Forestry zoning of Ukraine Source: adapted from [39] and the records of the National Academy of Sciences [47].

Forestry zoning of Ukraine Source: adapted from [39] and the records of the National Academy of Sciences [47].

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This paper presents an economic analysis of the planting of trees on marginal lands in Ukraine for timber production, erosion prevention, and climate mitigation. A methodology combining econometric analysis, simulation modelling, and linear programming to analyse the costs and benefits of such afforestation has been adopted. The research reveals th...

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... Gully and other forms of erosion have been described as the foremost environmental hazard in this part of the country with over 600 active sites (Igwe, 2012). Besides, forest vegetation contributes to the global carbon budgeting, provides biodiversity and aesthetic value, and also provides opportunities for local entrepreneurship (Nijnik et al., 2012). Increase in built-up area as recorded in this study will further exacerbate the problem of gully erosion owing to increased surface run-off resulting from increase in impervious surfaces and concomitant reduction in rates of infiltration. ...
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The combined effects of climate change and aggressive anthropogenic activities linked to urban developments have resulted in major land use and land cover (LULC) changes in eastern Nigeria. These LULC changes have grave implications for water resources and the surface hydrology. This study was aimed at specifically quantifying the extent of LULC changes and the implications for surface hydrology of the study area. The study investigated the spatiotemporal effects of LULC on the hydrology of the basin of Enugu State, Nigeria, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). SWAT model has been extensively used to study watershed response to rainfall and LULC dynamics. The trend of the basin’s LULC was studied over two decades. The watershed was delineated into 17 sub-basins using SRTM digital elevation model. The delineation of the watershed and the extraction of the stream network were enabled by SAGA Strahler order plug-in. The model results showed that the basin’s soil composition, associated with moderately high run-off, remains somewhat static during the 20-year study period. The soil types were distributed as follows: plinthic acrisols (42.4%), ferric acrisols (11.9%) and dystric nitosols (45.7%), with Ap15-1a-1068 being the most dominant and comprising 66% sand. All soil types in the study area belong to the hydrological soil group C. The LUCL of the basin (3027.4 km2) comprised of rangeland (2414.57 km2), built-up (57.46 km2), cropland (541.25 km2), forest (11.25 km2) and water (0.21 km2). Over the two decades of interest, the basin has undergone LULC changes of − 14.71%, 21.29%, 50.62%, 98% and 0.00% in rangeland, built-up area, cropland, forest and water body, respectively. The changes led to encroachment, alterations and diversification of LULC types of the sub-basins, resulting in changes in their surface characteristics and an increase in the number of hydrologic response units (HRUs) within the sub-basins from 74 in 2001 to 97 in 2019. Out of the 17 sub-basins, the HRU increased in 12, decreased in 2 and stayed the same in 3 sub-basins. Increase in the number of HRUs is significantly higher for HRUs smaller than 100 km2. The major trend of LULC changes is the conversion of rangeland to residential area and agricultural land due to aggressive urbanization and rising need for food production to meet the demands of increasing population. Proper legislation should be put in place to ensure that the impact of urbanization and activities of herdsmen be contained and re-aligned with the sustainable development goals.
... Afforestation refers to convert non-forest land to forest. In addition to timber production, afforestation provides many other forest ecosystem functions such as carbon sequestration (Nijnik et al. 2012). The cost and benefit per hectare afforested land in the reference year (present year) 2018 are RM3037 (USD723) and RM3,320 (USD790) with net benefit RM283 (USD67). ...
... Niskanen (1997) reported that plantation establishment cost per hectare in Thailand varies between USD780 and USD890 which is equivalent to the afforestation cost by present study (USD714 per hectare) as Thailand is a neighbouring country of Malaysia. Nijnik et al. (2012) reported the tree-planting and maintenance cost per hectare in Ukraine is €100-200 (USD121-243) and €12.5-30 (USD15-36.5) respectively, which are also identical to the tree planting cost (USD238) and maintenance cost (USD7) by the present study. ...
