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Front cover of the book Els sistemes naturals de les illes Medes ( " The natural systems of Medes Islands " ).  

Front cover of the book Els sistemes naturals de les illes Medes ( " The natural systems of Medes Islands " ).  

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Article
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It has been over thirty years since the publication of the first major study about the natural environment of Medes Islands. The data collected in that first study entitled Els sistemes naturals de les illes Medes (The natural systems of Medes Islands) and the conclusions drawn from its analysis revealed the biological characteristics of this archi...

Citations

... The emerging ecology should probably be understood as "the ecology of change" [48]. It is from this awareness that the need arises for a diachronic (i.e., repeated over time) inventory of species and habitats within the MPAs [55,56]. ...
Article
Biodiversity is a portmanteau word to indicate the variety of life at all levels from genes to ecosystems, but it is often simplistically equated to species richness; the word ecodiversity has thus been coined to address habitat variety. Biodiversity represents the core of the natural capital, and as such needs to be quantified and followed over time. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are a major tool for biodiversity conservation at sea. Monitoring of both species and habitat diversity in MPAs is therefore mandatory and must include both inventory and periodic surveillance activities. In the case of inventories, the ideal would be to census all species and all habitats, but while the latter goal can be within reach, the former seems unattainable. Species inventory should be com-measured to investigation effort, while habitat inventory should be based on mapping. Both inventories may profit from suitability spatial modelling. Periodic surveillance actions should privilege conspicuous species and priority habitats. Efficient descriptor taxa and ecological indices are recommended to evaluate environmental status. While it seems obvious that surveillance activities should be carried out with regular recurrence, diachronic inventories and mapping are rarely carried out. Time series are of prime importance to detect marine ecosystem change even in the absence of direct human impacts.
... The emerging ecology should probably be understood as "the ecology of change" [48]. It is from this awareness that the need arises for a diachronic (i.e., repeated over time) inventory of species and habitats within the MPAs [55,56]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity is a portmanteau word to indicate the variety of life at all levels from genes to ecosystems, but it is often simplistically equated to species richness; the word ecodiversity has thus been coined to address habitat variety. Biodiversity represents the core of the natural capital, and as such needs to be quantified and followed over time. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are a major tool for biodiversity conservation at sea. Monitoring of both species and habitat diversity in MPAs is therefore mandatory and must include both inventory and periodic surveillance activities. In the case of inventories, the ideal would be to census all species and all habitats, but while the latter goal can be within reach, the former seems unattainable. Species inventory should be commeasured to investigation effort, while habitat inventory should be based on mapping. Both inventories may profit from suitability spatial modelling. Periodic surveillance actions should privilege conspicuous species and priority habitats. Efficient descriptor taxa and ecological indices are recommended to evaluate environmental status. While it seems obvious that surveillance activities should be carried out with regular recurrence, diachronic inventories and mapping are rarely carried out. Time series are of prime importance to detect marine ecosystem change even in the absence of direct human impacts.
... BBMO and EOS are 2 sites relatively unaffected by human impacts or river discharges (Guadayol et al., 2009a;Ros and Gili, 2015), where oceanographic variables present the typical seasonal cycle of temperate coastal systems. SST changed from an average +SD of 13.4 C + 0.4 C (BBMO) and 13.2 C + 0.5 C (EOS) in winter to 22.9 C + 2.2 C Zamanillo et al: Seasonality of TEP and CSP in the Mediterranean Sea Art. ...
Article
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Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and Coomassie stainable particles (CSP) are gel-like particles, ubiquitous in the ocean, that affect important biogeochemical processes including organic carbon cycling by planktonic food webs. Despite much research on both groups of particles (especially TEP) over many years, whether they exist as distinctly stainable fractions of the same particles or as independent particles, each with different driving factors, remains unclear. To address this question, we examined the temporal dynamics of TEP and CSP over 2 complete seasonal cycles at 2 coastal sites in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (BBMO) and the L’Estartit Oceanographic Station (EOS), as well as their spatial distribution along a coast-to-offshore transect. Biological, chemical, and physical variables were measured in parallel. Surface concentrations (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of TEP were 36.7 ± 21.5 µg Xanthan Gum (XG) eq L–1 at BBMO and 36.6 ± 28.3 µg XG eq L–1 at EOS; for CSP, they were 11.9 ± 6.1 µg BSA eq L–1 at BBMO and 13.0 ± 5.9 µg BSA eq L–1 at EOS. Seasonal variability was more evident at EOS, where surface TEP and CSP concentrations peaked in summer and spring, respectively, and less predictable at the shore-most station, BBMO. Vertical distributions between surface and 80 m, monitored at EOS, showed highest TEP concentrations within the surface mixed layer during the stratification period, whereas CSP concentrations were highest before the onset of summer stratification. Phytoplankton were the main drivers of TEP and CSP distributions, although nutrient limitation and saturating irradiance also appeared to play important roles. The dynamics and distribution of TEP and CSP were uncoupled both in the coastal sites and along the transect, suggesting that they are different types of particles produced and consumed differently in response to environmental variability.
