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3: Fundamental Frequency (50 Hz) Sine Wave and Harmonics: 2nd Harmonic (100 Hz); 3rd Harmonic (150 Hz); 4th Harmonic (200 Hz). Total Harmonic Distortion, or THD, is the summation of all harmonic components of the voltage or current waveform compared against the fundamental component of the voltage or current wave: 

3: Fundamental Frequency (50 Hz) Sine Wave and Harmonics: 2nd Harmonic (100 Hz); 3rd Harmonic (150 Hz); 4th Harmonic (200 Hz). Total Harmonic Distortion, or THD, is the summation of all harmonic components of the voltage or current waveform compared against the fundamental component of the voltage or current wave: 

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Control systems engineering activities focus on the implementation of control systems mainly derived from mathematical modeling of systems. Many control systems are used today in large number of industrial applications. There are a lot of control strategies such as adaptive control, intelligent control, optimal control, robust control, model predic...

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... recent years there has been a rapid increase in the use of digital controller in control systems. Digital controls are used for achieving optimal performance -for example, in the form of maximum productivity, maximum profit, minimum cost, or minimum energy use. At the same time, the "digital revolution" or "computer revolution" is providing the means for practical implementation of these new control-system methodologies. Microprocessors, microcontrollers, and digital signal processors have become extremely powerful with minimum cost of implementation. Modern integrated circuit technology has produced the Digital Signal Processor (DSP), which offers substantial computational power at readily affordable prices. These parallel developments offer an unprecedented opportunity for practical implementation of advanced control techniques. As a result, sophisticated control-system applications using DSPs have increased exponentially in recent years. At the same time that advanced control "techniques" are being developed, engineers now have extremely effective design and synthesis techniques for digital control, plus frequency expressed by the following formula, where n is an integer: f harmonics = n * 50 Hz For example, given a 50 Hz fundamental waveform, the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th harmonic components will be at 100 Hz, 150 Hz, 200 Hz, and 250 Hz respectively as shown in Figure 1.3. Thus, harmonic distortion is the degree to which a waveform deviates from its pure sinusoidal values as a result of the summation of all these harmonic elements. The ideal sine wave has zero harmonic components. In that case, there is nothing to distort this perfect wave. ...