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Fuel energy densities: net systems volumetric and gravimetric energy densities for various on-board energy carriers (adapted from Pearson et al. 2009). 

Fuel energy densities: net systems volumetric and gravimetric energy densities for various on-board energy carriers (adapted from Pearson et al. 2009). 

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Article
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Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). To avoid the obvious consequences on climate change, the concentration of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be stabilized. But, as populations grow and economies devel...

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Context 1
... order to take full advantage of the high 'tank-to-wheel' efficiency of electric vehicles, critical steps will also be needed to decarbonize the upstream energy (electricity) supply. In addition, batteries are fundamentally limited by their very low net gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, as shown in figure 3 by a recent comprehensive 'net systems analysis' of various on-board energy carriers (Pearson et al. 2009). This figure also clearly illustrates that, while the net on-board density of liquid hydrogen comfortably exceeds that of batteries, it is still extremely low when compared with carbonaceous liquid fuels such as diesel, gasoline, ethanol and methanol. ...
Context 2
... great value of liquid carbonaceous fuels (e.g. petrol, diesel and others) lies both in their intrinsic (high) chemical energy content ( figure 3) and in the ease with transport energy as hydrocarbons use hydrocarbons as liquid fuels Figure 4. A generic energy cycle using captured or sequestered CO 2 and sustainable or renewable hydrogen to yield carbon-neutral or renewable carbonaceous fuels (courtesy of M. L. H. Green). ...

