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From data to decision making; modified from Segnestam (2002) and Waas et al. (2014)

From data to decision making; modified from Segnestam (2002) and Waas et al. (2014)

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The Water-Energy-Food (WEF) nexus has, in the past decade, gained prominence as an approach for assessing integrated resource management. One challenge related to the WEF nexus approach is how to represent and monitor it since a system that includes water-, energy- and food-related parameters is complex. Not only are these resources quantified util...

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Context 1
... must be developed sensibly and transparently, and used responsibly, since they can be misused ( Saisana et al. 2018). Figure 1 shows that indicators and indices are developed from data to yield information that can ultimately be used for decision-and policy-making. As knowledge is developed, it can, in turn, influence the data collection and indicators for refining the process. ...
Context 2
... WEF Nexus Index value is, therefore, an indication of a country's level of equitable access to, and availability of, these three critical resources. These assessments should be combined with other quantitative and qualitative research to broaden the analysis beyond the 'reach' of the constituent indicators (which is a limitation of a composite indicator), as presented in Figure 1. ...
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... or developing), or by assessing a nation relative to a specific country included in the study (high or low ranking). By providing a quantitative measure of the WEF nexus, the index provides a summary and entry point to the complex dataset that underlies it (refer to Figure 1). A more detailed analysis of the constituent indicators will provide the researcher, policy-maker or decision-maker with insights and prompts in terms of where interventions and investments are necessary. ...

