General overview of a commercial electrolyzed water generator.  

General overview of a commercial electrolyzed water generator.  

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The consumption of alkaline reduced water produced by domestic electrolysis devices was approved in Japan in 1965 by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare for the cure of gastro-intestinal disorders. Today, these devices are freely available in several countries and can be easily purchased without reserve. The commercial information included w...

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... mineral cations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , …) accumulate at the cathode and as hydroxyl ions and hydrogen are produced, water changes to a pH between 8 and 10 and a redox potential as low as −600 mV may be obtained (Figure 3). . General overview of a commercial electrolyzed water generator. ...

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... The nonstable state of the catholyte seems to be caused by the transition of the reducer to the gaseous phase [13]. In this model system, the electron donor or acceptor is atomic hydrogen or oxygen respectively [14,15]. Our experiment was concerned with aqueous solutions of diluted modified starch that contained a mixture of oligosaccharides with absorption spectra as shown in Fig. 2. ...
... Acidic ionized water is produced at the anode. It is known as electrolyzed oxidation water (EOW) with low pH (less than 7) and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), this water is used for disinfection and bactericidal (Fera et al, 2017;Henry and Chambron, 2013). Alkaline ionized water has many advantages that beneficially affect on human health as it enhances the hydration of the body (Weidman et al, 2016). ...
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This study was carried out during the period from 25/10/2020 to 13/3/2021 (20 weeks) to investigate the effect of ionized water (alkaline and acidic) on productive performance of laying hens. A total of 105 laying hens (Lohmann Brown – Classic) strains were randomly divided into five treatments groups of 21 hens each. Each group was subdivided into three replicates with seven hens each. Birds in the control group (T1) were drinking tap water pH (7.14), whereas birds in second (T2) and the third group (T3) were drinking ionized alkaline water with pH (8.5, 9.5) respectively and the fourth group (T4) and the fifth group were drinking ionized acidic water with pH (4, 5) respectively. The egg production ratio, egg weight, cumulative number of eggs, egg mass, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were studied. Results showed: T2 and T4 were significantly different (P<0.05) on egg production rate and a cumulative number of eggs as compared with other treatments during the study period. T2 was a significant difference on egg mass and no significant differences notice on egg weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio between treatments. In conclusion, ionized water has enhanced the productive performance of laying hen.
... Electrochemically activated water and its solutions have non-standard physicochemical parameters of pH and redox potential, which makes them biologically active [13,18,19]. Electrochemically activated water solutions of both low and high molecular weight compounds differ from similar solutions of nonelectrolyzed water [12,16]. ...
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Introduction. Electrochemical activation of water controls the physicochemical parameters of aquatic food environment without any reagents. Electrolyzed water affects the properties of macronutrient solutions. The present research studied the effect of anodic and cathodic fractions of electrochemically activated water on protein molecules and their interaction patterns. Study objects and methods. The study featured bovine serum albumin and its properties in electrochemically activated water with nonstandard redox and acidity values. The aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin was studied by viscometry, UV spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and electrophoresis. Results and discussion. By knowing the interaction patterns of electrochemically activated water and protein molecules, food producers can control the properties of biological raw materials. Bovine serum albumin was studied in metastable fractions of electrochemically activated water obtained in the anode or cathode chamber of an electrochemical reactor. Both fractions of electrochemically activated water appeared to modify the properties of bovine serum albumin. The oxidized fraction of electrochemically activated water (anolyte) converted the protein solution into a more homogeneous molecular composition. The solution of bovine serum albumin in the reduced fraction of electrochemically activated water (catholyte) had an abnormally negative redox potential (–800 mV). The aqueous solution of bovine serum albumin in catholyte retained its initial viscosity for a long time, and its level was lower than in the control sample. This effect was consistent with other physicochemical characteristics of the solution. Conclusion. The research revealed some patterns that make it possible to apply reagent-free viscosity regulation to protein media in the food industry.
... Our group found that PDI coupled with slightly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAlEW) could efficiently destroy mixed-species biofilms and kill the encapsulated cells. SAlEW is a safe water that is approved for drinking in many countries and regions (Henry & Chambron, 2013). It can not only be used to cure diseases such as the gastrointestinal tract, but also has the efficacy of removing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables, as well as keeping food fresh (Zhang, Cao, & Jiang, 2021). ...
... In addition, the SAlEW has a lower negative ORP, which helps to enhance the stability of the natural products (e.g. SCC, curcumin, etc.) (Henry et al., 2013). In short, PDI coupled with SAlEW improved the yield of ROS (e.g. 1 O 2 ) (Fig. 4), and also improved the permeability, wettability and stability of photosensitizer (Fig. 5), which was beneficial to disintegrate the key chemical components of EPS (Fig. 6). ...
