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Geographic range of Eucalyptus urophylla with Camcore collection sites noted (map amended from House and Bell, 1994)

Geographic range of Eucalyptus urophylla with Camcore collection sites noted (map amended from House and Bell, 1994)

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Eucalyptus urophylla is one of the most commercially important forest species in the world, primarily as a hybrid parent. However, the conservation status of the majority of the populations where it naturally occurs on seven islands in eastern Indonesia range from critically endangered to vulnerable. We examine the evolutionary forces that might ha...

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... geographic distribution and biology of the species • The evolutionary forces (including climate) that shaped • the patterns of genetic variation in the species In situ conservation status and provenance variation in (Figure 1). There have also been suggestions that it once occurred on the island of Solor ( Pryor et al., 1995) but recent explora- tions by Camcore-PT Sumalindo in 2003 found no evidence of the species. ...
Context 2
... have also been suggestions that it once occurred on the island of Solor ( Pryor et al., 1995) but recent explora- tions by Camcore-PT Sumalindo in 2003 found no evidence of the species. Our explorations also failed to find it on Besar ( Figure 1) and Palu Islands (not shown). Currently, its geographic range is approximately 476 km east to west and 230 km north to south across the seven islands. ...

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... In contrast, the low genetic diversity associated with the restriction of hybridization found in Eucalyptus microcorys justifies the lack of genetic studies with the species, as well as its incipient use in breeding programs. Dvorak, Hodge and Payn (2008), studying Eucalyptus urophylla, emphasized on the current scenario of climate change and the development of new diseases, the adaptability of species will probably change over time. In this scenario, they highlight the importance of conservation areas composed of materials from native regions, such as the study area, that can serve as a genetic basis for composing seed orchards, as they are an important source of genetic variation in breeding programs. ...
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Visando fornecer informações que sirvam de base para estudos de melhoramento genético de Eucalyptus foi realizada a análise da diversidade genética usando marcadores ISSR. As espécies estudadas foram Eucalyptus urophylla e Eucalyptus microcorys, ambas com potencial econômico florestal. Os indivíduos estudados pertencem a um teste de espécies e procedências instalado no ano de 1974 e permanecem isentos de tratos silviculturais. Para as análises foram utilizados nove primers ISSR universais. A partir dos resultados avaliou-se a existência de variação intra e interespecífica por meio da porcentagem de polimorfismo, conteúdo de informação polimórfica (PIC) e distância Euclidiana entre indivíduos. A fim de analisar a distância Euclidiana entre os indivíduos foram feitas a análise de coordenadas principais (PCoA) e análise permutacional de dispersão multivariada (PermDisp) seguida pelo teste de Tukey. Observouse elevada porcentagem de polimorfismo (57,14% para Eucalyptus microcorys e 80,95% para Eucalyptus urophylla). Considerando todos os grupos avaliados, os valores de PIC foram superiores a 0,5 para quatro primers (UBC827, UBC835, UBC841). A variabilidade interna foi significativamente maior na população de Eucalyptus urophylla em relação à Eucalyptus microcorys, o que pode estar associado à maior capacidade do Eucalyptus urophylla em hibridizar naturalmente.
... The naturamorphological and phenological differences in the type of bark, leaves and fruit morphology were associated to the altitudinal distribution ( Boas et al., 2009). It is a large tree which can reach in natural populations more than 50 m of height and 2 m of diameter ( Dvorak et al., 2008). The flowers are hermaphrodite and flowering begins two to three years after planting and pollination is mainly carried out by insects and to a lesser extent by wind (Eldridge et al., 1993). ...
... Therefore, when the G×E interaction is significant, changes in the studied environments have different effects on the genetic materials tested. It should be noted that, if the interaction is of the complex type, the stratification of environments is necessary for selection; this is done by dividing the environment into regions in order to obtain gains with selection (Dvorak et al., 2008). ...