Article
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been increasingly dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2) with its negative effects on the global climatic system. Malaysia has forest land around 67% of the total land area which helps to mitigate climate change by absorbing atmospheric CO2 and enhancing the national carbon sink. However, there is a lack of study on the cost-effectiveness of potential mitigation measures in the forestry sector of Malaysia (e.g., forest conservation, afforestation, natural regeneration). Therefore, this article attempts to do a cost–benefit analysis (CBA) of the potential mitigation measures for 25, 50 and 75 years by considering the discount rate of 0% and 3%. The costs considered for the CBA include the establishment and maintenance cost of the mitigation measures. The CBA considered benefits associated with carbon sequestration, timber production, forest revenue, biodiversity, and other forest ecosystem services. A meta-analysis has been conducted to evaluate the carbon density in Malaysian forests, which has been used to assess the forest carbon sequestrated by each mitigation measures. This study found that the forestry sector of Malaysia has a huge potential to mitigate climate change whereas natural regeneration is the most cost-effective mitigation measure followed by forest conservation and afforestation. The outcome of this research would be useful for forest management planning to mitigate climate change in a cost-effective way. This study could encourage other countries to identify and implement the most cost-effective measure to mitigate climate change by achieving maximum carbon sink with minimum cost.
... The communities in mountain areas, both rural and urban, are highly dependent on forests, which provide them with a diverse range of services, including fundamentals such as fuel, food, clean water and protection from natural hazards (Table 1). Mountain forests are characterised by multifunctionality, providing a variety of ecological, social and economic services (Nijnik et al., 2012) and are also important as an instrument of climate regulation and a maintainer of the carbon cycle (Schlessinger, 1997). On the other hand, multifunctional character strengthens the dynamics and vulnerability of forests with regards to global change. ...
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Mountain ecosystems play an essential role in sustainable mountain development, providing benefits and values to humanity not only for the rich biodiversity they contain, but also because of their important role in climate regulation, water cycle, provisioning of recreation, tourism, cultural or spiritual values. The high biodiversity of the mountain areas allow the provision of a wide range of ecosystem services. However, different impacts to the environment threaten the delivery of these services and, consequently, the quality of life of people, both living in the mountains and outside the mountains. Recognizing, demonstrating and capturing the value of ecosystem services can play an important role in setting policy directions for ecosystem management and conservation and, thus, in increasing the provision of ecosystem services and their contributions to human well-being. Quantifying and mapping of these benefits can also help managers and decision makers to realize the importance of these sites for conservation and to allow the proper understandings of the impacts of mountain forest ecosystems on territorial development and welfare of local populations. The paper aims to outline the relevance and applicability of the ecosystem services approach for the assessment of the condition of mountain ecosystems and the services, they provide, for better understanding by the scientific community and to support decision makers in sustainable management of mountain regions.
... Plantation of exotic pines in grassland landscapes is growing over extensive areas of the Southern Hemisphere. Alien trees contribute significantly to the economies of many countries and are frequently seen positively from an aesthetical perspective, especially in arid or semiarid landscapes (Nijnik et al. 2012). However, there are also important costs associated with ecosystem services (less water yields, high fire frequency and/or severity, potentially altered nutrient cycling, changes or reduction in biota diversity) and the invasive spread of trees from plantations into natural and semi-natural habitats, where they have large impacts on a wide range of ecosystem properties and functions (Richardson 1998;Farley et al. 2005;Simberloff et al. 2010). ...
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We evaluated changes in benthic algal community in grassland mountain streams converted to exotic pine afforestation. Three headwater streams draining grasslands and three draining plantations of Pinus elliottii were selected in a semiarid mountain watershed (Córdoba, Argentina). Hydraulic and physicochemical variables were recorded and benthic algal samples were collected in each stream at two hydrological periods (high and low flow). Light intensity was lower in afforested streams. Community composition differed between grassland and afforested streams. Algal abundance and richness, richness of chlorophytes and cyanobacteria, and the indicator taxa were reduced in afforested streams. Diversity, evenness and biomass were higher in the high water period but did not differ between riparian vegetation types. The observed changes in benthic algal attributes may have implications in ecosystem functioning because of the central role that algal biofilms play in the productivity of these fluvial systems, as sources of food, energy and oxygen.
