Fourfold table and formulas for calculation of epidemiological parameters This figure shows a fourfold table with classification into presence/absence of a disease and a factor (e.g. a risk factor). In synopsis of the formulas of Tab. 2 the epidemiologic ratio can be calculated.  

Fourfold table and formulas for calculation of epidemiological parameters This figure shows a fourfold table with classification into presence/absence of a disease and a factor (e.g. a risk factor). In synopsis of the formulas of Tab. 2 the epidemiologic ratio can be calculated.  

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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a relevant and prevalent medical condition in Germany, Europe and the world. If analysed in detail, the prevalence of CRS shows regional and temporary variety. In this review, currently available data regarding the prevalence of CRS is therefore sorted by country and/or region, time point of data collection and the C...

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... Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a very prevalent disease that affects 11.6% of Americans [1] and 10.9% of Europeans [2]. It is now a welldefined state in which most pathogenic features and the clinical evolution have been described and summarized in the EPOS 2020 [3] -the recently updated official position paper on rhinosinusitis. ...
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b> Introduction: Usually the symptoms presented in odontogenic sinusitis do not differ from chronic sinusitis of other origin. However, odontogenic sinusitis is considered as an independent disease which requires specific diagnostic approach and treatment. Aim: The aim of the study is to define the main symptoms of odontogenic rhinosinusitis with periapical lesions and its impact on the quality of life. Material and methods: The SNOT-22 and OHIP-14 questionnaires were distributed among 26 symptomatic patients suffering from odontogenic sinusitis with periapical lesions in the teeth that remain in close contact with the maxillary sinus floor. Data was collected by means of an interview and standard examination performed by an otolaryngologist and a maxillofacial surgeon. The symptoms were also objectified using nasal endoscopy and radiological studies. The acquired data was statistically analyzed. Results: The total OHIP-14 score was 14.7 ± 11.3, whereas the total SNOT-22 score was 44.6 ± 18.8. Women scored significantly higher in the total SNOT-22 score as well as domains concerning nasal symptoms, quality of sleep, and emotional symptoms. The answers given in similar items were comparable between both questionnaires. Conclusions: Properly diagnosed odontogenic sinusitis (OS) with periapical lesions (PAL) will improve the quality of health-care and spare the patients inadequate procedures. Standard examination should include a unified and validated question-naire concerning both sinonasal and oral symptoms. Painful aching in the mouth and discomfort during eating might help to identify the OS with PAL during a medical interview and help both ENT (ear-nose-throat) specialists and dentists to establish proper patient-oriented diagnosis and treatment.
... Special attention in the research is given to pathology of the paranasal sinuses. The frequency of an acute sinusitis occurrence for adult patients varies form 15 to 40 cases per 1.000 of population a year [1] and that of chronic sinusitis accounts for from 19 to 150 [2]. The highest frequency of this pathology occurrence is registered in Europe and North America [1]. ...
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(1) Introduction : An imbalance of the genetically determined cytokine response plays a key role in the etiology of ENT-associated encephalitis. In recent years, an attempt has been made to evaluatethe prognostic role of chronic pathology of the paranasal sinuses in the development of acute, subacute and chronic encephalitis and meningitis, which in clinical practice are manifested both as cerebral and focal neurological symptoms and as mental disorders: from borderline to psychotic ones. The problem requires a multidisciplinary approach on the part of the specialists in the following clinical disciplines: neurology (as well as neurobiology), psychiatry, immunology, experimental medicine, otorhinolaryngology, and pharmacogenetics. The solution of this problem is possible with the involvement of preventive and personalized medicine. (2) The purpose: Evaluation the prognostic role of genetic polymorphisms of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in the development of ENT-associated encephalitis. (3) Materials and Methods : We conducted a keyword-based analysis of the English and Russian-language articles published within the past 30 years (from 1988 to 2018). The following databases were used in the study: PubMed, MedLine, Web of Science Core Collection (Clarivate Analytics), Web Science, Russian Science Citation Index, Scopus, Scientific Research, Google Scholar, Oxford Press, and eLibrary. (4) Results : In a number of the analyzed works, regardless of the causative agent and viral load, an increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokine production was noted in patients with more severe disease progression, neurological complications and unfavorable outcomes, both in viral encephalitis and in bacterial one. Based on this, 30 single nucleotide variants (SNV), their influence on the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes, as well as their predictor role in the development of ENT-associated encephalitis were analyzed. Due to the nature of the systemic immune response, the analysis included both cerebral and extracerebral pathology-associated SNV. The inconsistency of the previously obtained results was noted, an attempt to explain this phenomenon was made. The analysis of the dynamics and geography of publications on the stated topic was made, the leading Russian scientific centers in the field were defined. The most promising SNV for further studies were identified. (5) Conclusion: The risk of developing ENT-associated encephalitis is associated with a genetically determined status of the cytokine response and its regulation. Studies of the association of various SNV of genes encoding pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the Russian Federation need to be continued.
