResNet and InceptionNet models to compare results. Our derived models can achieve state-of-the-art results in terms of steering angle MSE.
... At the same time, electrical power is used in all types of human activities including production, agriculture, construction, transportation, communication, healthcare, and leisure. ICT accounts for a significant share of energy consumption, including entertainment, television (TV), telephones, and media, and the estimated share of global ICT electricity consumption by 2030 has been estimated at 21% in a likely scenario and 51% in a worst-case scenario [6]. ...
... Estimated annual ICT energy consumption. (Source: data from[4,6]). ...
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Energy has become the most expensive and critical resource for all kinds of human activities. At the same time, all areas of our lives strongly depend on Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). It is not surprising that energy efficiency has become an issue in developing and running ICT systems. This paper presents a survey of the optimization models developed in order to reduce energy consumption by ICT systems. Two main approaches are presented, showing the trade-off between energy consumption and quality of service (QoS).
... A model of global communication technology (Andrae & Edler, 2015) highlights the importance of the rate of efficiency improvements. Their three scenarios from 2010 to 2030 have different annual improvements in efficiency of production, use, datacentres and network. ...
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... Moreover, network traffic around the world has witnessed a rising trend. According to the statistics, the energy consumption from communication technology will account for 51% of the total electricity consumption by 2030 [10]. As the satellite load is limited and the onboard resources are scarce, it is expected that satellites can provide as much operation time as possible. ...
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The satellite-terrestrial integrated network (STIN), as an integration of the satellite network and terrestrial, has become a promising architecture to support global coverage and ubiquitous connection. The architecture of software-defined networking (SDN) is utilized to intelligently coordinate the global STIN, in which the placement schemes of SDN controllers, including the locations, number, and roles, would produce various performances. However, the uneven distribution of global users leads to the unbalanced energy consumption of satellite resources, which brings a heavy burden for satellites to maintain the control flows for network management. To provide green communication for international economic trade in the countries along the Belt and Road, in this paper, we focus on the energy-efficient controller placement (EECP) problem in the software-defined STIN. The satellite gateways are located in the countries along the Belt and Road, which accounts for a large number of traffic demands and a dense population. The controllers are deployed on the LEO satellites, where each LEO satellite is a candidate controller. The energy consumption for the control paths and the user data links is modeled and then formulated as the flow processing-oriented optimization problem. A modified simulated annealing placement (MSAP) algorithm is developed to solve the EECP problem, in which we use the greedy way to obtain the initial set of controllers, and then the final optimal controller placement result is obtained by the simulated annealing algorithm. Extensive simulations are conducted on the simulated Iridium satellite network topology and statistics data. Compared with other algorithms, the results show that MSAP reduces network energy consumption by 20% and average latency by 25%.
... Top-down approaches In top-down approaches, researchers divide the total energy consumption of a network by the amount of traffic transited by the network over a particular time period. Studies conducted by Koomey et al. [41], Taylor et al. [66], Weber et al. [74], Lanzisera et al. [43], and Andrae et al. [5] are examples of top-down approaches. Model-based approaches Model-based approaches rely on modelling parts of the Internet based on network-design principles, and on energy-consumption information of device vendors in order to find the total energy consumption of specific Internet parts. ...
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... As a source for lightwave transmission, these comb-like structures lend themselves well to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), where data are modulated onto each comb line separately and transmitted simultaneously 1 . A similar spectral structure can be created by combining an array of individual laser diodes, but this is more hardware intensive and thus less scalable for the growing needs of the internet [2][3][4][5] . Individual lasers will also drift randomly in frequency, making the line spacing between any two lines fluctuate in time. ...
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... However, the digital shift in design, production, retailing, and consumption does not suffice to conclude that 3DVD technological adoption is sustainable from an environmental perspective. The fact that garments, shows, presentations, and shops become virtual and digital does not mean that the system becomes intrinsically more sustainable as the information and communications technology (ICT) sector is a source of 1.8-2.8% of global greenhouse-gas emissions, and these values are underestimations because they fail to account for the full extent of the associated supply chain and life cycle impacts (Andrae and Edler 2015;. The invisible infrastructure that lies behind the programming, rendering, and digital consumption of 3DVD products accounts for the footprint of the digital fashion system (Andrae 2017). ...
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This article provides a comprehensive overview of the digital transformation of the fashion industry and describes the opportunities and influences on supply chains, business models, and sustainability-oriented innovations that it offers. Desk research was performed to review emerging cases of companies that engage actively in using 3-dimensional virtual and digital (3DVD) technologies, such as 3D modeling, virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR), 2- and 3-dimensional (2D/3D) scanning, and digital twinning (DT). The analysis shows how the adoption of digital technologies provides opportunities to dematerialize the traditional fashion supply-chain model of garment production and distribution and maps the innovative shifts occurring in the fashion industry’s processes, products, and services. The adoption of 3DVD technologies by fashion companies unleashes new opportunities with respect to innovation in products/services and optimization of operational processes to streamline activities, shorten the lead time for designing, prototyping, manufacturing, marketing and retailing, and reorganizing the working phases. These capabilities also drive multicentred business-model innovations and thus affect value creation and delivery and capture changes. In addition, the analysis shows that digital transformation affects the four dimensions of sustainability that are interconnected intrinsically across supply-chain processes. Cultural sustainability is paramount, as fashion is a complex cultural system that is able to create products/services that influence the environment, economy, and society. In particular, 3DVD technologies promote cultural transformation of design processes to achieve a remix of skills and open knowledge, a behavioral shift from the consumer perspective in terms of diversity and self-expression, and a change in the organizational culture of companies that drive the digital transformation.
... As it is heavier than other formats, it requires larger data centers and more bandwidth to be delivered to its consumers. Drawing on research about the carbon footprint of Internet consumption (Andrae and Edler, 2015), The Shift Project (2019) estimated that online video consumption has a carbon footprint of 300Mt CO2, equivalent to the annual emissions of Spain. This estimation has been contested as overly pessimistic, as it underestimates efficiency gains in data centers and overestimates the energetic cost of data transfer (Kamiya, 2020b). ...
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