... Conversion means significant losses in increment and standing volume. Thus a trade-off between market and non-market values and between ecosystem services themselves in a longterm perspective brings additional difficulties into forest decision-making (Nijnik et al., 2012, Martín-López et al., 2014Mosert et al., 2009;Rößiger et al., 2011;Rößiger, 2014). ...
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This paper examines the integration of three approaches towards developing a transdisciplinary framework for the evaluation of benefits from the conversion of evenaged secondary Norway spruce stands into mixed uneven-Aged woodlands. To pre sent a whole nexus of causal relationships in social-ecological interactions inherent for the conversion processes in a systemic and condensed way and to provide a common point of reference for decision-makers we develop a conceptual model based on the DPSIR (Driving forces - Pressures - States - Impacts - Responses) approach. The Ukrainian Carpathians are used as a case study. An extension of the cascade ecosystem service model through integration of societal processes is proposed to strengthen the functionality of the model and to make it more applicable for addressing adaptive forest management and ecosystem-based forest governance. A non-parametric analysis of the stated stakeholders' preferences with a high statistical significance shows that the flow of ecosystem services from mixed forests is considered more valuable than that from spruce monocultures. For the valuation of benefits from forest conversion we propose an impact matrix that reflects existing dichotomies both in valuation techniques and among beneficiaries. This matrix could serve as a checklist for an appraiser. We conclude that a proper integration of several methodological approaches may assist researchers to overcome limitations of a narrow disciplinary perspective, to take advantages of quantitative as well as qualitative research methods and may allow a wider involvement of stakeholders in a more participatory decision-making in order to tackle the challenge of spruce stands decline.
... To the contrary, Gong et al. (2010) and Zhang et al. (2006) reported that reforestation efforts on 4,000 ha of degraded lands as part of a watershed management project in the Pearl River Basin of China contributed to farm incomes, with 75 % of the derived 123 financial benefits stemming from employment, 15 % from fuelwood harvest, and 10 % from C credits. Nijnik et al. (2012) showed that large-scale multipurpose tree plantations established on marginal croplands in Ukraine can contribute to climate change mitigation, soil erosion prevention, and income generation. ...
Article
We analysed the economic viability of afforestation on marginal irrigated croplands in irrigated drylands of Uzbekistan. The revenues derived from a combination of diversified agricultural production, carbon sequestration, nitrogen fixation, and avoided irrigation water use were analysed considering uncertainty associated with on-farm activities such as crop production and short-rotation forestry. At the per hectare scale variability in land-use revenues would necessitate substantial increases in carbon prices for afforestation to be as profitable as crop cultivation on marginal lands, assuming an abundant irrigation water supply. In contrast, at the farm scale the analysis results revealed that afforestation can be attractive financially even without carbon payments due to farm production constraints, variable land-use returns, and the benefits of land-use diversification. Increased carbon prices would promote carbon sequestration by motivating farmers to plant high biomass producing tree species, but would have an ecosystem service trade-off by reducing the appeal of nitrogen fixing species that are essential for nitrogen self-ufficiency of afforestation efforts. Given the modest irrigation needs of afforestation efforts compared to the cultivation of annual crops, tree plantations could become a primary income source for farms during periods of drought. Irrigation water saved from replacing crops with trees on marginal farmland would enhance the cultivation of commercial crops on productive lands, thus increasing farm income.
... Carbon sequestration through afforestation is usually considered to be a cost-efficient and synergistic option: when incorporated in multi-functional forestry (Nijnik and Miller 2013) it can co-deliver a variety of ecosystem services (Nijnik et al. 2012), at the same time as providing economic incentives for sustainable forest management. Afforestation is technically feasible; and many countries have a legacy of tree-growing (Nijnik and Bizikova 2008). ...
... An assumption was that wood products release carbon back into the atmosphere after 40 years' storage. 12 In both the wood-for-coal-substitution and in bio-energy scenarios 13 , the rotation ages of poplar and 11 Multi-functional afforestation in Ukraine is analysed in (Nijnik et al. 2012). 12 This is a simplified assumption. ...
