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Geological site of Mesquita, central Algarve. A -Block of Upper Jurassic recifal limestone with traces of the exploration tools. B -Information table showing the geological context of the site on a sanded surface of the block with its structures and fossils.

Geological site of Mesquita, central Algarve. A -Block of Upper Jurassic recifal limestone with traces of the exploration tools. B -Information table showing the geological context of the site on a sanded surface of the block with its structures and fossils.

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The Algarvian coast (Southern Portugal) is known for its beaches. However, many tourists don't want to spend their whole holidays only at the beach, so cultural tourism can fill a gap together with natural tourism. Important branches of natural tourism of Algarve are bird-watching and guided tours, which may include visits to geologically interesti...

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Some natural scenes of films shooting contain landscapes and other elements that are part of the geological heritage, representing an added value for the growing cultural tourism that visits them. In the SE of Burgos province (Spain), near some filming locations of the classic western movie directed by Sergio Leone (1966), “The Good, the Bad and th...

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... Drystone walls, i.e. walls made of stone without mortar, represent an interface between natural-geological and cultural vernacular heritage (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). They belong to the natural geological heritage because • they are made of local stones, • they are helpful for the geological mapping of a region, because their stones were collected from the fields aside, • the geological setting of an area determines if such a wall is necessary or not, • they interfere with the surface and subsurface water flows, • they slow down erosional processes, • they shape typical landscapes ( fig. ...
... Consequently, a sense of belonging, which identifies people and traditions, may be created, and the attitude of the public will enhance as people will recognize that the drystone walls, as well as the geosites, are precious places worth to be estimated. These aspects are capable to improve the quality of life, particularly that of the local inhabitants (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). ...
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The poster shows the existence of interfaces between geological and cultural-vernacular heritage, as well as the benefits of these heritage’s crossing.
... Winescapes involving geoheritage value are not limited to World Heritage properties and famous wine regions but occur in other regions too [92][93][94][95]. The geoheritage context of stone-walled countryside sceneries is represented by the use of local stone to build the walls (Figure 3b), where availability of stone of specific shapes and dimensions as well as their other properties dictated construction technologies applied in specific localities [96][97][98]. Consequent to the realization that stone walls are part of combined geo-cultural heritage are studies of their degradation after abandonment, which is considered as a loss of value [99,100]. ...
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Relationships between geoheritage and cultural heritage are being increasingly explored and have become one of the mainstreams within studies of geoheritage and geodiversity. In this review paper, we identify the main and secondary themes at the geoheritage—cultural heritage interface and provide examples of specific topics and approaches. These themes include added cultural value to geoheritage sites, geoheritage in urban spaces, cultural landscapes, and the contribution of geoheritage to their identity, mining and quarrying heritage, linkages with natural disasters, history of science, and art. Intangible cultural heritage is also reviewed in the geoheritage context. In the closing part of the paper, various classifications of geoheritage—cultural heritage linkages are proposed, although it is concluded that themes and fields of inquiry are overlapping and interlinked, rendering one classification system not very feasible. Instead, a mind map to show these diverse connections is offered. The paper closes with recommendations for future studies, arising from this review and the identification of research gaps and under-researched areas.
... In the authors' opinion, they represent an interface between natural-geological and cultural vernacular heritage (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). They belong to the natural geological heritage because  they are made of local stones,  they are helpful for the geological mapping of a region, because their stones were collected from the fields aside,  the geological setting of an area determines if such a wall is necessary or not,  they interfere with the surface and subsurface water flows,  they slow down erosional processes like soil creeping or landslides,  they shape typical landscapes ( fig. 1 A), and  they create a lot of ecological niches and habitats for animals and plants. ...
... Consequently, a sense of belonging of the place, which identifies people and traditions, may be created, and the attitude of the public will enhance as people will recognize that the stone walls, as well as the geosites, are precious places worth to be estimated. These aspects are capable to improve the quality of life, particularly that of the local inhabitants (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). ...
... In the authors' opinion, they represent an interface between natural-geological and cultural vernacular heritage (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). They belong to the natural geological heritage because  they are made of local stones,  they are helpful for the geological mapping of a region, because their stones were collected from the fields aside,  the geological setting of an area determines if such a wall is necessary or not,  they interfere with the surface and subsurface water flows,  they slow down erosional processes like soil creeping or landslides,  they shape typical landscapes ( fig. 1 A), and  they create a lot of ecological niches and habitats for animals and plants. ...
