GABA contents of germinated grains at different incubation periods. NG denotes non germinated grains. (a) GABA content in germinated mung bean. (b) GABA content in germinated soybean. (c) GABA content in germinated black bean. And (d) GABA content in germinated sesame. Data reported are the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. a-e Means of each grain type with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05).  

GABA contents of germinated grains at different incubation periods. NG denotes non germinated grains. (a) GABA content in germinated mung bean. (b) GABA content in germinated soybean. (c) GABA content in germinated black bean. And (d) GABA content in germinated sesame. Data reported are the mean ± SD of triplicate determinations. a-e Means of each grain type with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05).  

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Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean...

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... soaking and incubation, GABA content in germinated grains was generally higher than in non germinated grains (Figure 1). This indicated that the storage protein in grains was decomposed at least partially and supplied to the growing part of the seedlings and within this process glutamate decarboxylase enzyme was activated which converted glutamic acid to GABA. ...
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... germination, the amount of GABA significantly increased especially in mung bean. GABA content in germinated mung bean increased up to 0.8068 g kg -1 dry matter at 24 h of incubation period, however there was no further increase after 24 h (Figure 1a). The concentration of GABA in germinated soybean exponentially increased up to 0.4977 g kg -1 dry matter at 6 h of incubation period then decreased to 0.2638 and 0.1659 g kg -1 dry matter at 12 h and 24 h, respectively (Figure 1b). ...
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... content in germinated mung bean increased up to 0.8068 g kg -1 dry matter at 24 h of incubation period, however there was no further increase after 24 h (Figure 1a). The concentration of GABA in germinated soybean exponentially increased up to 0.4977 g kg -1 dry matter at 6 h of incubation period then decreased to 0.2638 and 0.1659 g kg -1 dry matter at 12 h and 24 h, respectively (Figure 1b). After 6 h soaking (0 h incubation), the GABA content in germinated black bean was found to be 0.6773 g kg -1 dry matter and increased up to 0.7430 g kg -1 dry matter at 6 h of incubation period (Figure 1c). ...
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... concentration of GABA in germinated soybean exponentially increased up to 0.4977 g kg -1 dry matter at 6 h of incubation period then decreased to 0.2638 and 0.1659 g kg -1 dry matter at 12 h and 24 h, respectively (Figure 1b). After 6 h soaking (0 h incubation), the GABA content in germinated black bean was found to be 0.6773 g kg -1 dry matter and increased up to 0.7430 g kg -1 dry matter at 6 h of incubation period (Figure 1c). After that the GABA content decreased to 0.3526 and 0.1645 g kg -1 dry matter at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. ...
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... that the GABA content decreased to 0.3526 and 0.1645 g kg -1 dry matter at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. In sesame seeds, 6 h soaking alone increased the GABA content up to 0.1649 g kg -1 dry matter (Figure 1d). However it slightly decreased afterwards. ...

