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Fundació n Natura's GIS implementation actor-network.

Fundació n Natura's GIS implementation actor-network.

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Article
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Recommendations for implementation and evaluation of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can benfit from a broader theoretical foundation to support investigation, understanding and improvement. This paper discusses Actor-Network Theory (ANT) as a framework to delineate and evaluate the social and technical interactions involved in GIS implement...

Citations

... ANT has been used in tourism science [51][52][53][54][55], rural geography [56][57][58][59][60], and economic geography [58,[60][61][62]. The theory has been continuously refined through research [59,63]. Given that ANT reveals the interactions between heterogeneous subjects, many scholars have used this feature to analyse the dynamic processes of rural resources and asset utilisation [55,56,[64][65][66]. ...
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Article
The high degree of fragmentation and unsustainable exploitation patterns of forest resources have become prominent obstacles to the realisation of the economic and social value of China’s forest resources. China’s forest eco-bank (FEB) project was set up to achieve centralised utilisation of diffuse forest resources in an underdeveloped area. Analysing FEB projects is of great significance to countries with abundant forest resources aiming to benefit from the economic and ecological functions of such resources and achieve sustainable economic and social development. This study uses the actor-network theory framework to analyse cooperation among various actors in the implementation process of the FEB project in China. Our results indicate the following. First, the government was the principal actor playing a vital role in motivating the other parties and driving the project forward. Second, the diffuse nature of China’s forest resources is a major obstacle to their utilisation. The centralised integration of forest resources is a prerequisite for their effective utilisation. Finally, it is necessary to improve the balance of interests of the various actors to promote a more stable actor network and attract more actors to participate in the FEB project.
... However, studies highlighted an uncertain state in the mapping process in a community such as the way of participation and interaction in the survey (Martin, 2000) and variety of user perception approaches (Gallo & Goodchild, 2012). Furthermore, the integration of the ArcGIS with other renderings, drawing, and modelling tools discussed widely for the conservation projects (Lezzerini, et al., 2016;Tezel, et al., 2019). ...
... However, the level of participation of people was depended on the social, cultural, and political openness of society in the participatory activities. Therefore, inhabitants participated in the research those recommended as participatory and public participation in the survey (Martin, 2000;Brown & Weber, 2013) although the level of participation limited to the addressing, explanation of information, and correction of some data with consideration of finding of Gallo & Goodchild (2012). ...
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Article
The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the mapping outputs of the historic core of Gonabad city based on both physical and nonphysical elements. Despite the fact that the architectural elements have been the main sources of data for the conservation of the historic part of cities, seemingly, the cognitive map based on the perceptions of the inhabitants could enhance the level of the reliability of the outputs. The methods of the research were designed based on the survey and interview to collect both physical and nonphysical data. The physical was included the current historical elements such as mosque, school, and water storage, and the nonphysical was included the destroyed elements such as the wall, gates, towers that have been part of the memories of the inhabitants. ArcGIS was applied for overlaying the data. The findings of the research identified that despite the architectural elements located in a specific location, perception of the people referred to the broader areas in terms of the historic area. In conclusion, both historical areas of the city include a different pattern of development. The physical and nonphysical elements played a significant role to highlight the historic core of the city. However, the cognitive map based on the perception of users is not fitted exactly with the geo-reference data, and it is more flexible in terms of conceptual forms. The result of the study represented the map of the historic cores of the city for conservation activity.
... Actors, actor networks, obligatory passage points (OPPs), delegates, and inscription are commonly used conceptual symbols to help us systematically understand the construction of actor networks (Walsham 1997). Although farmland is the major OPPtranslating actor, resource management in the Golden Corridor involves participants at various levels because it is a type of multiple-use CPR with multiple users and mixed property rights (Steins and Edwards 1999b) To clarify the interactions among multilevel actors, we used the perspective of systematisation by Martin (2000) to separate the actor network into input resources, accountable actors, and recipients. Input resources provide the necessary resources for network operations; accountable actors are the resource agents and translate other accountable users into the inscribed institutional or organizational structures. ...