... 14 In Ukraine, large-scale agriculture under the previous regime supported the conversion of forest or grassland to agricultural land. Currently, the decreasing agriculture will likely cause the increase of abandoned land; a rising role of forestry could then be predicted (Nijnik et al. 2012). ...
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The paper discusses the development of economic techniques for dealing with uncertainties in economic analysis of planting trees to mitigate climatic change. In consideration of uncertainty, time preference and intergenerational equity, the traditional cost-benefit analysis framework is challenged with regard to the discounting/non-discounting of carbon uptake benefits, and because it usually uses a constant and positive discount rate. We investigate the influence of various discounting protocols on the outputs of economic analysis. The idea of using the declining discount rate is also considered. Several numerical examples dealing with the analysis of afforestation for carbon sequestration in Scotland and Ukraine are provided. We show that the choice of discounting protocols have a considerable influence on the results of economic analysis, and therefore, on the decision-making processes related to climate change mitigation strategies. The paper concludes with some innovative insights on accounting for uncertainties and time preference in tackling climate change through forestry, several climate policy implications of dealing with uncertainties, and a brief discussion of what the use of different discounting protocols might imply for decision making.
... Щороку 4 млн т родючого шару ґрунту змивається, а збитки сільського господарства від ерозії оцінюються в 8 млн євро (Генсірук, Нижник, 1995). Nijnik et al. (2012) показали, що рівень ерозії ( відсоток еродованих земель) тісно пов'язаний з лісистістю території. Згідно з моделями, розробленими в цитованій роботі, за умови, якщо в ландшафті немає лісів, то частка еродованих земель при системах землеробства останніх десятиріч досягає 79% у Карпатах і 32% у середньому для території всієї країни. ...
... Для порівняння наведемо оцінку розмірів землі, економічно доступної для заліснення, здійснену Nijnik M. (2002), Nijnik et al. (2012), у розмірі 2,29 мільйонів га. Автор включила в цю площу незаліснену територію державного лісового фонду -0,4 млн га (відзначимо, що в лісокультурний фонд при усереднених витратах на лісорозведення можна включити не більше четверті цієї площі) та невикористовувані сільськогосподарські землі -1,69 млн га. ...
... М. Ніжник розглянула економічні проблеми лісорозведення в Україні, включивши три групи функційвирощування деревини, захист ґрунтів від ерозії і депонування вуглецю (Nijnik et al., 2012). Потенціал лісорозведення був оцінений в 2,29 Мга, у тому числі в 248,0 тис. ...
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Forests cover relatively small areas in Ukraine: forests together with shelter belts and other protective woody components of the landscapes cover only 15.9% of the country’s territory. Nevertheless, the forests play an exceptionally important role: (1) as a protective element of environment (more than 50% of the Ukrainian forests are protective forests) and (2) as a source of valuable wood and diverse non-timber forest products. The irregular distribution of forested areas is a specific feature of land cover in Ukraine: vast regions of the country have a very low forest cover percentage that makes impossible any satisfactory protection of soil and water there. Such a peculiarity of the forest cover defines specific social requirements to environmental and social services of forests and impacts tendencies of their future development in a changing world. In addition, ongoing political and economic transformation of the country provides direct and rather contradictive impacts on possibilities and specifics of transition to sustainable forest management under global change. Ukrainian forest ecosystems have a high productivity – the annual net increment is estimated at the level of 30-35 million m3 per year. Annual harvest of wood (including thinning) was at level of 12-17 million m3 of merchantable wood during the last decade. Such a ratio between the increment and harvest should provide a substantial carbon sink by the forest ecosystems, but does not give any answer whether the current level of logging is optimal and how this corresponds to needs of transition to sustainable forest management within the paradigm of multi-service use of forests. Philosophy of sustainable forest management has long roots in the country’s forest science and practice. The cornerstone principle of the national forestry – the principle of continuous and inexhaustible multi-service use of forests – is a direct consequence of this philosophy. At the first Ministerial Conference on Protection of Forests in Europe (Strasbourg, 1990) sustainable forest management was declared as a background of interactions of humanity and forest. The sustainable forest management is considered as a balanced forestry that accounts for forests’ role as an important system of life support at the Earth and their importance in satisfying the needs of current and future generations in forest and forest services without declining the forest potential for extended reproduction. Ukraine has the long period experience of intensive forest management and well developed forest science. Almost all Ukrainian forests are of state property and more than half of these were planted. This also defines specific features and needs of current and future forest management. Sustainable forest management (SFM) is a background of the current paradigm of co-evolution of human and forest and a principally important part