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Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is an effective alternative to traditional antibiotics to broadly kill bacteria. This study aimed to develop a potent PDI system by coupling calcinated melamine sponges (CMSs) with the Fenton reaction. The results showed that CMS calcined at 350 ℃ was successfully carbonized with intact and porous structures, and it possessed excellent hydrophilicity and photothermal conversion performance. When Fe2+ was added and internalized, the Fenton reaction in which Fe2+ reacted with H2O2 in cells occurred to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( OH, OOH, etc.) and O2, and notably, the O2 molecules could serve as a raw material to absorb the photothermal energy of CMS to generate highly reactive 1O2. Under synergistic effects, CMS-350 coupled with Fe2+ potently inactivated > 6 Log CFU/mL (>99.9999%) of Salmonella under 201.6 J/cm2 blue LED illumination by destroying Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase, DNA synthesis-related enzymes, cell membranes, etc. Meanwhile, the composite photocatalyst was proven to be nontoxic and could inactivate Salmonella in various foods, including vegetables (Brassica chinensis L), eggs and fresh cucumber juice. As a result, CMS coupled with the Fenton reaction greatly improves the inactivation potency of PDI against harmful bacteria.
... Our group found that PDI coupled with slightly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAlEW) could efficiently destroy mixed-species biofilms and kill the encapsulated cells. SAlEW is a safe water that is approved for drinking in many countries and regions (Henry & Chambron, 2013). It can not only be used to cure diseases such as the gastrointestinal tract, but also has the efficacy of removing pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables, as well as keeping food fresh (Zhang, Cao, & Jiang, 2021). ...
... In addition, the SAlEW has a lower negative ORP, which helps to enhance the stability of the natural products (e.g. SCC, curcumin, etc.) (Henry et al., 2013). In short, PDI coupled with SAlEW improved the yield of ROS (e.g. 1 O 2 ) (Fig. 4), and also improved the permeability, wettability and stability of photosensitizer (Fig. 5), which was beneficial to disintegrate the key chemical components of EPS (Fig. 6). ...
Article
This study pioneered a novel anti-biofilm technology of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) coupled with slightly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAlEW) as solvent to dissolve photosensitizer, and its potency was verified through monitoring the biomass, cell viability, cell regrowth capacity and spatial structures of the mixed-species biofilms of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Shewanella putrefaciens. The action mechanism was clarified by measuring the reactive oxygen species (ROS), physicochemical properties of photosensitizer sodium copper chlorophyll (SCC). Results showed that SAlEW greatly improved the permeability and stability of SCC, as well as its ROS production, which potently destroyed the key chemical composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and hence negatively altered the spatial structures of the biofilms. Moreover, PDI coupled with SAlEW significantly decreased the biomass of 72.4%, viable cells of 3.51 Log CFU/mL and cell viability of 85.7% in the mixed-species biofilms with 150 μM SCC and 4.56 J/cm² radiation, and notably, it efficiently eradicated the mixed-species biofilms on the surfaces of fish scales or stainless steel, supported by that the cell viability was reduced by 86% and 70%, respectively. Therefore, PDI coupled with SAlEW is a promising strategy to control biofilms contamination in the food industry.
... From this perspective, it is important to explore the relationship between ROS scavenging, inflammatory control, and lipid metabolism. Research on alkaline ionized water has been increasing up to this date since its first development in Japan in the 1990s [107]. Nowadays, ARW has been applied in several fields, including the food industry, agriculture, and medicine. ...
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Our body composition is enormously influenced by our lifestyle choices, which affect our health and longevity. Nutrition and physical activities both impact overall metabolic condition, thus, a positive energy balance causes oxidative stress and inflammation, hastening the development of metabolic syndrome. With this knowledge, boosting endogenous and exogenous antioxidants has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for combating metabolic disorders. One of the promising therapeutic inventions is the use of alkaline reduced water (ARW). Aside from its hydrating and non-caloric properties, ARW has demonstrated strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can help stabilize physiologic turmoil caused by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review article is a synthesis of studies where we elaborate on the intra- and extracellular effects of drinking ARW, and relate these to the pathophysiology of common metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers. Highlighting the health-promoting benefits of ARW, we also emphasize the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle by incorporating exercise and practicing a balanced diet as forms of habit.
... H + ions take up the electrons (e − ) from the negatively charged cathode to produce H 2 and active hydrogen resulting in an increase in OH − ions in the cathode compartment. This generation of OH − ions increases the water's pH (alkalinity), decreasing the ORP potential and increasing H 2 in the cathode compartment [50][51][52]. The electrochemical reaction for the production of ARW and acidic water is shown in Table 2. ARW is usually produced by electrolysis. ...
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Living a healthy lifestyle is the most important need in the world today. However, oxidative stress (OS) is caused by several stress-inducing factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, chronic diseases, and inflammatory responses, oxygen-free radicals are produced in excess and can damage major organs in the body. This phenomenon has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, including gastritis, constipation, and inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, functional dyspepsia, acid reflux, diverticular disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. In this review article, we provide a brief overview of the role of OS in the pathogenesis of GI disorders. Additionally, we discuss the therapeutic role of alkaline-reduced water (ARW) on GI diseases and existing studies on ARW related to GI diseases. Furthermore, we believe that findings from this review article will enhance the knowledge of the readers on the role of ARW on OS and inflammation-based GI diseases.