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... According to this band gap, SrTiO 3 is a superior photocatalyst only under UV light, which contains nearly 5% of sunlight (Konstas et al. 2018a;Jiang et al. 1923) and must be adapted to enhance its absorptivity in the visible light region. One method involves deposition of noble metals (Au, Ag and Pt) on the surface of semiconductor (Konta et al. 2004;Puangpetch et al. 2011). ...
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... Thus far, many types of both warm and cold plasma reactors used in processes related to environmental protection have been tested. The main electrical discharges that generate warm equilibrium plasma are arc discharges (AD), microwave (MWD), plasma torches (PT) and plasmatrons, whereas non-thermal (cold) and non-equilibrium plasma are produced by barrier dielectric discharges (DBD), atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD), corona (CD) and gliding arc (GAD) [16,22,24,25,[50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60]. ...
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... Jiang et al. investigated CH4 conversion into syngas, light hydrocarbons and fuels in cylindrical DBD plasma, coupled with zeolite [206]. The results reveal that, the higher gas flow rate increases the selectivity of C 2 and decreases the selectivity of C 5 hydrocarbon. ...
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... Therefore, the accumulation of such greenhouse gases in the atmosphere must be regulated to prevent the consequences of climate change. It is nearly impossible to eliminate the source of greenhouse gases because energy from human activities is one of the defining issues of this century due to the rapid growth of the human population and economies (Jiang et al., 2010). Hence, according to West and Marland (2002), carbon capture and storage (CSS) is one of the options that have been gaining attention as a means of reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere. ...
... The ein the VB can then be excited and transferred to the CB, leaving the h + in the VB. (Jiang et al., 2010). The electron-hole pairs should be partially separated after the photoexcitation and transported to active redox species across the photocatalytic interface to initiate the conversion process. ...
... Jiang et al., 2010). ...
... FA, which has various applications such as leather processing, and silage additives (Sheet 2017), can be obtained by homogeneous hydrogenation of CO 2 . This process has been studied extensively by many researchers (Aresta 2010;Aresta et al. 2014;Jiang et al. 2010;Liu et al. 2015;Olah et al. 2011;Sakakura et al. 2007). Both FA and CH 3 OH are the safest hydrogen storage materials, with a hydrogen content of 4.4 wt% and 12.6 wt%, respectively. ...
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The requirement of running a new generation of fuel production is inevitable due to the limitation of oil production from reservoirs. On the other hand, enhancing the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere brings global warming phenomenon and leads to catastrophic disasters such as drought and flooding. Conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol can compensate for the liquid fuel requirement and mitigate CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. In this review, we surveyed the recent works on homogeneous hydrogenation of CO 2 to CH 3 OH and investigated the experimental results in detail. We categorized the CO 2 hydrogenation works based on the environment of the reaction, including neutral, acidic, and basic conditions, and discussed the effects of solvents’ properties on the experimental results. This review provides a perspective on the previous studies in this field, which can assist the researchers in selecting the proper catalyst and solvent for homogenous hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol.
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The most common physical causes are the Milankovitch cycle, ocean, gravity, forest fire, solar activities, volcano, and greenhouse gases(GHG).
... The levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere continues to increase as a result of anthropogenic activities like combustion of fossil fuels, leading to global warming and climate change [1]. CO 2 is an abundant and cheap carbon-one source, which could be a useful feedstock in the production of transportation fuels [2], industrial chemicals [3], and polymers [1]. However, due to the stability and inertness of the CO 2 molecule, catalysts are required for conversion [4,5]. ...
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Mathematical models for electrochemical conversion of CO 2 to CO in a solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) are formulated. Model simulation has been carried out on a button cell having Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) composite as cathode, YSZ as electrolyte, and lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) as anode material. The simulation results were used to estimate the overpotentials associated with the electrochemical reduction reactions of CO 2 to CO and hence predict the overall performance of a SOEC under varying operating conditions. Overpotential includes the contribution from activation, concentration, and ohmic losses corresponding to cathode, anode, and electrolyte components of the SOEC. Fick's model, the Butler-Volmer equation, and Ohm's law are used to estimate the values of concentration , activation, and ohmic overpotential losses, respectively. Of the three, ohmic overpotential dominates over other losses throughout the operating voltages. The calculated value of ohmic overpotential loss is 0.19 V at an operating voltage of 1.2 V and current density of 0.8 A/cm 2. The model is simulated for varying fuel gas compositions (CO 2 /CO = 99/01, 70/30, 50/50, and 30/70) at a temperature of 1,073 K, and corresponding current-voltage characteristics of the SOEC are predicted. As the CO 2 content in fuel gas increases from 30% to 99%, the estimated current density is raised from −0.28 to −0.76 A/cm 2 at an applied potential of 1.1 V, indicating the presence of CO 2 in fuel and leading to improved performance of the SOEC. Similarly, at higher temperatures, part of the thermal energy contributes to activation of CO 2 molecules; hence, the calculated current density at a particular applied voltage (1 V) is enhanced from −0.2 to −0.6 A/cm 2 with a rise in temperature from 1,073 to 1,123 K of the SOEC system.
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... The MOXIE reactor is currently (March 2021) operating and is capable to produce approximately 10 grams of oxygen per hour [7]. The MOXIE reactor is based on the principle of the so called solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) but there are several other ways of conversion of carbon dioxide onto value-added chemicals such as thermal dissociation, photo-electrolysis, bio-fixation or plasma-assisted conversion whose detailed analysis can be found in [1,3,8]. The basic principles of the aforementioned mechanisms are described in the next subsection. ...
... As it was mentioned above, there are several techniques of conversion of carbon dioxide and the first one which will be discussed in the current Thesis is the thermal dissociation also known as thermolysis. It could be noticed that such a mechanism is not very easy to make efficient enough if one take a look at the standard enthalpy of the net reaction of CO 2 conversion [8]: ...
... High temperatures are therefore required to shift the thermodynamic equilibrium of the reaction on the right-hand side. [8,9] report the necessary values of temperature to be at least 2000 K. This fact can be clearly seen in the Figure 1.2 where the dependence of mole fractions of reactants and products of the reaction on temperature is given. ...
Thesis
The Thesis is devoted to study of dissociation of carbon dioxide at moderate pressures in nanosecond capillary pulsed discharges at high levels of reduced electric field and specific deposited energy. The main purpose of the research was to focus on such a discharge regime that facilitates dominationof excitation of electronic degrees of freedom of active species over vibrational ones. The experimental studies have been done in two different types of capillaries – the so called ’thin’ and FTIR’ capillaries. It has been shown that the discharge develops as a stable fast ionization wave (FIW) in CO2 in both types of capillaries. Any portion of gas was being treated by train of three high voltage pulses separated by 250 ns in each experiment. The main discharge characteristics such as electric current, reduced electric field and specific deposited energy have been measured in all three pulses. The electron density as a function of time has been measured in the thin capillary. The peak electron density was found to be 2×1015cm−3 in the first high voltage pulse. This value corresponds to the ionization degree of 0.5% at the pressure of 15.5 mbar. Since it was technically possible to obtain time-resolved profile of the reduced electric field E/n in the thin capillary, the exact measurements of E/n as a function of time have been done in it. The values of the reduced electric field in the thin capillary were about 1000 Td in the FIW and 300 Td behind the front of the FIW. The specific deposited energy was found to be (≈1.5eV/particle). As for the FTIR capillary, it was only possible to estimate E/n and specific deposited energy. It can be still concluded that both values are two times higher than in thethin capillary. Measurements of steady-state values of the dissociation fraction α and the energy efficiency of the dissociation η have been done in the FTIR capillary in effluent gas. FTIR has been used for their measurements.The values of α and η were around 20% at low frequency pulse regime. When the frequency of pulses increased, the α value tended to a saturation threshold of 92%, η of the process was around 8 %.Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in both thin and FTIR capillaries hasn’t revealed any qualitative difference between the acquired spectra. The emission spectra demonstrate an abundant presence of electronically excited states of CO2+ ion and C atom lying between 18 and 25 eV with respect to the ground state of CO2. It has been shown that the excitation of electronic degrees of freedom does dominate over vibrational ones and supplies high values of dissociation fraction of CO2 during the discharge. Presence of dissociation of CO onto C and O has been noticed as well. Measurements of radial profile of the electron density by ICCD imaging in the middle of the discharge have been done. The profile has been shown to have a maximum in the axis of the capillary and to monotonously decrease with respect to direction of walls. Moreover, the behaviour of the profile didn’t change within the high voltage pulses and between them. Gas temperature has been measured by OES of second positive system of nitrogen which has been added to CO2 as a small admixture. The relevance of rotational temperature of nitrogen and gas temperature has been justified. The measurements of temperature have been done both in the FTIR and thin capillary in all high voltage pulses. The gas temperature was equal to 2000 K after the third pulse. The thin capillary has been heated up to 1100 K. The phenomenon of fast heating of CO2 in a nanosecond discharge has been therefore confirmed. Zero-dimensional numerical modeling of the discharge has been also done. It has shown a good agreement between experimental and calculated results. It has been shown that the temporal dynamics of CO2+, O2+ and C2O4+ ions as well as electronic states CO(a3Π), O(1D,1S) define the most important kinetic processes and heating of the gas during and between the pulses.