... В качестве одного из инвазивных способов купирования обострений ХРС может использоваться лечебно-диагностическая пункция верхнечелюстной и других пазух носа [44]. При отсутствии эффекта от консервативного лечения в среднем у 13-20% больных ХРС проводится хирургическое лечение, направленное на санацию очага воспаления с последующим восстановлением аэрации и дренирования пазухи [49]. ...
Article
Chronic rhinosinusitis is one of the most common diseases in the structure of ENT pathology. A combination of several factors often leads to the chronicity of this disease, which significantly complicates the choice of treatment tactics while maintaining persistent inflammation in the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The emergence of new data on changes occurring at the cellular-molecular level significantly affects the understanding of the processes occurring during the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and other diseases of the ENT organs. In recent years, more and more information has been accumulating on the role of neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as on such an immune response mechanism as the formation of extracellular traps in the structure of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The review presents current information on the effect of neutrophilic and eosinophilic extracellular traps on the chronic inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract using the example of chronic rhinosinusitis.
... In 2013, sinusitis was the diagnosis which accounted for the most outpatient prescriptions for antibiotics in the US, and CRS was responsible for two-thirds of the prescriptions for this diagnosis (Smith et al., 2013). The economic burden of CRS is significant, with antibiotics accounting for approximately 60% of medical treatment costs (Beule, 2015). ...
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Background Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common and debilitating inflammatory condition of the sinuses, afflicting 5% of the general population. Although antibiotics are frequently prescribed for the medical management of CRS, there is surprisingly little evidence to support their efficacy. In this study, we aimed to establish associations between medication usage, the sinus microbiota and patients’ clinical outcomes. Methods Antibiotic prescription patterns for the year before sample collection of 156 CRS patients, 45 disease control patients (mostly requiring septoplasty and inferior turbinate reduction) and 35 healthy control subjects were examined and analyzed together with previously published bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon data from our group. Results The highest antibiotic usage was observed among the two CRS patient categories. Despite heavy antibiotic usage, CRS patients’ clinical outcomes as indicated by patient questionnaires and radiologic scores were similar to those patients that did not receive any antibiotics. The sinus microbiota was dominated by members of the bacterial genera Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus in all three cohorts. Bacterial community dispersion as measured by principal coordinate analysis was significantly higher in CRS patients compared to healthy control subjects, but not disease control patients. Pairwise comparisons within cohorts revealed differences in the relative 16S rRNA gene sequence abundances of the genera Staphylococcus and Lawsonella between antibiotic users and non-users. However, overall antibiotic effects were minimal and unpredictable. Conclusion The unpredictable effects of antibiotic treatment on the sinus microbiota found in this study, together with the lack of differences in patients’ symptom scores between cohorts, do not support preoperative antibiotic treatment for CRS patients.
... Although anatomical obstruction might potentially lead to localized rhinosinusitis or recurrent acute rhinosinusitis, most studies evaluating the incidence of anatomical variants, such as a concha bullosa, have found no difference between patients with and without CRS 26 , suggesting that such variants do not have a substantial role in pathophysiology. ...