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Article
This study proposes a framework of multilevel governing networks to analyse issues of multiple-use common-pool resource management in a complex socio-ecological system. By exploring the case study of the Golden Corridor Program in Yunlin, Taiwan, we found that self-governance at the community level is a partial way to govern multiple-use common-pool resources. Farmland here is facing the impact of land subsidence, and the high-speed rail construction has overweighted the surface. Although the Golden Corridor Program attempts to mitigate this effect of land subsidence on rail traffic safety through rewards for water-saving farming activities for farmers, the implementation lacks the intensive vertical integration and horizontal connections required to promote the collaborative platform among stakeholders. Local farmers still care about agricultural revenue. Thus, the loose self-governing capacity cannot generate institutional collective actions to improve the agri-environment here. The premature multilevel governing network has caused the governance failure to regulate this multiple-use common-pool resource.
... La Teoría del Actor-Red (Callon, 1986;Latour, 1986;Law , 1986b;Law, 1986d;Latour, 1987;Law 1987;Law, 1992) ha sido ampliamente utilizada para informar estudios sobre adopción y uso de tecnologías en diferentes contextos. Por ejemplo, informados por la TAR, previos estudios han explorado cómo actores humanos y no humanos se involucran en procesos políticos de negociación para adoptar tecnologías de información, tales como Sistemas Electrónicos de Asistencia (Bartis y Mitev, 2008), Sistemas de Información Geográfica (Walsham y Sahay, 1999;Martin, 2000), Sistemas de Gestión de Información (Wilson y Howcroft, 2002) y Sistemas de Planificación de Recursos (Hanseth y Braa, 1998;Scott y Wagner, 2003;Elbanna, 2010). ...
... Este potencial de la TAR se ha visto reflejado en literatura previa en donde se ha estudiado la adopción y uso de tecnologías de la información tales como intranets (Hall, 2004), sistemas de registro de trabajo electrónico (Bartis y Mitev, 2008); sistemas de información geográfica (Walsham y Sahay, 1999;Martin, 2000); sistemas de gestión de la información (Wilson y Howcroft, 2002;Cho et al., 2008) y sistemas de planificación de recursos empresariales (Hanseth y Braa, 1998;Scott y Wagner, 2003;Elbanna, 2010). Estos estudios han sido de gran utilidad para entender: ...
... anterior podem ser relacionadas ?s de um sistema sociot?cnico, um sistema que considera as influ?ncias m?tuas entre "pessoas" e "tecnologias", as componentes de tal sistema (LATOUR, 1994). No contexto dos projetos de produtos cartogr?ficos alguns trabalhos (MARTIN, 2000;HARVEY, 2001) buscaram entender os aspectos sociot?cnicos no desenvolvimento de uma solu??o em sistemas de informa??es geogr?ficas. Analisar um sistema como sociot?cnico permite o uso da Teoria ...
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Thesis
Os assentamentos precários são espaços de informalidade, precariedade e vulnerabilidade social. Tais características resultam em carência de informação geográfica sobre estes espaços, um fator ainda mais crítico considerando-se a importância destes dados para a tomada de decisões vitais para a população local. Os processos de contra-mapeamento, como o Public Participation Geographic Information System (PPGIS) e Participatory Geographical Information Systems (PGIS) podem ser promotores da produção de mapas nos assentamentos precários. Além disso, atualmente os processos de mapeamento colaborativo, com a capacidade de interatividade da web 2.0, introduziu a informação geográfica voluntária (VGI), bem como as aplicações ligadas a tal conceito, ao universo do contra-mapeamento. Ao analisar as componentes que devem ser descritas para a entendimento, planejamento e execução de um processo de contra-mapeamento é possível fazer uso da Teoria Ator-Redes. Com a aplicação de tal teoria definiu-se componentes como as “pessoas”, por meio dos “mediadores” e dos “cidadãos” da comunidade, bem como os “ambientes”, “dispositivos” e “ferramentas” como atuantes do processo. Outras componentes são as “atividades” e as “informações” como traduções. A partir de um contexto de pesquisa que considerou a atuação de organização social, a TETO, na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, e do uso da plataforma de mapeamento colaborativo OpenStreetMap , realizou-se a análise das componentes citadas. A metodologia aplicada foi a pesquisa-ação, da qual foram executadas as etapas exploratória, principal, de ação e de avaliação. A análise resultou em um conjunto de quadros e diagramas de ator-rede na etapa exploratória. Além disso, foram desenvolvidos cenários combinando os diagramas com viabilidade de execução na etapa principal, bem como proposto o modelo de trabalho com os cenários. Por fim, foram executados e avaliados os cenários e modelo de trabalho nas etapas de ação e de avaliação. Assim, o trabalho resultou em um modelo de trabalho que pode ser executado e ampliado em outras atividades de mapeamento colaborativo de assentamentos precários. Ressalta-se alguns pontos na conclusão do trabalho: o perfil educacional distinto entre os “mediadores” e “cidadãos” da comunidade para o uso dos “dispositivos” e “ferramentas”; o uso massivo de smartphones no espaço dos assentamentos precários; e a necessidade atrelar um objetivo ou projeto como motivador para o mapeamento. Além disso, é necessário a reaplicação das etapas da pesquisa-ação a fim de: entender o uso das “ferramentas” do OpenStreetMap pelos “mediadores” e “cidadãos” da comunidade; e entender as questões semânticas neste “ambiente”. Para trabalhos futuros é fundamental avaliar a usabilidade das ferramentas de mapeamento colaborativo para facilitar a incorporação nos processos.
