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... The data was tabulated for each of the countries included, in readiness for calculating the final scores for each of the three nutrient profiling models. Nutrient composition data of edible insects was obtained through a systematic review by screening 483 published articles obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, using criteria given by Kitchenham (2004), Popay et al. (2006), and Green et al. (2010). The articles were scrutinized for quality and inclusion using European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) guidelines (Ifr et al. 2009;Payne et al. 2015). ...
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Abstract Background Meat and meat products have been blamed for a myriad of problems facing human kind like lifestyle illnesses, environmental degradation, and climate change. Edible insects have been suggested as the suitable alternatives to conventional meats in order to ameliorate these drawbacks. Healthfulness is the ability for a given food to impart health benefits to the consumer. Evidence is however scanty on the healthfulness of both the meats and edible insects in order to have grounds for replacing meats with insects in the diet. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the healthfulness of meats and edible insects in Sub-Saharan Africa using modern nutrient profiling models. Materials and methods Nutritional data for meats and edible insects were obtained from Food Composition Tables (FCTs) and a systematic review, respectively. The data was applied to three nutrient profiling models: the WXYfm (Ofcom) model that was designed to regulate advertising of foods to children, the RRR (Ratio of Recommended to Restricted) model that assesses the ratio of positive to negative nutrients in foods, and the GDA (Guideline Daily Amounts) model which has been used to regulate health claims on foods. Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test (The SAS System) was used to check for significance in differences of healthfulness using mean scores. Results The WXYfm model classified all foods as healthful, and Nasutitermes spp. was significantly more healthful than duck (P = 0.05). The RRR classified all foods as healthful, and Nasutitermes spp. was significantly more healthful than all other foods except Macrotermes bellicosus and tilapia (P = 0.05). Duck (for women and men) and pork (for women), were classified as unhealthful by the GDA scoring system, and duck was significantly less healthful than all other foods (P
... A narrative synthesis was applied to the extracted data guided by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Methods Programme framework (see [34]). The synthesis process was iterative and nonsequential, rather than linear, thereby facilitating general inferences to be delineated regarding CFs and their impact on cLBP patients' pain intensity and physical functioning outcomes. ...
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Background and objective Chronic low back pain is pervasive, societally impactful, and current treatments only provide moderate relief. Exploring whether therapeutic elements, either unrecognised or perceived as implicit within clinical encounters, are acknowledged and deliberately targeted may improve treatment efficacy. Contextual factors (specifically, patient’s and practitioner’s beliefs/characteristics; patient-practitioner relationships; the therapeutic setting/environment; and treatment characteristics) could be important, but there is limited evidence regarding their influence. This research aims to review the impact of interventions modifying contextual factors during conservative care on patient’s pain and physical functioning. Databases and data treatment Four electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED) were searched from 2009 until 15th February 2022, using tailored search strategies, and resulted in 3476 unique citations. After initial screening, 170 full-text records were potentially eligible and assessed against the inclusion–exclusion criteria. Thereafter, studies were assessed for methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black scale, data extracted, and synthesised using a narrative approach. Results Twenty-one primary studies ( N = 3075 participants), were included in this review. Eight studies reported significant improvements in pain intensity, and seven in physical functioning, in favour of the contextual factor intervention(s). Notable contextual factors included: addressing maladaptive illness beliefs; verbal suggestions to influence symptom change expectations; visual or physical cues to suggest pain-relieving treatment properties; and positive communication such as empathy to enhance the therapeutic alliance. Conclusion This review identified influential contextual factors which may augment conservative chronic low back pain care. The heterogeneity of interventions suggests modifying more than one contextual factor may be more impactful on patients’ clinical outcomes, although these findings require judicious interpretation.
... Due to the heterogenous nature of methodologies, a narrative synthesis will be produced, and meta-bias shall not be assessed. Popay, Roberts [46] and the University of York's Centre for Reviews and Dissemination [44] suggest four key elements of a narrative synthesis; 1) developing a theory of how the intervention works, 2) developing a preliminary synthesis of results, 3) exploring relationships in the data, 4) assessing robustness of the synthesis. Our review will not be evaluating an intervention, therefore as in Heirene, Roderique-Davies [47] we will not use the first feature. ...