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... It is known that germination would bring about the accumulation of many bioactive compounds including polyphenols, vitamins, and GABA [13]. GABA in bean seeds is generally found at low level [14,15], nevertheless, the level rapidly increases during germination. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) have been widely cultivated for centuries in several Asian countries [16]. ...
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... Since GABA is mainly formed by the decarboxylation of glutamate, the product is not BA but an amino acid [64]. Unlike BAs, which are formed by decarboxylation, GABA is nutritionally desirable, and various approaches using selected MO even in combination with germination [65] have been shown to be efficient in increasing GABA content. The use of chickpea sourdough for the preparation of experimental bread resulted in significantly higher GABA content in the final product in compared to commercial artisan breads, which were presumably prepared with sourdough starters based on cereal flour [35]. ...
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... Susamın GABA içeriği ise yalnızca 6 saatlik (0.1649 g/kg) suda bekletme ile bir miktar artmıştır. Araştırmacılar tanelerdeki depo proteinlerinin en azından bir kısmının ayrıştığını ve fidelerin büyüyen kısımları için kullanıldığını ve bu esnada glutamik asidi GABA'ya dönüştüren glutamat dekarboksilaz enziminin aktive edildiğini belirtmiştir [31]. ...
... Besides, germination also enhanced bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (Cáceres et al., 2017;Ohtsubo et al., 2005;Zhang et al., 2014). GABA, a nonprotein amino acid, play important role as neurotransmitter in the brain and has some essential physiological functions such as antihypertensive and anti-stress effects on human health (Cáceres et al., 2017;Tiansawang et al., 2016;Watchararparpaiboon et al., 2010). ...
... The increase of GABA content during germination was reported in seeds and legumes, including in brown rice (Mohan et al., 2010;Tiansawang et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2014). Accumulation of GABA was closely related to the activation of some enzymes that converts glutamate to succinate via GABA, called GABA shunt, which converts L-glutamic acid into GABA by glutamate decarboxylase enzyme (GAD). ...
... After 24 h steeping time, both TPC and antioxidant capacity of five germinated brown rice decreased significantly. The results are agreed with the results in brown rice Indica SLF09 and some different grains after soak for 24 h and 6 h, respectively (Cáceres et al., 2017;Tiansawang et al., 2016). During the soaking process and changing the soaking water, some phenolic compounds might leach out to the water soaking. ...
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... Studies confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean [130]. e GABA content of brown rice and mung bean reminds us of the macrobiotic anticancer diet that recommends these foods in the diet to suppress cancer [131]. ...
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... In contrast to a previous report (Owolabi et al., 2018), we found that the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of BR was reduced by germination of BR. However, in some foods other than BR, the hydrophilic antioxidant capacity has also been shown to decrease following soaking (Tiansawang et al., 2016). The increase in TP content may be related to the activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, which is responsible for the synthesis of phenolics during germination (Pramai et al., 2018), and the specific cultivar used in this study may exhibit a low activity of this enzyme. ...
... Our results showed that GABA contents in GBR decreased after cooking at temperatures of 105°C or above, with obvious temperature-dependent changes. Although no prior reports have described changes in GBR after cooking, some germinated legumes and sesame have been reported to show decreased GABA contents after boiling, steaming, microwave cooking, or open pan roasting via elution and thermal decomposition (Tiansawang et al., 2016). In our study, the GBR sample was cooked in a beaker, and GABA elution was not affected. ...
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... On the other hand, a significant decrease in cellulose content was observed in microgreens 48 h after exposure to light (Table 1). The germination process tends to increase dietary fiber content in different plant species such as peas and amaranth, as well as others [49][50][51]. Gómez-Favela et al. [5] reported on lower dietary fiber content found in chia sprouts, suggesting that the synthesis of dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin are much slower in comparison to other sprouts in particular growth conditions. ...
... The germination process tends to increase dietary fiber content in different plant species such as peas and amaranth, as well as others [49][50][51]. Gómez-Favela et al. [5] reported on lower dietary fiber content found in chia sprouts, suggesting that the synthesis of dietary fibers such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin are much slower in comparison to other sprouts in particular growth conditions. It is known that dark-grown microgreens have a characteristic pale phenotype with excessive shoot elongation compared to microgreens growing in normal light conditions. ...
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... Mung beans have various nutraceutical ingredients and are recommended as an excellent nutritive pulse that can prevent chronic degenerative diseases (Ganesan & Xu, 2018). Besides, mung bean also had a high potential to accumulate GABA (Fukumori et al., 2013;Tiansawang et al., 2016;Nikmaram et al., 2017;. However, the capability in GABA accumulation depends on the cereal species and varieties (Khwanchai et al., 2014;Ding et al., 2016). ...
... The GABA contents in different native and HRH-treated mung bean varieties are presented in Fig. 1. GABA contents in native mung beans were markedly low, with significant differences (P < 0.05) among varieties, ranging from 0.63 to 7.16 mg per 100 g, similar to the 1.7 mg per 100 g DW reported by Fukumori et al. (2013), but lower (13.25 mg per 100 g DW) than that reported by Tiansawang et al. (2016). These variances might be due to differences in methods of determination, and/or mung bean varieties were investigated. ...
... mg per 100 g DW) after HRH treatment, which was equivalent to 48.05 times more concentrated than native mung bean (1.76 mg per 100 g DW). Tiansawang et al. (2016) reported that the highest GABA content was 80.68 mg per 100 g DW after 6 h of soaking and 24 h of incubation in germinated mung bean. showed that the optimum conditions for GABA enrichment in mung bean germination were pH 5.0, culture temperature 30°C and stress time 24 h. ...
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... The zwitterion form of GABA is able to act as an osmolyte without toxic effects in balancing the decrease in water potential during cellular dehydration and functioning as an antioxidant for the stabilization and protection of thylakoids and macromolecules [50]. Furthermore, it has been reported that GABA has many beneficial effects on human health, including hypotensive effects, the enhancement of immune functions under stress, the prevention of cancer and diabetes and control of blood cholesterol levels [51][52][53]. ...
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... Mung bean seeds (approximately 20 g) of similar size and shape were soaked in 100 mL of distilled water, PAW15, PAW30, PAW60, and PAW90 for 6 h at ambient temperature, respectively [13]. Then, the hydrated seeds were placed in seedling trays filled with wet filter paper (20.5 cm × 13.5 cm) and all seedlings were incubated for 5 days, keeping away from illumination at 25°C and 85% relative humidity. ...
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The present work aimed to investigate the effect of plasma-activated water (PAW) on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean sprouts. Distilled water was exposed to non-thermal plasma for 15, 30, 60, and 90 s to prepare PAW, which was defined as PAW15, PAW30, PAW60, and PAW90, respectively. The germination rate, growth characteristics, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were all maximized when mung bean seeds were treated by PAW15, then followed by a decline over the prolonged plasma activation time (30–90 s). PAW15 caused no remarkably changes in the antioxidant capacity of sprouts as compared to DW (p > 0.05). However, the antioxidant activity of sprouts prepared with PAW30, PAW60, and PAW90 were decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with that of sprouts soaked in distilled water. In summary, PAW may be used to improve the production of sprouts, but the process parameters should be optimized for each application.