... This body of literature emphasizes that GIS use is a highly complex process embedded within key social, political, and institutional conditions. Certain researchers have used theoretical frameworks developed within science, technology and society studies to explain the intertwining relationship between GIS and society (Harvey, 2005(Harvey, , 1998(Harvey, , 2000Harvey & Chrisman, 2004, Martin, 2000. As emphasized by Chrisman (2005), This (constructivist) literature argues that science and technology are constructed from a multiplicity of view- points and that this construction is distinctly local, not universal. ...
Article
Government organizations in the developing world have been at the forefront of ongoing reforms that have prompted their use of GIS and other information and communication technologies for urban governance. However, there have been very few examinations of GIS spatial knowledge construction in a non-Western context. Particularly, very little is known about the growing and varying use of GIS and spatial information by urban local bodies in India in the midst of India’s changing urban governance culture. This article presents an in-depth examination of Surat Municipal Corporation (SMC), one of India’s leading urban local bodies as the corporation implements e-governance strategies including the use of GIS and spatial information. Drawing from Critical GIS literature and GIS implementation and diffusion literature, this article uses an integrated approach to examine SMC’s GIS spatial knowledge construction. The article demonstrates that in the case of SMC, GIS knowledge construction is not only shaped by SMC’s proactive role in positioning itself with the national government’s priorities and agendas, but also by the presence of powerful actors who play an instrumental role in introducing change and innovation. This article is part of a larger project that aims to investigate the process of GIS spatial knowledge construction situated in contemporary India.
... Most of the studies on SNA are about social relationships (friendship, knowledge, gossip, information), economic relationships (companies' business relations, consumer behavior, goods and services, brands, finance and banks, stocks, etc.), information and communication technology (ICT) (internet traffic, computer networks, peer-to-peer, the Web), or biological networks (neurons, nervous system, diseases, etc.) (Martin, 2000;Dorogovtsev and Mendes, 2003;Bersini, 2005;Martino and Spoto, 2006;Healey, 2006). However, the first studies on network analysis were very geographical because they discussed transport infrastructures and streams and flows (Garrison, 1960;Taaffe, 1962;Taaffe et al., 1963;Kansky, 1963;Haggett, 1967). ...
Chapter
As the world is becoming increasingly more urbanized and built-up areas (that have an artificial cover as a result of human activities such as: urban fabric, industrial, commercial and transport units, mine, dump and construction sites, sports and leisure facilities) are endangering functional diversity, several environmental and spatial planning problems arise, such as urban sprawl, city food safety, community vulnerability to climate change, coastal erosion, and pollution (air, water, and noise). Lately, urban–rural relationships have attracted a lot of attention from both national and international community governance, hoping to mitigate and combat some of these problems. Although the necessary steps are known, it is unclear how to address the problems. A good understanding of how actors relate to each other in urban–rural relationships is fundamental. This paper introduces a novel GIS graph-based model tool (Geo_graph) for mapping and measuring urban–rural relationships through an actor's network. The GIS graph model tool contributes to a better understanding of the relationships being built over the years under government supervision, and it also shows the relationships’ resilience and how many of these relationships are vulnerable to setbacks. The GIS graph tool provides decision makers with a visual image and numeric indicators of the relative role played by each of the actors. The methodology is grounded in graph theory and it results in a data-driven form of modeling using preprocessed data in a GIS environment.