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Background Alcohol use disorders (AUD) associate with structural and functional brain differences, including impairments in neuropsychological functions; however, review level research (largely cross-sectional) is inconsistent with regards to recovery of such functions following abstinence. Such recovery is important, as these impairments associate with treatment outcomes and quality of life. Objective(s) To assess neuropsychological function recovery following abstinence in individuals with a clinical AUD diagnosis. The secondary objective is to assess predictors of neuropsychological recovery in AUD. Methods Four electronic databases (APA PsycInfo, EBSCO MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection) will be searched between 1999–2022, with search strategies adapted for each source. Study reporting will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Manual for Evidence Synthesis, study quality will be assessed using the JBI Checklist for Cohort Studies. Eligible studies are those with a longitudinal design that assessed neuropsychological recovery following abstinence from alcohol in adults with a clinical diagnosis of AUD. Studies will be excluded if participant group is defined by another or co-morbid condition/injury, or by relapse. Results This is an ongoing review. As of July 2022, the review protocol is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022308686), searches have been conducted, and screening is in progress. Results are predicted to be complete by October 2022. Conclusions Comparing data on neuropsychological recovery from AUD will improve understanding of the impact of alcohol on the brain, and the relationship between AUD recovery and quality of life/treatment outcomes. It may provide information that could one day inform aspects of treatment and aftercare (e.g., options for cognitive training of functions that do not improve on their own).
... A narrative synthesis was conducted for (i) triage in the emergency department, (ii) psychological therapy in the emergency department, and (iii) psychological therapy on the inpatient ward or provided as an integrated pathway referral. The narrative synthesis followed guidance for systematic reviews [47] to critique the evidence for effectiveness of interventions-i.e. what interventions (mechanisms) were effective (outcomes) for whom, in what settings and locations (contexts). ...
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Mental illness heightens risk of medical emergencies, emergency hospitalisation, and readmissions. Innovations for integrated medical–psychiatric care within paediatric emergency settings may help adolescents with acute mental disorders to get well quicker and stay well enough to remain out of hospital. We assessed models of integrated acute care for adolescents experiencing medical emergencies related to mental illness (MHR). We conducted a systematic review by searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Embase, and Web of Science for quantitative studies within paediatric emergency medicine, internationally. We included populations aged 8–25 years. Our outcomes were length of hospital stay (LOS), emergency hospital admissions, and rehospitalisation. Limits were imposed on dates: 1990 to June 2021. We present a narrative synthesis. This study is registered on PROSPERO: 254,359. 1667 studies were screened, 22 met eligibility, comprising 39,346 patients. Emergency triage innovations reduced admissions between 4 and 16%, including multidisciplinary staffing and training for psychiatric assessment (F(3,42) = 4.6, P < 0.05, N = 682), and telepsychiatry consultations (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.28–0.58; P < 0.001, N = 597). Psychological therapies delivered in emergency departments reduced admissions 8–40%, including psychoeducation (aOR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71, P < 0.01, N = 212), risk-reduction counselling for suicide prevention (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 0.55–14.10, N = 348), and telephone follow-up (OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.33–0.60, P < 0.001, N = 980). Innovations on acute wards reduced readmissions, including guided meal supervision for eating disorders (P = 0.27), therapeutic skills for anxiety disorders, and a dedicated psychiatric crisis unit (22.2 vs 8.5% (P = 0.008). Integrated pathway innovations reduced readmissions between 8 and 37% including family-based therapy (FBT) for eating disorders (X2(1,326) = 8.40, P = 0.004, N = 326), and risk-targeted telephone follow-up or outpatients for all mental disorders (29.5 vs. 5%, P = 0.03, N = 1316). Studies occurred in the USA, Canada, or Australia. Integrated care pathways to psychiatric consultations, psychological therapies, and multidisciplinary follow-up within emergency paediatric services prevented lengthy and repeat hospitalisation for MHR emergencies. Only six of 22 studies adjusted for illness severity and clinical history between before- and after-intervention cohorts and only one reported socio-demographic intervention effects.
... The overarching themes and sub-categories from this process were used to develop a summary table. A narrative data synthesis was also completed [33] summarising results of the identified studies. ...
