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Fresh colouration: A, Calcinus fuscus n. sp., paratype female SL 2.0 mm, Kume Island, stn Trawl 6 (NTOUA01023); B, C. fuscus n. sp., male SL 4.1 mm, Panglao Island, stn B42 (ZRC); C, C. anani Poupin & McLaughlin, 1998, holotype male SL 5.9 mm, Tuamotus, stn D51 (MNHN-IU-2008-15483); and D, C. anani, paratype male SL 3.5 mm, Marquesas, stn DW1170 (MNHN-IU-2008-15485). Photographs by T.Y. Chan (A, B) and J. Poupin (C, D).  

Fresh colouration: A, Calcinus fuscus n. sp., paratype female SL 2.0 mm, Kume Island, stn Trawl 6 (NTOUA01023); B, C. fuscus n. sp., male SL 4.1 mm, Panglao Island, stn B42 (ZRC); C, C. anani Poupin & McLaughlin, 1998, holotype male SL 5.9 mm, Tuamotus, stn D51 (MNHN-IU-2008-15483); and D, C. anani, paratype male SL 3.5 mm, Marquesas, stn DW1170 (MNHN-IU-2008-15485). Photographs by T.Y. Chan (A, B) and J. Poupin (C, D).  

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A new species of Calcinus is described from western Pacific material, including specimens previously identified as Calcinus anani Poupin & McLaughlin, 1998. The new species C. fuscus n. sp. differs from C. anani in the colouration in life, and their specific distinction is genetically supported by the barcoding gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). The...

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... 1e). However the present series of specimens showed that the left posterior lobe of the telson is 1.1-1.6 times longer than the right lobe in both the western Pacific and French Polynesian materials. The only noticeable character differing between the western Pacific and French Polynesian is the colouration of the chelipeds. In C. fuscus n. sp. (Fig. 2), the meri and carpi of the chelae are dark brown and scattered with some white spots, the palms are purplish gray or gray and fading distally to white fingers. There is a sharp break in colouration at the distal margins of the carpi, and this border is also marked by a ring of distinct whitish tubercles. In contrast, in C. anani the ...