... The information provided in Table 1 is used to sketch the patterns of the local and global actors' interaction for the achievement of alignment of interests in a two-dimensional graph (see Figure 2). It is important to highlight that Law and Callon (1992) did not explain how to plot the interaction of the local and global actors on the two-dimensional graph (Heeks & Stanforth, 2014;Martin, 2000). Therefore, the authors suggest that their analysis should be triangulated with other researchers' applications. ...
Article
The implementation of IT governance ITG arrangements and its relationship to IT infrastructure has not received much attention in either the ITG or the information systems IS literature. Based on the premise that the foundation on which ITG is implemented lies in the interaction between ITG arrangements of structures, processes and relational mechanisms and IT infrastructure, the authors present a discussion of how actor network theory ANT can be used as an overarching theoretical framework of explanation. The authors propose a model of ITG implementation and discuss how ANT, in particular the local/global network approach, can be applied to understand the relationship that exists between ITG arrangements and IT infrastructure.
... For example, Mitchell (2003) has it that a map, a land survey, a land title are predicaments of an act of calculation. Martin (2000) analyses the GIS tool for land cover mapping as an actor-network per se, connected to a centre of calculation, but without an autonomous agency or identity. If the theoretical breadth makes away with any form of consensus -so that no two authors can agree on what is what and the task of identifying what is a calculative device and what is not is left to individual interpretation -then the concept opens up space for analyses which are hardly verifiable/falsifiable. ...
... The role of GIS provider actors continues to be quite crucial in GIS knowledge production efforts as technical complexity remains a serious challenge to citizens. Consequently, scholars have noted that presence of a dense network of agencies fostering public data provision, providing assistance in obtaining and using GIS and directly providing GIS services can facilitate GIS use for resource poor organizations (Barndt, 2002;Roche & Humeau, 1999;Martin, 2000;Sieber, 2000;Kyem, 2002;Ghose, 2005;Elwood, 2006;Lin & Ghose, 2008) including small local government agencies working with limited resources. Universities and local government institutes are particularly noted GIS provider actors in GIS knowledge production efforts (Ghose & Huxhold, 2001;Kodmany, 2002;Elwood & Ghose, 2004;Elwood, 2006;Sieber, 2007;Ghose, 2008, Knigge &Cope, 2009), but other such actors can also exert a strong influence. ...
... Role of networks with powerful actors in facilitating GIS use has been explored further by certain scholars through different theoretical frameworks (Martin, 2000;Harvey, 2001;Ghose, 2007;Lin & Ghose, 2008;. Ghose (2007) and Lin and Ghose (2008) have used the concept of scaled networks to understand the networks of actors formed at multiple scales and their hidden power relationships in their research on participatory GIS process in Milwaukee inner cities. Lin and Ghose (2010) have also used the concept of scaled networks to understand China's urban governance. ...
... Ghose (2007) and Lin and Ghose (2008) have used the concept of scaled networks to understand the networks of actors formed at multiple scales and their hidden power relationships in their research on participatory GIS process in Milwaukee inner cities. Lin and Ghose (2010) have also used the concept of scaled networks to understand China's urban governance. Martin (2000) and Harvey (2001) have adapted concepts from Actor Network theory to develop a broader conceptualization of institutional, political and technical linkages with GIS production. These studies provide useful framework to delineate the role of key actors and institutions in participatory GIS production. ...
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Article
Participatory GIS projects are increasingly popular in urban governance. This paper explores the complexities of a community involved pilot project that was implemented in the town of Verona, Wisconsin and critically examines their GIS (Geographic Information Systems) practices and the support structures that played an important role in facilitating GIS use. The paper first traces the evolution of the project, and the role of the various actors in shaping it and then shows that relations between key institutions and actors played a cru- cial role in shaping the pilot project. While inherently supportive, these actors occupied a dominant power position, setting a top down tone to the project from its onset. As such, the project simultaneously enhanced and constricted the process of participation and spatial knowledge production of the community residents.