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Background: To examine the available evidence on urinary markers of metabolic maturation and their relationship with growth in infants born preterm. Eligibility criteria: Studies including in this scoping review using qualitative or quantitative methods to describe urinary markers of metabolic maturation and the relationship with growth in infants born preterm. Results: After a screening process 15 titles were included in this review, from 1998–2021 drawing from China (n = 1), Italy (n = 3), Germany (n = 3), Greece (n = 1), Japan (n = 2), Norway (n = 1), Portugal (n = 1), Spain (n = 2) and USA (n = 1). The included studies examined urinary metabolites in 1131 infants. A content analysis identified 4 overarching themes relating to; (i) metabolic maturation relative to gestational age, (ii) metabolic signature and changes in urinary metabolites over time, (iii) nutrition and (iv) growth. Conclusion: The results of this scoping review suggest there are considerable gaps in our knowledge relating to factors associated with metabolic instability, what constitutes normal maturation of preterm infants, and how the development of reference phenome age z scores for metabolites of interest could improve nutritional and growth outcomes.
... The search showed a heterogeneous mixture of quantitative and qualitative studies. Popay's narrative synthesis method enables synthesis of the data from a mixed typology of studies into themes [23]. Moreover, it allows using a theoretical framework for the interpretation of review findings and provides flexibility in Atreya et al. ...
... The review findings were synthesised using Popay's narrative synthesis [23]. The first step of the narrative synthesis is to identify a theoretical framework, and social constructivist learning theory was used to interpret the findings of the review [9]. ...
... The fourth step was to assess the robustness of the synthesis. To ensure this, the reviewers critically reflected on the synthesis process and identified possible sources of bias [23]. ...
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Background General practitioners (GPs) play a pivotal role in providing end-of-life care in the community. Although they value end-of-life care, they have apprehensions about providing care in view of the limitations in knowledge and skills in end-of-life care. This review aimed to explore, synthesise, and analyse the views of general practitioners on end-of-life care learning preferences. Methods MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane were searched for literature on the views of general practitioners on end-of-life care learning preferences from 01/01/1990 to 31/05/2021. Methodological quality was reported. Results Of the 10,037 articles identified, 23 were included for the review. Five themes developed from the review. The desire to provide palliative care, as well as self-actualisation needs, relevance to practice, a sense of responsibility, and a therapeutic bond, motivates general practitioners to learn end-of-life care. Some of the learning needs expressed were pain and symptom management, communication skills, and addressing caregiver needs. Experiential learning and pragmatist learning styles were preferred learning styles. They perceived the need for an amicable learning environment in which they could freely express their deficiencies. The review also identified barriers to learning, challenges at personal and professional level, feelings of disempowerment, and conflicts in care. Conclusion GPs’ preference for learning about end-of-life care was influenced by the value attributed to learning, context and content, as well as preference for learning styles and the availability of resources. Thus, future trainings must be in alignment with the GPs’ learning preferences.
... Collating, summarising, and reporting the results were conducted, in accordance with the research question. The researcher made use of narrative synthesis (Lucas et al., 2007), which is an approach to SR, and the synthesis of findings from multiple studies, chiefly using words to summarise, as well as illuminate the findings of the synthesis (Lucas et al., 2017); however, methodological guidance on the conduct of narrative syntheses is limited (Popay et al., 2006). ...
... A narrative synthesis was used to synthesise the findings across all studies included within this review [51]. This approach has been widely used in mixed-method systematic reviews [52,53], and is particularly useful when synthesising findings in which the review objectives dictate the inclusion of a wide variety of research designs [54]. ...
... This approach has been widely used in mixed-method systematic reviews [52,53], and is particularly useful when synthesising findings in which the review objectives dictate the inclusion of a wide variety of research designs [54]. Quantitative and qualitative data were integrated based on guidance by Popay and colleagues [51,55]. A framework analysis was conducted, where outcomes from quantitative studies that were relevant ...