Citations

... One of these challenges is to perform a fair evaluation of the WEF nexus, which involves the inherent interrelation of its resources as well as social, environmental, and economic impact metrics. Several research studies have focused on assessing the viability and sustainability of the WEF nexus (Simpson et al. 2020). Other researchers, at the investment level, have focused on institutional policies and governance (Pahl-Wostl et al. 2021). ...
Article
The evaluation of the water-energy-food nexus is one of the most relevant issues today. Decisions and action plans are essential for the sustainable management of resources. This paper proposes the use of a macro-index to facilitate the evaluation of the synergies within the water-energy-food nexus, exploring the interactions between resources, sustainable development, and human development. The macro-index considers resource accessibility, availability, and various social, economic, and environmental aspects and serves as a comprehensive indicator influenced by major economic, social, and environmental trends or developments. The macro-index measurements encompass sustainable development objectives and resource allocation, providing valuable guidance to decision-makers.
... Consequently, a series of indices have emerged, individually, for water the Water Exploitation Index (Lallana and Marcuello, 2004), water security indices (Dang et al., 2022); in energy, Energy Supply or Demand Index (Kruyt et al., 2009) and for food, Global Food Security Index (Rosegrant and Cline, 2003;Santeramo, 2015;Fernández-Ríos et al., 2021), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (Islam et al., 2021). Collectively "Nexus Assessment 1.0" (Flammini et al., 2014), Pardee RAND "FEW Index" (Abbott et al., 2017;Willis et al., 2016), "WEF-SDGs Assessment" (Giupponi and Gain, 2017), WET Sustainability Index , the Water and Energy Index and the WEF nexus indicator (Simpson et al., 2020) which addresses the 'access' and 'availability' pillars. Indicators of reuse and efficiency of water and food (Yuxi et al., 2023). ...
Article
The effects of climate change, such as droughts and decreased rainfall, as well as population growth and globalization are aggravating the availability of water, energy and food. As a result, meeting the population's demand will be a major challenge in the near future. For this reason, assessing the situation of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus is of great importance to know the vulnerabilities of the system and take actions to correct or improve them. The contribution of this work is the formulation of a composite index called the WEF-Waste index that includes 13 indicators, 4 of which are indicators to measure aspects of the water sector that include availability, independence, treatment and recycling; 3 energy indicators that include availability, independence and renewable energy; 4 food indicators that measure availability, food independence, ecological area planted and food waste; and 2 urban solid waste indicators that measure the level of separation and reuse. The WEF-Waste index was evaluated in Spain at the national level and in the 17 autonomous communities over a period of 10 years in order to focus on the spatial and temporal distribution pattern of the WEF nexus. Results show that the indicator with the lowest scores over the years was water availability, which indicates a very important water deficiency. On the other hand, high values in the water treatment indicator were obtained, showing that a high percentage of the water supplied to the network and used is processed in wastewater treatment plants. The WEF-Waste index has an improving trend from 2010 to 2014. However, by 2016 it suffered a decay and from that year to 2020, it again presented a positive trend in the scores of the communities.
... The WEF Nexus Tool 2.0 is a multi-stakeholder water, energy, and food resource allocation strategy assessment tool that identifies potential current and future nexus interlinkage bottlenecks to overcome resource stress challenges (Daher and Mohtar 2015;Lee et al. 2020). There are multiple other nexus tools such as WEF Nexus Index (Simpson et al. 2020); PRIMA (Kraucunas et al. 2015); WEF Nexus Assessment 1.0 (Flammini et al. 2014);Foreseer (Allwood et al. 2016;Price et al. 2018); Q-Nexus model (Karnib 2017;Karnib and Alameh 2020); EWF Nexus Tool (Al-Ansari et al. 2015); Pardee RAND WEF Security Index (Willis et al. 2016); and many others (Taguta et al. 2022;Sušnik and Staddon 2021;Stylianopoulou et al. 2020;Albrecht et al. 2018). ...
Article
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To enhance water, energy, and food security and promote ecosystems conservation, it is necessary to design policies or solutions capable of addressing cross-sectoral challenges. In this paper, GoNEXUS SEF, an evaluation framework for co-designing and evaluating nexus solutions, is presented. This framework provides guidelines for conducting a nexus-coherence assessment to improve the governance of the water-energy-food-ecosystems nexus. The assessment involves a participatory process that integrates qualitative and quantitative methodologies through systemic approaches. The crucial aspects necessary in the development of methodologies that address the nexus have been identified and considered. The framework was applied to a practical case study, an increase in the irrigation water price in Andalusia—Spain for the horizon of 2030. Case study results revealed that the measure can generate synergies since it favours water savings, irrigation water efficiency and ecosystems conservation. However, trade-offs are observed, mainly undermining the economic development of agriculture in the region. GoNEXUS SEF has proven capable of evaluating nexus solutions by measuring cross-sectoral synergies and trade-offs. It highlights hidden properties and identifies leverage points and key aspects of a complex cross-sectoral system to apply nexus solutions more effectively to promote sustainable development. In addition, the framework can be adapted to fit different case studies, considering their own challenges and their spatial and temporal scales, which gives it a competitive advantage over other methodologies focused on analysing the nexus. Graphical abstarct
... The organization has positive and proactive behavior beyond the basic requirement hotspots (Eurostat, 2020a(Eurostat, , 2020b(Eurostat, , 2020c(Eurostat, , 2018International Labour Organization, 2022a, 2022b, 2022cOECD, 2022;Simpson et al., 2020) to screen impact subcategories for the site specific analysis. Figs. 3 and 4 refer to indicators of the Workers category. ...
... According to SDG target 6.5, by 2030 IWRM should have been implemented at all levels (United Nations, n.d.). Fig. 7 shows that Italy ranks lower than the European Union average according to the degree of IWRM implementation (Fig. S3) (Simpson et al., 2020). Italy scores high according to the UN in indicators "Enabling environment", "Institutions and participation", and "Management instruments", but much lower in "Financing". ...
... (For interpretation of the references to color in this figure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.) Water consumption and treatment based on: a) percentage of citizens using at least basic sanitation services, b) wastewater treatment, and c) annual freshwater withdrawals(Simpson et al., 2020). ...
... To identify the indicators influencing the WEF security nexus, the indicators in this study were selected based on the criteria defined in previous studies. Simpson et al. (2020) developed a composite indicator that can effectively measure the WEF nexus using a method developed by the European Commission. Flammini et al. (2014) proposed comprehensive indices for determining the interactions among WEF sectors. ...
Article