... The introduction of a protective regime and a numerus clausus on daily access are believed to have halted the degradation of the subaquatic environment that was evident thirty years ago. Nevertheless, biological and visitor behaviour monitoring programmes implemented by the Natural Park management team and a University of Barcelona marine biology research group found that many communities and slow-growth species still present a suboptimal condition (Linares et al. 2010;Ros and Gili 2015). In spite of the difficulties of identifying and measuring the factors contributing to this situation, most evidence attributes a large part of the responsibility to intense human pressure, in combination with changes in the biophysical conditions of the environment derived from global warming (i.e., increased water temperatures, acidification, etc.), storm events, and the arrival of invasive species (Linares et al. 2010;Teixidó et al. 2013;Kersting et al. 2015;Ros and Gili 2015). ...
... Nevertheless, biological and visitor behaviour monitoring programmes implemented by the Natural Park management team and a University of Barcelona marine biology research group found that many communities and slow-growth species still present a suboptimal condition (Linares et al. 2010;Ros and Gili 2015). In spite of the difficulties of identifying and measuring the factors contributing to this situation, most evidence attributes a large part of the responsibility to intense human pressure, in combination with changes in the biophysical conditions of the environment derived from global warming (i.e., increased water temperatures, acidification, etc.), storm events, and the arrival of invasive species (Linares et al. 2010;Teixidó et al. 2013;Kersting et al. 2015;Ros and Gili 2015). ...
... In line with the dominant conservation paradigm of the times, a fortress-like natural reserve model was progressively established in the Medes Islands between 1983 and 1992 (Vaccaro et al. 2013;Ros and Gili 2015). This move entailed delimiting more or less discretionary yet clearly defined administrative boundaries around the MPA in what would otherwise be a homogeneous and massive marine environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Natural protected areas are often required to concurrently support conservation and tourism development. Estimating the ecosystem’s carrying capacity and setting up visitor access limitations is a common approachin maximising resource use to avoid environmental degradation. Our research used a case study strategy anda political ecology approach to analyse the conflict surrounding a carrying capacity-based management plan implemented in a Mediterranean marine protected area under severe pressure from scuba diving. A mixed documental and discourse analysis method based on fieldwork, grey literature and 16 semi-structured interviewswith representatives of seven groups of stakeholders was used. Results indicate that although the carrying capacity approach was instrumentally supported by all groups, conventional scientific ecological knowledge played only a specious role in decision-making. Factors related to path dependency, neoliberal governance frameworks, uneven distribution of power among stakeholders and regulatory weaknesses were found to be the most influential in facilitating increased visitor pressure in the reserve. We conclude that, in order to be effective and mitigate social conflict, natural resource management strategies based on the carrying capacity concept must be complemented with a precursory assessment of the biopolitical context to align the goals of planning with the possibilities of the socially constructed environment.
Article
Mobility stratification, identifiable from k-means clustering on an appropriate displacement data set, is a common feature of many fish species wherein distinct low-mobility ‘station-keeper’ and high-mobility ‘ranger’ types are recognized. From recapture records of speckled snapper Lutjanus rivulatus, we develop a Gaussian mixture model of the probability density function for random displacements by the two types. This leads to a system of two coupled reaction-diffusion equations. We consider a single no-take area (NTA) in one and two dimensions containing a mobility-structured species. The minimum size of this NTA that leads to species survival is derived and then generalised to a population with n mobility types. Exact non-uniform 1-D steady states are constructed for the full nonlinear mobility-structured model with lethal (zero density boundary condition) harvesting outside of the NTA. This model is then extended to include an array of evenly spaced NTAs with a bounded harvesting rate allowed between them. The minimum size of linear, circular and annular NTAs and the maximum sizes of the surrounding fractionally harvested zones that ensure species survival and connectivity are calculated.