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Background Tests to predict the development of chronic diseases in those with a family history of the disease are becoming increasingly available and can identify those who may benefit most from preventive interventions. It is important to understand the acceptability of these predictive approaches to inform the development of tools to support decision making. Whilst data are lacking for many diseases, data are available for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Therefore, this study investigates the willingness of those with a family history of IHD to take a predictive test, and the effect of the test results on risk-related behaviours. Method Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and grey literature were searched. Primary research, including adult participants with a family history of IHD, and assessing a predictive test were included. Qualitative and quantitative outcomes measuring willingness to take a predictive test and the effect of test results on risk-related behaviours were also included. Data concerning study aims, participants, design, predictive test, intervention and findings were extracted. Study quality was assessed using the Standard Quality Assessment Criteria for Evaluating Research Papers from a Variety of Fields and a narrative synthesis undertaken. Results Five quantitative and two qualitative studies were included. These were conducted in the Netherlands (n = 1), Australia (n = 1), USA (n = 1) and the UK (n = 4). Methodological quality ranged from moderate to good. Three studies found that most relatives were willing to take a predictive test, reporting family history (n = 2) and general practitioner (GP) recommendation (n = 1) as determinants of interest. Studies assessing the effect of test results on behavioural intentions (n = 2) found increased intentions to engage in physical activity and smoking cessation, but not healthy eating in those at increased risk of developing IHD. In studies examining actual behaviour change (n = 2) most participants reported engaging in at least one preventive behaviour, particularly medication adherence. Conclusion The results suggests that predictive approaches are acceptable to those with a family history of IHD and have a positive impact on health behaviours. Further studies are needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of predictive approaches in IHD and other chronic conditions.
... A narrative synthesis was conducted to bring together the findings from the selected literature [21]. The reviewing and the narrative synthesis processes were guided by the pre-defined research themes, including the career development, competency, effectiveness, perceptions, and regulation of PAs and ANPs. ...
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Background Mid-level practitioners (MLPs), including physician associates (PAs) and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs), have emerged to address workforce shortages in the UK and perform specific roles in relation to population needs. This has resulted in new ways of working and changes to established professional hierarchies. We conducted a study to investigate the career development, competencies, effectiveness, perceptions, and regulation of PAs and ANPs, with the aim of understanding ways to effectively integrate MLPs into the NHS workforce. Methods We conducted a systematic scoping review following PRISMA guidelines. Embase, Medline, the Cochrane database, Pubmed, and CINAHL databases were searched, using terms relating to PAs and ANPs in the UK. A total of 128 studies (60 on PAs and 68 on ANPs) were included in the final analysis. A narrative synthesis, guided by the pre-defined themes and emerging themes, was conducted to bring together the findings. Results PAs are educated on a medical model with basic medical skills but lack formal professional regulation and do not have prescribing rights. ANPs are educated on a nurse model with enhanced skills that depend on roles within specific specialities, and their governance is mostly employer-led. PAs are primarily employed in secondary care. ANPs are employed widely in both primary and secondary care. No defined career progression exists for PAs. In contrast, becoming an ANP is a form of career progression within nursing. Both roles were regarded as cost-effective in comparison to doctors performing simple tasks. PAs were less understood compared to ANPs and received a mixed reception from colleagues, which sometimes undermined their professional identity, whereas ANPs were mostly welcomed by colleagues. Conclusions Potential ways to better integrate PAs and ANPs into the NHS workforce include further initiatives by regulatory bodies and the NHS to create more awareness and clearer role definitions for MLPs, outline potential for career progression, offer transparency with regard to remuneration, and introduction of prescribing rights. Future research might include more cadres of MLPs and explore the international literature.
... Data synthesis was performed independently by two of the authors (LvdH and NvdB). We used a narrative synthesis strategy to summarize (potential) societal implications of an (expanded) carrier screening offer [24]. For each article, data were extracted, analyzed, and coded using a data extraction form. ...
Article
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Carrier screening aims to identify couples at risk of conceiving children with a recessive condition. Until recently, carrier screening was primarily offered ancestry-based. Technological advances now facilitate expanded universal carrier screening (EUCS). This scoping review aimed to map EUCS’s potential societal implications based on both theoretical studies and empirical evidence. To this aim, we performed a CoCites search to find relevant articles, including articles describing carrier screening for at-risk populations, based on five selected query articles. Forty articles were included. Three main potential societal implications were identified: (1) unwanted medicalization, (2) stigmatization and discrimination of carriers and people affected with the conditions screened and (3) challenges in achieving equitable access. Within these themes, potential positive implications are reduction of ethnic stigmatization in ancestry-based offers and increased equity. Potential negative implications are reinforcement of disability-based stigmatization, less possibility for developing expertise in healthcare and societal pressure to partake in screening. Empirical evidence on all these implications is however scarce. In conclusion, both positive and negative potential societal implications of implementing EUCS, primarily theoretical, were identified, even in at-risk groups where evidence is mostly lacking. Empirical research in EUCS pilots is needed to identify which societal implications are likely to occur and therefore should be overcome when implementing EUCS.