... Consequently, a sense of belonging of the place, which identifies people and traditions, may be created, and the attitude of the public will enhance as people will recognize that the stone walls, as well as the geosites, are precious places worth to be estimated. These aspects are capable to improve the quality of life, particularly that of the local inhabitants (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). ...
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Ornamental and construction stones are an intrinsic part of certain natural and cultural heritage (Brocx and Semeniuk, 2019). Studies to characterise their features and sources or their conservation are essential in order to undertake actions for their conservation and/or the restoration of emblematic buildings (Pereira y Marker, 2015). Moreover, to attribute unique identities to these rocks, particularly, to the ones considered geoheritage, is a priority for the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) (Pereira y Marker, 2016). One of the most outstanding aspects of ornamental stones is their colour. Numerous intrinsic factors as well as external processes determine this physical parameter. Some of them are the nature of the sculpting, its external finishing and various weathering or pollution processes (Damas Mollá et al., 2018). There are several studies about the colour of the ornamental stones due to accelerated ageing processes (Grossi and Benavente, 2016) but there are still scarce studies focused on the origin of their colour. Santimamiñe limestone Unit (Late Cretaceous shallow marine micritic limestone with abundant rudists, Chondrodonta sp. and corals), have been historically exploited for ornamental purposes and traded as Red Ereño from the Roman times (1st century) to the end of the 20th century. During this period, humans extracted the red limestone from small to medium sized quarries situated at Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve (Biscay, Spain) (Fig.1a). The principal of them is the Kantera Gorria geosite, inventoried at national and local scale (geosite PV015, IELIG-Spanish Geological Survey; geosite 15, Basque Autonomous Community inventory; geosite 35, Urdaibai BR inventory). Furthermore, we can say that Red Ereño generated an international commercial activity because in addition to being present in many buildings in Spain, it is also found in other globally known buildings such as San Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican (Italy) (Fig. 1b) (Damas Mollá et al, 2021). The presence of abundant white-coloured fossils (mainly rudists) embedded in an intense pigmented red matrix gives to this rock its ornamental character (Fig. 1b) (Damas Mollá et al., 2021). However, in the quarry its matrix shows a variable colour ranging from intense red to rose-coloured or even grey. Locally, the red colour is concentrated on stiylioliths or limited to them.Mineralogical studies have been carried out on 18 samples of the red rock based on X-ray diffraction, observations on scanning electron microscope (SEM) and semi-quantitative analysis done by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the presence of haematite minerals in the micritic matrix of the red rock is observed (Fig. 1c). However, despite the intense red colour of the initial samples, surprisingly, only three of the analysed samples presented enough haematite content to be detected (mean value <1%). Moreover, a characterisation of the magnetic mineralogy of the red rock by using different rock magnetic techniques: 1. Alternating field demagnetization of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), 2. Thermal demagnetization of the NRM. 3. Progressive acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM). 4. Thermal demagnetization of three orthogonal IRM components. 5. hysteresis loops. 6. Thermomagnetic curves. These experiments have shown that the main ferromagnetic (s.l.) mineral present in red samples is hematite, while magnetite dominates in grey samples. As an example, the thermomagnetic curves in figure 1d are presented, the red heating curve in red matrix samples shows a sharp drop at 680°C, which is indicative of the presence of haematite. In the case of grey matrix samples outside the mineralised band, the drop is recorded at the Curie 580ºC, consistent with the magnetite Curie temperature (Fig. 1d). We also investigated the magnetic mineralogy of the rudist shells that indicates their diamagnetic character. Therefore, petrological and geochemical X International Online ProGEO Symposium, Spain, 7-10th June, 2021 256 characterisation of the fossil bivalve shells (rudists and Chondrodonta sp.), indicates that their microstructure was shielded by early diagenetic processes from the influx of iron-bearing diagenetic fluids that reddened the matrix. (Fig.1b). The high iron concentration in the pressure solution areas of stiylioliths of the matrix also evidenced this process. Moreover, the characteristic paleomagnetic direction carried by hematite in the red limestones does not fit with the Aptian-Albian expected directions (the period when the limestones were formed) nor after nor before tectonic correction, indicating a secondary chemical magnetization (Villalaín et al., 2003). All these data agree with the diagenetic origin of the mineralisation (epigenetic haematite). In sum, it can be stated that its entrance in the system occurred prior to the Alpine orogeny when the tilting of the sedimentary succession had occurred and the microstructure of fossil shells were already closed by diagenetic processes but the compaction efforts that gave rise to the stylolites were not over. In other words, the iron input occurred during an intermediate diagenesis stage (Damas Mollá, 2011). The communication here presented explains the origin and nature of the colour of this ornamental stone and highlights its importance as natural and cultural geoheritage. In addition, it can serve as a starting point to arrange studies about its response under different weathering conditions and the possibilities for building restoration.