... On the other hand, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is also an important metric for characterizing natural and wastewaters, as well as assessing the overall status of water quality (Vidyasagar & Global Minute, 2007). Furthermore, one of the most significant operational water-quality criteria is pH (Marc & Chambron, 2013). As a result, the focus of our recent research was on detecting NO2, DO, and pH levels in PAW. ...
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Background, plasma-activated water (PAW) is generated by exposing water to the fourth state of matter (plasma). Plasma emits several kinds of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS). This wealth of active species potentiates the PAW modulation of gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is the most likely cause for DNA damaging effect and/or cell death following gamma irradiation. Aims, this study is an endeavor to investigate the role of oral administration of PAW, against high dose of gamma irradiation. Methods, tap water was exposed to plasma jet under consideration delivering a plasma dose of 0.425 J/cm². Rats, were divided into three groups, normal control ‘G1,’ group ‘G2’ including rats accessed to normal tap water and third group ‘G3’ including rats accessed to PAW. Each group drank the designated water for 60 consecutive days. After 60 days, the second and third groups were irradiated with a single dose of 7 gray gamma rays and anesthetized then sacrificed 24 following the irradiation. Blood samples were collected and assayed for DNA damage detection using comet assay. Biological functions including blood count, liver, and kidney function as well as oxygen and glucose levels were also assayed in the blood of all rats in the three considered groups. Results, although exposure to this dose of gamma radiation showed an adverse effects on rats accessed to normal tap water at both cellular and organ level, PAW group remained highly protected as was clearly shown by their cellular and biochemical parameters. Conclusions, our findings suggest that, PAW is considered a potentially promising technique for combating the acute effects of high radiation doses that damage DNA as well as impaired some biological functions. This could increase and support the hope in utilizing PAW as safer, economic, and efficient drinking water as radio-protective agent in expected wide scales.
... Water fills all the space inside the cells and between the cells. Being the main fluid in the body, it serves as a solvent for nutrients, acts as a medium for the safe elimination of toxins and waste products, determines the quality of blood, and affects redox processes [2,8,9]. Water, which has a negative redox potential, is an excellent stimulant, restores the immune system of the body, provides its antioxidant protection, and also improves metabolism [10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
... During the study period, the average water temperature was 26°C, with short-term differences up to 27°C, with the optimum for tilapia-25-30°C. For optimal development and growth of tilapia, it is necessary to maintain an acid-base balance and the medium should be either slightly acidic or slightly alkaline in the range of 6.0-8.0 [9]. In the experimental versions, this indicator was within the normal range and its value was 7-7. 5. ...
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One of the most significant factors in regulating the parameters of redox reactions occurring in any liquid medium is the electron activity or redox potential (RP) of this medium. Water that has a negative RP is easily absorbed by the body and replenishes the cells with lost negative charges and energy. As a result of the conducted studies, it was found that the hydrochemical parameters in the experimental and control variants were within the standard values for growing tilapia juveniles. It was found that the redox potential of the blood of juvenile tilapia has a negative value of - 96 mV. It is recorded that at a sufficiently low water temperature for thermophilic tilapia (21 °C) and at a negative RP (-212 mV), a high growth rate of fish is observed. It was found that the use of water with a redox potential of -100 mV is the most effective, since the linear weight gain of juveniles increases by 41 % in comparison with the control. Tilapia juveniles grown in structured water have the highest levels of hemoglobin (62-64 g/l) and total serum protein (13.3-14.3 g/l).
... Regarding the preferred subclass of antibodies generated (IgG2a) and cytokine profile (Th1) induced, it is possible to postulate that EOW leads to immunological modulation that greatly ameliorated T. cruzi infection. This agrees with other authors' reports, which demonstrate that electrolyzed solutions helped to increase the body's immune defenses against oxidative stress by eliminating in particular hydrogen peroxide and the hypochlorite anion, as well as improved the inflammatory response and the control of blood pressure in hemodialysis patients [45]. Kapur and Marwaha (2011) showed that there was remarkable reduction in common signs of inflammation such as edema, erythema, and drastic increase of granulation and fibrin formation in patients with different types of wounds treated with EOW demonstrating an immunomodulatory effect [46]. ...
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Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. The mixed Th1/Th2 immune response is required against Trypanosoma cruzi. Electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW) has been shown to have germicidal efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the EOW effectiveness in T. cruzi-infected BALB/c mice clinically, immunologically, and histologically. The severity of the infection was assessed by parasitaemia, general health condition, mortality, mega syndromes, and histological lesions. IgG, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and IL-1 beta levels were quantified. The EOW administration showed a beneficial effect on parasitaemia, general physical condition, and mortality. High levels of IgG1 at 50 days postinfection were observed. Prophylactic EOW treatment was able to induce a predominantly TH1 immune response based on an IgG2a levels increase at the late acute phase, and a 10-fold increase of IFN-gamma in whole acute phase. EOW was able to control the acute phase infection as effectively as benznidazole. Splenomegaly was caused by EOW treatment and lymphadenopathy was stimulated by T. cruzi infection in all groups. Severe tissue damage was not prevented by EOW treatments. Moderate efficacy may be due to immunomodulatory properties and not to a direct toxic effect on the parasite.