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the genotype x environment (GxE) interaction in open-pollinated Eucalyptus saligna progenies for simultaneous selection for greater stability and adaptability for wood volume, as well as to compare the selection strategies through combined and individual analyses in three environments. Three experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design, with four replicates and six plants per plot, with 102 to 122 progenies. Three years after planting, survival rate and wood volume were evaluated. The genetic parameters were estimated by the maximum restricted likelihood and best linear unbiased prediction (REML/Blup) methods, and the stability and adaptability analysis was conducted using the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values (HMRPGV). The highest survival rate (82%) was observed in Sabinópolis and the highest volume (120 m³ ha-1) in Lençóis Paulista. The mean heritability of progenies for the two analyzed variables was considered high, and the genetic correlations between survival rate and volume were weak for all sites. The G×E interaction was significant and of the complex type, with genotype correlation between sites of 47%, indicating that the ranking of the best progenies differed in each studied environment. The analysis of stability and adaptability indicated the possibility of selecting progenies with good performance in the three environments; however, to improve the quality of the evaluated characteristics, it is necessary to select specific progenies for each environment.
... On the island of Timor the two species occasionally co-occur [45]. Dvorak et al. [46] suggested that natural introgression with E. alba, may have had great influence on the genetic architecture of E. urophylla, as natural hybridization and introgression is often apparent in field trials. Indeed, Hodge and Dvorak [11] noted that some E. urophylla provenances in their extensive trials had up to 50% of progeny being white-barked trees, which they considered as indicating high levels of introgression with E. alba. ...
... Indeed, Hodge and Dvorak [11] noted that some E. urophylla provenances in their extensive trials had up to 50% of progeny being white-barked trees, which they considered as indicating high levels of introgression with E. alba. Bark characteristics of the two 'pure' species are distinct, with E. alba having a smooth white bark and E. urophylla having rough brown fibrous bark that varies from a short basal stocking through to covering the trunk and extending to small branches [3,46]. Besides such introgression, inbreeding might also have been a factor contributing to an apparent Wahlund effect in the first cycle E. urophylla population (as well as directly contributing to a violation of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium through creating homozygotic excesses). ...
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Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake is an important commercial tropical plantation species worldwide. In China, a breeding program for this species has progressed through three cycles but genetic diversity and structure in the breeding populations are uncertain. A sampling of field trials from these populations was carried out to evaluate their genetic diversity and structure using 16 microsatellite loci. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were recorded at all 16 loci in the populations. Overall expected and observed heterozygosity (He and Ho) estimates of 0.87 and 0.59 respectively for the first cycle population, and 0.88 and 0.60 respectively for the third cycle population, revealed reasonably high levels of genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation coefficient (Fst) revealed low differentiation among pairs of provenances (from the species' native range) comprising the first cycle population (range: 0.012-0.108), and AMOVA results showed that the majority of molecular genetic variation existed among individuals rather than among provenances for the first cycle population and among individuals rather than among field trial sources in the third cycle population. Levels of genetic diversity appeared to remain unchanged from the first to third cycle populations, and the results indicate prospects for maintaining if not increasing diversity through recurrent breeding. Likely effects of artificial directional selection, prior to sampling, on both populations examined are discussed along with implications for future E. urophylla breeding.
... Populations at higher altitudes are generally adapted to colder climates, show lower growth potential, shorter periods for shoot elongation and better tolerance to cold environments, compared with those from warmer sites at lower altitudes (WEINSTEIN, 1989;REHFELDT, 1995;SÁENZ-ROMERO et al., 2012b;CAR-RASQUINHO and GONÇALVES, 2013). An understanding of the adaptation of tree populations to different environments through accurate site-population matching, together with predicted environmental risks for profitable site and scheduling actions, may enhance decision making and improve reforestation efficiency under both present and future climatic scenarios (LOUW and SCHOLES, 2006;DVORAK et al., 2008;REHFELDT et al., 2014). ...
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To select the genetic source of Pinus patula Shiede and Deppe, seed best adapted to different native zones for reforestation, seedlings of 12 provenances native to a selected altitudinal gradient in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, were planted on two sites at contrasting altitudes (high 3000 m above sea level (masl) and low, 2500 masl) within the species natural distribution, and tested for growth in height at age 18, 24 and 36 months. Differences among provenances and between sites showed significance (p<0.05). Seedling growth showed a climatic and altitudinal pattern, in which seedlings from populations originating in low-middle altitudes had higher growth than populations originating in high altitudes, and from the extreme low altitude limit. Results were used to delineate climatic and altitudinal seed zones for contemporary and future climate zones in the decade centered in year 2030, using the average results of six climate-emissions scenarios. The results indicate that splitting the region into four seed zones is appropriate under contemporary climate scenarios with the following altitude limits: Zone 1, from 2300 to 2500 masl; Zone 2, 2500 to 2700 masl; Zone 3, 2700 to 2900 masl and Zone 4 from 2900 to 3100 masl. The equivalence on climatic intervals was also defined for mean annual temperature, precipitation and an annual aridity index (AAI). Values of contemporary AAI occurring at a given altitude by year 2030 were determined, with results suggesting that populations should be shifted 200 to 250 m attitudinally upward, through a program of assisted migration, to realign them to the future climate for which they are adapted.