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With the exponential increase in the demand for water, energy, and food (WEF), WEF security is being threatened. To address this issue, the nexus approach, which explores interactions among different WEF sectors as an integrated system, can distinguish between different influencing indicators of WEF security. However, studies on the interactions between WEF sectors in South Korea are few, consequently challenging WEF security, and in the field of social science, WEF security nexus research using a quantitative approach is lacking. This study discusses the interactions composed of synergies and trade-offs between WEF sectors in South Korea through Spearman's rank correlation and network analyses using secondary data at the national level. The results show that the interaction between energy or energy-related sectors was highest; specifically, increasing the proportion of renewable energy utilization improved WEF security. In the water and food sectors, water infrastructure management and value-added management of agriculture showed the most interactions, respectively. The findings demonstrate that WEF security is an interconnected rather than an independent system, and WEF security improves efficiently when preferentially upgrading indicators with many interactions. The study provides important guidelines to prioritize policies to implement sustainable resource management systems.
... To assess the four sectors (food, energy, water, carbon) together, we designed a composite sustainability index based on the FEWC nexus with four dimensions and nine indicators build upon indices developed in recent studies (Fernández-Ríos et al., 2021;Nhamo et al., 2020;Simpson et al., 2020). Indicators were identified based on the following criteria: ...
Article
While aquaculture is critical to global food and nutrition security, the fast development of aquaculture production systems has recently increased concerns about resource overexploitation and associated environmental impacts. Understanding how sustainable is current global aquaculture practice is important given its potential impacts on key sustainable development goals (SDGs). Here, for the first time, we developed a food-energy-water-carbon (FEWC) composite sustainability index (0–100) to assess the sustainability of global aquaculture across countries. Results indicate that the overall sustainability of global aquaculture is low (average score = 26) with none achieving a high sustainability score (75–100) and almost all practicing aquaculture in a relatively low sustainable way (0–50). Considering the sub-sustainability at a sector level, 80% of countries had at least two sectors among FEWC falling into the low sustainable zone (score less than 25). Regarding the environmental impacts, global aquaculture production accounted for approximately 1765.2 × 10³ TJ energy use, 122.6 km³ water consumption, and 261.3 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions in 2018. China led all countries by contributing to more than half of global aquaculture water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, followed by India and Indonesia. This study highlights the significance of cross-sectoral management and policymaking to achieve global aquaculture sustainability.
... The Water-Energy-Food (WEF) Nexus Index is a web-based WEF nexus global visualization map comprising an index that is a composite indicator derived from integrating WEF resource sectors' indicators. Within each resource are equally weighted "access" and "availability" sub-pillars, as well as relevant indicators from a total of 21 (Simpson et al., 2020). ...
... "Hard-linked" GIS-enabled WEF nexus tools depict that common techniques for this integration arrangement include the use of WebGIS, base maps, geodatabases, and geoportals. The "hard-linked" integration allows for flexible web hosting of the tool, locating case study areas, real-time interaction, mapping, and visualizing spatial distributions of WEF nexus (Lin et al., 2019;Simpson et al., 2020;Arenas et al., 2021). Other benefits include storing, integrating, and sharing project GIS datasets (Melenhorst et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sector-based resource management approaches partly contribute to the insecurities in water, energy and food sectors and resources. These approaches fail to acknowledge and capture the interlinkages between these connected resources, a key strength in the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus approach. However, the multi-centric, multidimensional, and spatiotemporally dynamic WEF nexus is complex and uncertain, thus requiring dedicated tools that can unpack it. Various sources have blamed the slow uptake and practical implementation of the WEF nexus on the unavailability of appropriate tools and models. To confirm those claims with evidence, literature on WEF nexus tools was searched from Scopus and Web of Science and systematically reviewed using the PRISMA protocol. It was found that the WEF nexus tools are being developed increasingly, with a current cumulative number of at least 46 tools and models. However, their majority (61%) is unreachable to the intended users. Some available tools are in code format, which can undermine their applicability by users without programming skills. A good majority (70%) lack key capabilities such as geospatial features and transferability in spatial scale and geographic scope. Only 30% of the tools are applicable at local scales. In contrast, some tools are restricted in geographic scope and scale of application, for example, ANEMI 3 and WEF models for large and household scales, respectively. Most (61%) of the tools lack wide application in actual case studies; this was partly attributed to the tools not being readily available. Thus, efforts should be made to disseminate and ensure end-users' uptake and application of developed tools. Alternatively, the user-friendly tools should be developed on-demand as requested and inspired by potential clients. Developers should consider utility, transferability and scalability across uses and users when improving existing tools and developing new tools so that they are adaptable, only requiring new, specific location-adapted inputs and data. Where and when it is necessary to capture spatial dynamics of the WEF nexus, tools should be geographic information system (GIS)-enabled for automatic WEF nexus location selection, geospatial mapping, and visualization. Such GIS-enabled WEF nexus tools can provide a bird's eye view of hotspots and champions of WEF nexus practices.
Article
Full-text available
A spatially distributed water‐energy‐food (WEF) nexus model has been developed using the Pardee‐RAND WEF approach to analyse the WEF security of an area. The Pardee‐RAND equations have been modified to include the earlier neglected WEF indicators to tackle the WEF challenges holistically. The model is coded in Python and has an operating system‐independent graphical user interface (GUI). The model helps understand the WEF nexus by calculating water energy, food subindices and the WEF nexus index. We tested the model in the Kangsabati River Basin (distributed at the block level) and across India (states/union territory level). The result shows that the WEF nexus indices vary significantly over the country's small (block) to large (state) administrative units. The water energy and food subindices and WEF nexus index for the Kangsabati River Basin are 0.89, 0.73, 0.79 and 0.80, respectively, while for India, the corresponding values are 0.67, 0.53, 0.73 and 0.63, respectively. The blocks or states/union territories needing specific policy interventions are identified. The study will help influence policy and resource planning at different administrative levels to ensure better management of WEF resources holistically and equitably.