of integral management of land resources at the landscape-ecosystem basis. The UN Conference on Sustainable Development that took place in Rio-de-Janeiro in June 2012 (Rio+20), again pointed out needs of rapid transition to SFM and particular importance of this process under global climate change (Rio+20, 2012]. World experiences show that transition to SFM is long and very complicated process because requires, inter alia, (1) substantial economic and social efforts; (2) implementation of science-based system of nature use and availability of effective forest policy which would be also oriented for future problems and needs; (3) developed civil society; and (4) high level of moral consciousness and education of population (Shvidenko et al., 2005). With this respect, the situation in Ukraine is very complicated because the role of forests in protection of agricultural land, the impacts of forest cover on health of the population and environment are so important that solutions of forest problems cannot be limited by only considerations within the forest sector. Historically, forests were mostly apprehended as a source of supply of wood and other forest products. Multi-service use of forest is a fundamental feature of current forest management. Forest provides numerous provisional (resource) services; presents living space for more than half of known-for-today plants and animals; serves as a major natural defender of water and soil; is a major tool for maintenance of the global biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, hydrological cycles); provides important social (ecotourism, recreation etc.), cultural, historical and spiritual services. One of the most complete classifications of forest services accounts for about 100 different groups of services of forest ecosystems which are combined in 4 classes – ecological, economic and ecological, landscape- stabilizing and row material classes (Sheingauz, Sapozhnikov, 1983). While forests supply today more than 5000 different products, the biospheric and ecological groups of forest services become the most important. It is expected that global climate change will provide substantial, often dramatic impact on both future forests and completeness of realization of diverse forest services which are vitally important for humanity. This puts principally new problems for forestry and forest management of the country. Forest management was always oriented in future. However, substantially different climates are expected by end of this century. Thus, transition to adaptive forest management on landscape-ecosystem basis is a main strategic feature of current forest management and particularly forest science. Ukraine has ratified the Kyoto Protocol (The low No1430-IV dated by February 14, 2004 «About ratifying the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change»). This law defines the obligations of the country do not exceed the basic level of carbon emissions to the atmosphere of 1990. The total emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere reached in 2006 40.2% of the basic level of 1990: about two-third of this amount was produced by the energy sector. Taking in account the very low efficiency of energy use in Ukraine and inevitable need of speeded up development of the national economy, forest can and should play an important role as a source of renewable energy in both short- and long-period prospects. UN General Assembly announced year 2011 an international year of forests, in order to increase understanding of importance of forests for humanity and its wellbeing and, consequently, to point out the role of forests for environment protection and sustainable development. The European policy of struggle with illegal harvest has been continuing. A new European legislation about regulating the circulation of wood (EU Timber Regulation) was adopted in November 2010 with the putting in operation in March 2013. A number of voluntary partner agreements were also concluding within the FLEGT process (Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade). All these documents aim at improving forest governance, strict implementation of legislation in forest relations, fighting with illegal harvest and circulation of wood, criminal and corruption in forest sector. Investments in research and development of innovative technologies on use of bioenergy are constantly increasing in developed countries following national forest policies on climate change and energy safety. At the same time, the policy that support the use of renewable sources of energy, particularly use of biomass, increases demand and competition between wood suppliers for industry in countries of intensive forest management and initiate a basis for conflicts in land use. “Green” construction in the United States is currently an only construction sector of the country that demonstrates relatively stable development during the last recession, and commercial construction within ecologically oriented «Standard of patterns of management in energy and environment” is increasing in spite of on the general crisis in construction. The Department of Agriculture of the USA (USDA) recently announced the strategy of wood supplying as a “green” construction material. This study that was initiated by the international project “Carbon, Climate and Land Use in Ukraine: Integrated Models of Land Use within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) - Forest Sector, has three major objectives: • estimation of the current carbon budget and its major components of Ukrainian forests and development of forecast of its dynamics during 2015-2030 in a changing world; • analysis of relevant strategies of adaptation to, and mitigation of, negative climate change by means of