... Particularly impressive tree breeding successes in short-rotation pulpwood plantation forestry also include improvements in properties that enhance processing (e.g. wood properties, stem form and ease of debarking - Malan and Verryn 1996;Dvorak et al. 2008) or properties that allow for better survival and productivity of a specific taxon under adverse circumstances (e.g. disease resistance, cold/drought/frost tolerance, improved water use efficiency and herbicide resistance - Hodge and Dvorak 2007;Herbert 2012;du Toit 2012;Mitchell et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
Bioenergy production from wood is one of the oldest forms of energy and it was for a long time considered a primitive energy source in many industrialised countries. However, it is currently experiencing an increase in attention worldwide. Considering its importance and history, it is astonishing that the widespread cognizance of wood as an important energy source in modern times is a recent phenomenon. It has been mainly driven by the pressure of diminishing fossil fuel resources in industrialised countries, as well as the wish to become more ...
... In line with this thinking, Camcore sampled 60 populations of Tsuga canadiensis (eastern hemlock) in the southern and eastern USA to capture adaptability differences among regions even though molecular analysis suggested low levels of population diversity exist across most of the species range (Potter et al. 2008). Generally, in the most successful tree conservation programs, molecular data are used to fine-tune provenance/population selection based on the results of metric data (productivity and adaptability), not the reverse (Dvorak et al. 2008). ...
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Because of anticipated adverse climatic change and resulting increases in disease and insect attacks in forest plantations in the future, forest industries must maintain broad genetic bases for adaptability and pest resistance. Since the early 1980s, the South African forest industry has obtained genetic material of 25 pine and eucalypt species that represent more than 4 200 trees from 260 natural populations around the world through its participation in Camcore (International Tree Breeding and Conservation Program) at North Carolina State University, USA. This combined genetic testing and conservation program has identified new productive pine species, such as P. tecunumanii and P. maximinoi, that grow well and are resistant in the seedling stage to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum). Because of the industry's foresight to assemble genetic material and test alternate species over the last three decades, it was well prepared to immediately develop more-resistant pine hybrids such as P. patula × P. tecunumanii when the pitch canker situation became problematic. The South African forest industry has collectively worked together to established special 20–40 ha conservation parks across the country to hold and protect the original genetic material collected in Central America, Mexico and South-east Asia. Species are conserved in the parks at the population level and are represented by a minimum of 10 open-pollinated families, five trees per family across two sites. The design is based on maintaining an effective population size of approximately 30 with the goal to capture alleles at high frequencies as well as to include a number of rare alleles in the ex situ plantings. The overlying goal is to maintain well-adapted genetic material for future deployment.
... In this case, individuals from YiWu would be a good candidate for conservation since the population has moderately high level of genetic diversity and is the only one in southwestern China found to harbour private alleles. The approach for using field results coupled with molecular information was also practiced in the case of E. urophylla from Indonesia (Dvorak et al. 2008). The decision to include or exclude any populations for conservation should be based upon well-supported and comprehensive data on the productivity and genetic similarity among populations. ...
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Gmelina arborea is a valuable plantation tree species that is native to South and Southeast Asia. In this study, 534 samples representing 19 natural populations in India, China, Thailand and Myanmar were analyzed with 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity analysis revealed highly polymorphic loci (Na = 16.4), a good level of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.56; He = 0.83) and the deficiency of heterozygotes in G. arborea populations evidenced by positive fixation index and deviation from Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium in all loci and most populations. The Analysis of Molecular Variance attributed 21, 10 and 69% of total genetic diversity to among-region, among-population (within region) and within-population variation. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis revealed three separate clusters composed of China, India and Thailand/Myanmar that were consistent with geographical distance and the presence of natural barriers to gene flow. Populations from within India grouped together genetically consistent with geographical locations, with the exception of the Nowgong population (eastern India), that might have originated from the Kasa area (western India) with which it has high genetic similarity. Understanding genetic diversity and structure of G. arborea populations serve as an important reference for tree breeding programs and conservation strategy. Breeding populations of G. arborea should include selections from each of the major geographic regions to maximize genetic diversity and heterosis. Vegetative propagated clones of elite trees can be used for plantation to address the issue of high level of segregation among seed derived plants.