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) occurs in >10% of the adult population in Europe and the USA and can be differentiated into CRS without nasal polyps and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Both phenotypes are characterized by a high disease burden and an overlapping spectrum of symptoms, with facial pain and loss of smell being the most differentiating. Great progress has been made in the understanding of CRS pathophysiology: from the epithelium and epithelial–mesenchymal transition to innate and adaptive immunity pathways and, finally, on the role of eosinophils and Staphylococcus aureus in the persistence of disease. Although clinical manifestations and diagnostic tools (including nasal endoscopy and imaging) have undergone major changes over the past few years, management (including pharmacotherapy, surgery and biologics) has experienced enormous progress based on the growing knowledge of key mediators in severe CRSwNP. The introduction of endotyping has led to a differentiation of ‘tailored’ surgical approaches, focusing on the mucosal concept in those with severe CRSwNP and on the identification of patients eligible for extended surgery and possibly biologics in the future.
... Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a relevant and prevalent medical condition in the world 1 . In Malaysia, the estimated prevalence rate of sinusitis is roughly 12.8%, thereby suggesting that about 3 million Malaysians are suffering from CRS at one given time 2 . ...
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A retrospective study using CBCT scan was employed to locate and measure the diameter of 320 primary maxillary ostium (PMO) (n = 160 subjects) among the Malay and Chinese populations (Mongoloid race) in Malaysia. Image analysis was performed using the i-CAT Vision Software, employing the multiplanar reconstruction window in which axial, coronal and sagittal planes were visualized in 0.3 mm intervals. The mean diameter of the PMO was significantly larger in the Chinese than the Malay. Females had larger size than the male and bilateral asymmetry was noticed, where the right side PMO was larger than the left side (p < 0.05). In addition, PMO opened more in the posterior third position of the hiatus semilunaris (61.9%) than anterior and middle third. The PMO showed a statistically significant posteriorly placed position in the Chinese than the Malays and this was more evident in the right side PMO (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the PMO commonly opens in the posterior third of the hiatus semilunaris and its diameter is significantly greater in the Chinese female with evidence of bilateral asymmetry. This awareness is important during surgical intervention.
... Il s'agit d'un problème majeur de santé publique à cause de la fréquence, du coût de la prise en charge et des complications. Selon différentes enquêtes menées aux États Unis, la rhinosinusite qu'elle soit aiguë ou chronique a une incidence de 14 % par année dans la population générale (Achim, 2015). Les conducteurs de taxi-motos du fait de leurs activités sont exposés à la poussière et aux gaz d'échappement à longueur de journée, et ainsi souffrent le plus souvent de la rhinosinusite. ...
... However, in chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases, airway tissue remodeling occurs and the number of goblet cells increase, resulting in mucus over-production and airway obstruction (3,18). Excessive mucus, therefore, disrupts ciliary clearance and obstructs airways, leading to the morbidity and mortality seen in chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases (19,20). As a representative disease of chronic airway inflammation, CRS is also characterized by mucus over-production, manifesting as nasal discharge. ...
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The mucin gene, MUC5AC, is highly expressed both in chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases and inflammatory bowel disease where mucin secretion is regulated by members of the interleukin IL-20 subfamily. This study was conducted to determine the roles and mechanisms of IL-19, a member of the IL-20 subfamily, in regulating MUC5AC production in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We analyzed the expression of mucin and MUC5AC in the nasal mucosa of patients with CRS through periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining and immunohistochemical examination. Real-time quantitative PCR, ELISA, confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to measure MUC5AC expression in primary human nasal epithelium cells (PHNECs) stimulated with recombinant human IL-19 (rhIL-19), IL-19 receptor siRNA transfection or a control. The involvement of the STAT3 signaling pathway was examined using cryptotanshinone (CRY, an inhibitor of STAT3). Mucin and MUC5AC were significantly increased in mucosa of CRS patients with/without nasal polyps compared to mucosa isolated from controls who had no CRS, but there were no significant differences between these two groups. Pretreatment with rhIL-19 up-regulated the expression of MUC5AC levels in PHNECs. Knockdown of IL-20R2 and pretreatment with CRY attenuated MUC5AC production induced by rhIL-19. We propose that IL-19 up-regulates MUC5AC-induced mucin production via the STAT3 pathway in CRS, highlighting the important role IL-19 may play in mucin production in chronic respiratory diseases.
... Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common inflammatory condition involving the nasal passages and cavities, potentially affecting 1.01-19.9% of the population worldwide [1] and 8% of the population in China [2]. Asthma is a chronic lung disease with variable and recurring symptoms, including airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and underlying inflammation, in which the small airway is a major site involved [3,4]. ...
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Purpose Evidences showed improvements in clinical asthma outcomes following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients with asthma. However, pulmonary function benefits have remained controversial up to date. The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of ESS on pulmonary function tests in CRS patients with asthma. Methods Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched up to March 2018 to obtain relevant studies. The researches that evaluated the effects of ESS on pulmonary function in CRS patients with asthma and had at least one parameter of pulmonary function tests before and after surgery were included in the study. Results A total of 13 studies containing 421 patients satisfied the eligibility after judgment by 2 reviewers. These included three RCTs and ten case series. The heterogeneity in parameters of spirometry and difference in data presented forms across studies along with the lack of standard deviation of some data make it difficult to synthesize results. If data were unavailable for meta-analyses, descriptive statistics were used to report study outcomes. After qualitative and quantitative analysis, the weighted mean change after ESS in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (FEF25–75%) was 0.21 L/s (95% CI 0.12–0.30); eight of ten studies supported that forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) improved after ESS; five of six studies supported that peak expiratory flow (PEF) improved after ESS. However, strength of evidence is generally low to insufficient. Conclusion A generally low-quality evidence supports the association between ESS and improvements in FEF25–75%, FEV1 and PEF. A few studies met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, which indicates the need for more high-quality studies to determine the effect of ESS.
... Ринит является одной из наиболее частых причин обращения к врачу (педиатру, оториноларингологу, аллергологу) [1][2][3]. Затруднение носового дыхания может происходить у детей самых разных возрастов. Доставляя массу беспокойства родителям младенцев и самим малышам, оно препятствует процессу поступления пищи и нарушает сон, значительно снижает качество жизни детей разного возраста, особенно школьников. ...
... Хотя на первый взгляд проблема кажется несущественной, широкая распространенность симптомов ринита (как в качестве сопутствующего заболевания, так и основной патологии), обусловливая значительное влияние на качество жизни, играет огромную роль в затратах системы здравоохранения [1][2][3]. Именно при этой проблеме за частую имеет место полипрагмазия -неоправданное назначение, а также самостоятельное использование (в качестве лекарственных средств) огромного числа препаратов различного механизма действия, биологических добавок, средств фитотерапии и иммунотропных веществ, которые не только не ускоряют процесс выздоровления, но и могут стать причиной ухудшения состояния [4]. ...
... Лишь у небольшого числа пациентов заболевание имеет бактериальную природу: такая микробная этиология может быть характерна для детей с поствирусным риносинуситом [1,2]. Острый поствирусный риносинусит характеризуется усилением степени выраженности сим-птомов после 5-х сут болезни либо сохранением проявлений после 10-х сут заболевания, но общей продолжительностью менее 12 нед [1,2]. ...
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The article is devoted to one of the most urgent problems of pediatrics — rhinitis in children. The difficulty of nasal breathing, being one of the most frequent complaints to pediatricians, can be caused by a banal respiratory infection, as well as be one of the systemic pathology’s symptoms. The economic burden of rhinitis is great for any health budget, the total direct and indirect costs are huge. The article shows the main phenotypic characteristics of rhinitis depending on the etiological factor; gives the modern principles of differential diagnostic search; points studies, use of which is not recommended in routine practice. The authors reflect the key components of a complex therapy and discuss in detail the tactics and possible pharmacological treatment strategies.