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... In this study, the minimum interspecific variation is only 3.6 times the maximum intraspecific variation. However, COI is used as a common molecular marker in diogenid species (Hirose et al., 2010;Malay et al., 2012;Negri et al., 2014) and lots of data is available in public databases, such as GenBank. From this perspective, COI is the best DNA barcoding marker for diogenid species. ...
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In this study, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I(COI) sequences of 17 individuals from six Korean diogenid species(i.e., 2 Areopaguristes japonicus, 4 A. nigroapiculus, 3 Paguristes digitalis, 4 P. ortmanni, 3 Diogenes edwardsii, and 1 Ciliopagurus kempfi) were determined and analyzed. The DNA barcoding results of this study were consistent with the morphological identification of these six species. Interspecific variations of COI sequences within six Korean diogenid species exceeded the minimum interspecific variation of diogenid hermit crabs in previous studies. Little intraspecific variation exists except for P. digitalis. This study should facilitate further molecular taxonomy of East Asian diogenids.
... 87): "After more than twenty years in alcohol, a few specimens show a dark blue-violet on the metabranchial regions of the carapace, ringed by a darker line of the same color; this shade of blue is also present on the eyestalks, movable segments of the antennae, walking legs, telson of the abdomen, and palps of the maxillipeds". Color and color pattern have been taxonomically reliable characters for distinguishing cryptic species of porcellanids (Hiller et al. 2006;Hiller and Werding 2007) and other anomurans like hermit crabs (Malay et al. 2012;Negri et al. 2014) and squat lobsters (Macpherson and Machordom 2001;Cabezas et al. 2011). However, in some species complexes in Anomura color may not vary interspecifically (Werding and Hiller 2017) or it can vary intraspecifically (Rodríguez-Flores et al. 2018). ...
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Petrolisthes virgiliussp. nov. from the Caribbean Sea of Colombia is described. The new species resembles P. tonsorius morphologically but differs from it principally by its color and habitat. Petrolisthes tonsorius is brown or blueish brown and occurs under intertidal boulders strongly exposed to water movement. Petrolisthes virgiliussp. nov. is pale brown to beige and lives exclusively in intertidal areas dominated by vermetid snails, exposed to heavy wave action. The entangled tubular shells of vermetids are cemented to each other and to a hard substrate like beach rock, forming a microhabitat for the new crab species and other porcellanids of the genera Neopisosoma and Clastotoechus . Large genetic distances between DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene from P. virgiliussp. nov. and P. tonsorius confirmed that they comprise different species. Petrolisthes virgiliussp. nov. is the 53 rd member of the West Atlantic porcellanid fauna.
... Four genetic markers were used, including three mitochondrial genes Cytochrome c oxidase subunit Ⅰ (COI), 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA), 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA), and a nuclear gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) commonly used in species discrimination (Chu et al., 2001;Ahyong et al., 2007;Anker et al., 2009;Chan et al., 2009;Pileggi & Mantelatto, 2010;Bucklin et al., 2011;Malay et al., 2012;Chang et al., 2014). Genomic DNA was extracted using Genomic DNA Mini Kit (Geneaid, Taipei, Taiwan). ...
Article
The rare deep-sea lobsters of the genus Thaumastocheles Wood-Mason, 1874 are characterized by having conspicuously unequal first chelipeds, with the right cheliped greatly elongated and pectinate. The five species of Thaumastocheles are mainly separated by the shape of the teeth in the major chelae. Molecular analysis using four genetic markers (three mitochondrial: COI, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA; one nuclear: ITS-1) on an extensive series of the species of Thaumastocheles from different localities reveals that there is sexual dimorphism and even male polymorphism in the major chelae in at least half of the species, with T. dochmiodon Chan & de Saint Laurent, 1999 being the male form in T. japonicus Calman, 1913. Thaumastocheles dochmiodon is therefore considered a junior synonym of T. japonicus. The other species confirmed as showing sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism is T. massonktenos Chang, Chan & Ahyong, 2014. A revised key is provided for the species of Thaumastocheles. Whether sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism are common phenomena in Thaumastocheles or even all thaumastocheliforms still awaits the collection and discovery of additional material of both sexes.
... In particular, both species have relatively numerous and strong corneous spines on the dactyli and propodi of the ambulatory legs. The general coloration is strikingly similar between the two species, although living coloration is often used to differentiate morphologically similar or cryptic species in the Paguroidea (e.g., Rahayu & Forest 1999;Malay et al. 2012). The new species is distinguishable from P. quinquelineatus by the much more elongate ambulatory legs with more numerous ventral corneous spines on dactyli and propodi (cf. ...
Article
A new species of hermit crab of the family Paguridae, Pagurus rectidactylus, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from inshore waters in the Seto Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. It appears closest to P. quinquelineatus Komai, 2003, also known from Japan, but is easily distinguished from the latter by the dactylus of the right cheliped almost unarmed or armed only with a few tiny spines or tubercles, instead of dorsal and dorsomesial rows of conspicuous spines, and the more elongate and slender ambulatory legs with more numerous ventral corneous spines on dactyli and propodi. Housing is also different between the two species: the new species exclusively inhabits carcinoecia formed by a hydrozoan Stylactaria misakiensis (Iwasa, 1934), whereas P. quinquelineatus uses gastropod shells without association with coelenterates. A checklist of East Asian (Japanese Archipelago to Taiwan Island, Far Eastern Russia to northern China) species of Pagurus along with general geographical distributions is presented.
... In many DNA barcoding studies cryptic species are found that have not been detected using morphology alone (Malay et al., 2012). This situation is more common that the opposite, i.e. the number of DNA branches is less than the number of already described valid species. ...
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A combination of DNA sequence and morphological data is used to assess the taxonomy of Chilean decapods. The c. 657-base-pair long mitochondrial protein-coding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) of 154 decapod specimens (41 species in 31 genera and 21 families) of the southern Chilean area (36°33′S–54°56′S) is analysed for the first time. The resulting phylogenetic consensus tree displays 41 distinct branches corresponding to the morphological determination of the studied species. These results confirm that standard DNA barcoding sequences are a suitable tool in addition to morphology for taxonomic analyses in Decapoda of the region. Genetic results are compared with morphological data to check and confirm species delimitations in morphologically closely related species, i.e. the representatives of the genera Eurypodius Guérin, 1825 (E. latreillii Guérin, 1825 and E. longirostris Miers, 1886) and Acanthocyclus Lucas, in H. Milne Edwards & Lucas, 1844 (A. albatrossis Rathbun, 1898, A. hassleri Rathbun, 1898 and A. gayi Lucas, in H. Milne Edwards & Lucas, 1844). Available morphological descriptions of these species are in many aspects contradictory, confusing and not always clear. The status of the different species is confirmed using the morphology-independent barcoding feature in combination with classic morphological features, clarifying species-specific morphological features for further species determination. An identification key of Acanthocyclus species based on constant features is given. Biogeographical aspects and distribution range for the selected species are discussed.
Article
During our survey on the intertidal hermit crab fauna on Amami Oshima Island and Okinawa Island, southwestern Japan, we collected specimens identified as Clibanarius species by their morphological features, but that had an unknown coloration for the genus: they have whitish ambulatory legs and a whitish shield. For species identification of these specimens, we observed their coloration and morphology and also performed phylogenetic analyses using the genes mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and nuclear histone H3. The analysis has shown that these specimens are to be identified as Clibanarius virescens (Krauss, 1843).
Article
Hermit crabs fauna of the family Diogenidae in the Kume Island, south Japan, were found to consist of 49 species, of which 47 species were collected during the KUMEJIMA 2009 Expedition. Of the 49 species collected, 20 species, Calcinus seurati Forest, 1951; Ciliopagurus krempfi (Forest, 1952), Clibanarius corallinus H. Milne Edwards, 1848; Clibanarius englaucus Ball & Haig, 1972; Clibanarius rhabdodactylus Forest, 1953; Clibanarius striolatus Dana, 1852; Dardanus brachyops Forest, 1962; Dardanus robustus Asakura, 2006; Dardanus scutellatus (H. Milne Edwards, 1848); Dardanus woodmasoni Alcock, 1905; Diogenes holthuisi Asakura & Tachikawa, 2010; Diogenes leptocerus Forest, 1956; Diogenes pallescens Whitelegge, 1897; Paguristes macrops Rahayu & Forest, 2009; Paguristes ocellus Komai, 2010; Pseudopaguristes bicolour Asakura & Kosuge, 2004; Pseudopaguristes bollandi Asakura & McLaughlin, 2003; Pseudopaguristes janetkae McLaughlin, 2002; Pseudopaguristes laurentae (Morgan & Forest, 1991); and Pseudopaguristes monoporus (Morgan, 1987), are recorded for the first time from Kume Island. Six species, Dardanus brachyops, Diogenes holthuisi, Diogenes leptocerus, Diogenes pallescens, Paguristes macrops, and Pseudopaguristes laurentae, are discussed in detail.