... In the authors' opinion, they represent an interface between natural-geological and cultural vernacular heritage (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). They belong to the natural geological heritage because  they are made of local stones,  they are helpful for the geological mapping of a region, because their stones were collected from the fields aside,  the geological setting of an area determines if such a wall is necessary or not,  they interfere with the surface and subsurface water flows,  they slow down erosional processes like soil creeping or landslides,  they shape typical landscapes ( fig. 1 A), and  they create a lot of ecological niches and habitats for animals and plants. ...
... Consequently, a sense of belonging of the place, which identifies people and traditions, may be created, and the attitude of the public will enhance as people will recognize that the stone walls, as well as the geosites, are precious places worth to be estimated. These aspects are capable to improve the quality of life, particularly that of the local inhabitants (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019). ...
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In the Volhynian-Podolian Upland, which is located in the western part of Ukraine, loess-palaeosol sequences are widespread. They cover watersheds, watershed slopes, high river terraces with a mantle up to 50 m thick. They are associated with almost all types of human economic activity. Chernozems, the most fertile soils of Ukraine, are formed on the loess. The key sections, which are the most complete, most characteristic and the best studied using a set of modern analytical methods, are of great importance for the study of the Quaternary loess-palaeosol sequences. In recent years, interest in geological heritage has grown significantly in Ukraine. We have considerable achievements in the study of loess-palaeosol sequences. Thus, we will recommend some key sections as natural monuments for inclusion in the state inventories of geological heritage.
... Cultural tourism as a former niche-market, aimed at clients with relatively high education levels and income, is becoming a mass tourism phenomenon with a much wider range of people who search entertainment in its various new branches (ib.). In the last years, Geotourism has been turned out as a new branch of cultural and natural tourism (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019a, 2019b. ...
... The aims of geotourism in the field are the observation and interpretation of geological and geomorphological features of a region, the landscape and its history, as well as fauna, flora and rural heritage, tangible or intangible (Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019b). The knowledge of a site may contribute to its conservation, so when the local residents know about the site and its value, they may develop a sense of belonging and will be prepared and able to defend it (Gonçalves, 2016;Gonçalves, Cano, & Rosendahl, 2019;Gonçalves & Pérez Cano, 2012;Rosendahl, 2014). ...
... Geotourism may be considered as an interface between cultural and natural tourism. In a field trip, besides geologically and geomorphologically interesting places, vernacular cultural heritage like drystone walls or wells should be included, as these are links between geology and agriculture (Gonçalves, Perez-Cano, Rosendahl, & Prates, 2018;Rosendahl & Gonçalves, 2019b). ...
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Many tourists don't want to spend their holidays only at the beach and others arrive to their destination for cultural or natural reasons. Some are attracted by creative activities. An upcoming touristic branch which joins cultural and natural tourism is Geotourism. A "georiddle" may increase the visitor's interest in geological and cultural themes and challenge his creativity. The following methodology is adopted to reach these objectives: The guide gives basic information in a geologically interesting site and asks the participants about details of what can be seen. By brainstorming and discussion, they may solve the problem or not; in any case the participants are encouraged to foster their creativity by interactive processes. Then, the guide explains his opinion about the solution of the "georiddle", and the discussion can begin again. Enigmatic structures may be found in construction stones of built heritage, as well as in geological outcrops in the countryside. A "georiddle" can be posed in other fields, like vernacular cultural heritage. For instance, drystone constructions are interfaces between geological and cultural heritage. Here, the riddle's aim may be to discuss about the reason of their spatial arrangement and purpose. As a result, it is expected to awaken the visitor's curiosity and creativity and to increase and broaden his field of knowledge.