... Changing climate will most probably affect the geographic range of native trees and the locations where they can be grown in plantations as exotic species. The possible negative impacts on natural populations of important tree species should concern the forestry sector, as these are the source of genetic diversity (seeds) used to sustain and improve plantation productivity under both present and future conditions (Dvorak et al., 2008). Despite the importance of alterations in global temperature and precipitation patterns, considerable uncertainty still exists on how tree species will respond to changes in climate (Hamrick, 2004;Botkin et al., 2007;Kremer, 2007). ...
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Climate change is likely to have a negative impact on natural populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii, two globally important tree species in plantation forestry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of climate change on the persistence of the natural populations of these species at their actual locations in order to take appropriate conservation measurements. A common approach to assess the impact of climate change on species natural distributions is climate envelope modeling (CEM). CEMs suggest significant impacts of climate change on the natural distribution of the two pine species, but their predictions contain considerable uncertainty related to the adaptive ability of tree populations to withstand future climate conditions. We assessed the adaptive ability of the two pine species based on the evaluations of provenance trials and used the results of these field trials to validate CEM impact assessment studies on provenance collection sites in the wild. The two pine species performed well in a wide range of climates, including conditions that were recorded by CEM as unsuitable for natural pine occurrence. The climate conditions where the two pine species naturally occur are predicted to become in the future more similar to the present climate of some areas where they are successfully established in field trials. These findings suggest that these pine species are in their natural habitat better adapted to climate change than CEM predicts. For the most vulnerable species, P. tecunumanii, human disturbances such as fragmentation from urbanization and conversion to agriculture that are occurring today are more urgent threats requiring action compared to the threat from climate change.
... Tropical cyclones occasionally pass through the Lesser Sunda islands. Cyclonic events overlapping with the time of pollen dispersal would promote long-distance gene flow within and among islands (Dvorak et al. 2007). According to Wright (1931), migration rates of greater than one migrant per generation may be sufficient to prevent population differentiation due to drift. ...
... Wetar populations, in particular, which had the highest proportion of membership of cluster-2, have previously been differentiated at the morphological level (Pinyopusarerk et al. 1993; Doran et al. 1995; Pryor et al. 1995). The natural range of E. urophylla experiences two distinct climatic types defined by average monthly precipitation and temperature at provenance locations (Dvorak et al. 2007). Climatic type-1 comprised all provenances except those on the island of Wetar and was characterized by a dry season of 5 to 6 months. ...
... Climatic type-1 comprised all provenances except those on the island of Wetar and was characterized by a dry season of 5 to 6 months. Climatic type-2 comprised the provenances of Wetar and was distinguished by a lower annual precipitation and a more evenly distributed rainfall pattern throughout the year (Dvorak et al. 2007 ). Interestingly , the frequency of membership in cluster-1 vs cluster-2 was strongly correlated with provenance (seed collection site) volume growth assessed in Camcore trials planted in Mexico (r=0.75, ...
Article
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Eucalyptus urophylla (Timor mountain gum) is an economically important plantation species that occurs naturally in a series of disjunct populations on the volcanic slopes of seven islands in eastern Indonesia. Twelve microsatellite markers were used to investigate the distribution of nuclear genetic diversity among 19 geographically defined E. urophylla populations. High levels of gene diversity were observed throughout the geographic range (H E = 0.703 to 0.776). The level of genetic differentiation among populations was low (F ST = 0.031), but the amount of differentiation increased with geographic distance. A phenogram produced by a neighbor-joining analysis illustrated that populations clustered according to islands. However, a Bayesian clustering approach revealed a more cryptic population structure comprising two genetically homogeneous groups. Gene flow among the populations is likely responsible for the apparent weak influence of geographic insularity on the genetic diversity and structure of the island species. These findings provide direction for conservation and breeding strategies in E. urophylla.