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1: Free and bound water in wood 

1: Free and bound water in wood 

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The measurement of moisture content is important for its influence on wood properties. In this work calibration facilities has been established for measurement of moisture content in wood satisfy Egyptian economy needs. The system was used to calibrate and compare between the most two commonly used meters in the Egyptian market namely Conductance a...

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... can exist in wood as liquid water (free water) or water vapor in cell lumens and cavities and as water held chemically (bound water) within cell walls (figure 1.1). Green wood is often defined as freshly sawn wood in which the cell walls are completely saturated with water; however, green wood usually contains additional water in the lumens [47]. The moisture content at which both of the cell lumens and cell walls are completely saturated with water is the maximum possible moisture content. ...

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... Free and bound water in wood[137]. ...
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Self-cured concrete is a type of cement-based material that has the unique ability to mitigate the loss rate of water and increase the capacity of concrete to retain water compared to conventional concrete. The technique allows a water-filled internal curing agent to be added to the concrete mixture and then slowly releases water during the hydration process. Many researchers have studied the composition of self-curing concrete using different materials such as artificial lightweight aggregate (LWA), porous superfine powders, superabsorbent polymers (SAP), polyethylene glycol (PEG), natural fibers, and artificial normal-weight aggregate (ANWA) as curing agents. Likewise, physical, mechanical, and microstructure properties, including the mechanisms of curing agents toward self-curing cement-based, were discussed. It was suggested that adopting self-curing agents in concrete has a beneficial effect on hydration, improving the mechanical properties, durability, cracking susceptibility behavior, and mitigating autogenous and drying shrinkage. The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between the curing agent and the cement paste matrix also improved, and the permeability is reduced.
... Moisture can reside inside a cell structure in two main forms: free moisture and bound water. Free moisture rests in cell lumens and cavities while the bound moisture rests within the cell walls [12,13]. To quantify the moisture inside a substance, the moisture content percentage (%MC) is introduced as the ratio between the mass of moisture and the mass of solids in the same volume as shown in Equation (2) [14]. ...
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This study investigates the effect of environmental moisture conditions on the calculated incident radiant heat flux (irradiance) by plate thermometers (PT). Alterations were made to the moisture content of the PT insulation layers to achieve these conditions. Irradiance was calculated using a pre-determined equation based on fully insulated conditions and validated using a Schmidt-Boelter radiometer. The study consisted of two phases; (i) investigating the effect of preheating PT to the accurate irradiance, (ii) investigating the effect of moisture in the PT on the measurement of irradiance. Calculated irradiance agreed with measured for preheated PT, but not with unheated PT. Four representative moisture conditions were identified for phase two, whereby samples were equilibrated at 0, 45, 65, and 98 wood moisture equivalent (%WME). No noticeable difference identified between measured and calculated irradiance was detected within 0–65%WME. PT with 98%WME showed a difference between the irradiance as the moisture inside the PT insulation absorbed energy from the PT to vaporize. Therefore, using preheated PT with any %WME under 65 is recommended to obtain accurate enough irradiance measurements. The result can use to improve determining the fire spread mechanisms and accurate measurements of irradiance in outdoor fires such as informal settlements fires.