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Global cement demand by region and country [8].

Global cement demand by region and country [8].

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Fly ash based geopolymer mortar can sustain itself when exposed to considerably high temperature. While Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) to product mortar degrades and degenerates at high temperature, it has been found through different studies that fly ash geopolymer mortar can maintain its desired compressive strength at 400 degrees centigrade. Its...

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Context 1
... ton of OPC emits approximately one ton of CO2 into the atmosphere [1]. About 2.5 billion tons of cement is produced every year, which amounts to almost 0.3 tons for every person on the planet. By 2050, global production is expected to reach 5 billion tons, meaning that approximately 5 billion tons of CO2 will be released into the atmosphere [2]. Fig. 1 shows the projections for the global demand of the main binder OPC of concrete structures. Therefore, there is a need to find alternative types of binders to produce more environmentally friendly mortar and concrete. Recently, geopolymer has emerged as a promising new material with its environmentally sustainable properties. These ...
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... The results of the freeze/thaw cycles in Table V show that the weight of samples is increased. That means that geopolymer mortar absorbs water at about 1.5 %. At the end of the analyzing micrograph, it was observed that the micro cracking was the result of freeze/thaw, wet/dry and humidity conditions on the surface of geopolymer mortar (see Fig. 10). We can see from Fig. 11 left and right that the appearance of these white zones is probably related to two causes: first, by extracting unstable aluminum, i.e. Al-end units with nonbridging oxygens; second, by formation of a zeolitic structure, which causes strength loss depending on the acid concentration. The process similarly ...
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... cycles in Table V show that the weight of samples is increased. That means that geopolymer mortar absorbs water at about 1.5 %. At the end of the analyzing micrograph, it was observed that the micro cracking was the result of freeze/thaw, wet/dry and humidity conditions on the surface of geopolymer mortar (see Fig. 10). We can see from Fig. 11 left and right that the appearance of these white zones is probably related to two causes: first, by extracting unstable aluminum, i.e. Al-end units with nonbridging oxygens; second, by formation of a zeolitic structure, which causes strength loss depending on the acid concentration. The process similarly occurs with nitric acid, but ...
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... concentration of H2SO4 solution also significantly effected the compressive strength of mortar. Fig. 12 shows that increasing the concentration reduced the strength and increased the weight loss of the ...

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... The lowest values of the residual strength were observed in the temperature range of 600 to 800°C, they were due to the presence of the melt that started forming. While Portland cement mortar degrades and degenerates at high temperature, it has been found from different studies that fly ash geopolymer mortar can maintain its desired compressive strength even at 400°C [28]. According to Pan et al. [29] geopolymers are inherently fire resistant due their polymeric-silicon-oxygen-aluminum framework. ...
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the resistance of pozzolan-based geopolymer mortars subjected to high temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles. Low calcium fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag as waste pozzolans and natural zeolite as a natural pozzolan were used as base materials for producing geopolymer mortar. The other purpose the research was to study the effect of alkaline activator ratio (Na₂SiO₃/NaOH) on the performance of pozzolan-based geopolymer mortar specimens subjected to extreme temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on the properties of mortars was investigated at 300°C, 600°C, and 900°C. Fire and freeze-thaw and resistance of mortars were investigated in terms of visual appearance, weight loss and residual compressive strength. The minimal values of the residual compressive strength were obtained at 900°C for all mixtures. The residual compressive strength of all specimens was lower than the values obtained for specimens not subjected to any freeze-thaw resistance test, except those containing GGBS. The Na₂SiO₃/NaOH ratios of the alkaline activator solution used to prepare the geopolymer mortars have an effect on the weight losses and residual compressive strengths of the specimens subjected to high temperatures and freeze-thaw cycles. As the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratios increased, the weight and strength losses decreased.