forest management; • assessment of possible consequences of adaptation and mitigation within the land-use and forestry sector. These problems have been considered based on two scenarios of most likely ways of development during the next two decades including future trajectories of Ukrainian forests, possible changes in the land-use and expected impacts of climate change on condition and functioning of forest ecosystems. With this respect, objectives of this work included: • improvement and development of spatially distributed information base on forests and forest management in the country; • analysis of dynamics of forests and forest management regimes, as well as major drivers of the dynamics as a basis for development of scenarios on condition and functioning of forest and forest industry until 2030s; • development of a set of models that are necessary for estimation of the biospheric role of Ukrainian forests, particularly for assessment of the impacts of forests on global carbon cycling under expected climate change; • estimation of major indicators of biological production of forests (live biomass, Net Primary Production); • development of scenarios of future dynamics of the country’s forests until 2030s including expected tendencies in land use/ change of land cover, as well as impacts of forest management and changing environment on conditions and productivity of forests; • estimation of consequences of possible adaptation of forests to global change and use of forests for mitigation of climate change by impacts on carbon budget of the Ukrainian forests; • development of recommendations for policy makers. Evidently that the scenarios of future dynamics of Ukrainian forests should accumulate major political, social, economic and ecological drivers that influence Ukrainian society and economics and, consequently, the current and future state and functioning of forest ecosystems and forest management of the country. Understanding by the society and politicians a deciding importance of the country’s forest cover as a tool for providing the satisfactory state of the environment and health of the nation is far from a desirable level. The paradigm of sustainable forest management within integral land management at the landscape – ecosystem basis is the main feature of today forest management in developed countries under the global climate change. Unfortunately, it was not much done in the country with this respect. The protective role, which forests play at other land cover categories in different bioclimatic zones and landscapes, particularly, agro–forest-amelioration for protection of agricultural land and environment, is exceptionally important. However, the ongoing processes of transition to private property of agricultural land strengthen difficulties of implementation of eco-system land use. In current conditions, forests and trees outside of forests should play a crucial role in rehabilitation of degraded and contaminated landscapes. Implementation of close connections between practice of land- and forest use and carbon management, particularly use of forest biomass for energy production, require improvements of institutional structure of management. Evidently that practical implementation of mentioned above and some other activities is a very difficult and rather uncertain problem, and the scenarios and models, as well the indicators of biological production of the Ukrainian forests could be presented only in an aggregated form. This research has been provided by an international group leading by the Forestry Program of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in collaboration with researches of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine and the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. Section 4.5.4 was prepared and written together with Dr. D. Movchan (Center for Air and Space Research of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv). Some materials have been presented by the Ukrainian Research Institute of Forest Management and Agro-forest Melioration (Dr. I. F. Buksha). The authors are grateful to colleagues Ian McCallum, Florian Kraxner, Michael Obersteiner from the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis and Prof. R. A. Bun and Dr. M. Lesiv from the Lviv Politechnic University for useful discussions and support of the work.
... It has been argued recently that social and economic factors could determine the scope of international agreements to tackle climate change through forestry (van Kooten 2012; Nijnik et al. 2012). The international community continues to show interest in carbon forestry projects in developing countries, and the focus is now on implementation mechanisms at the national and sub-national levels (Springate-Baginski and Wollenberg 2010). ...
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• Context An inequitable distribution of the costs and benefits of carbon forestry could undermine its role in tackling climate change, but safeguarding local livelihoods could undercut its effectiveness. • Aims We simulate a reforestation program in a densely populated locality in central Mexico to analyze indirect land-use change, or leakage, associated with the program and its implications for local livelihoods. • Methods An agent-based, general equilibrium model simulates scenarios that deconstruct the sources of leakage and livelihood outcomes. • Results Simulations reveal how conditions linking land, labor, and food markets determine the costs and benefits of reforestation and simultaneously the potential for leakage. Leakage is lowest in remote and poorly integrated localities where declining wages foster local food production while discouraging consumption. Since leakage is tied to consumption, there is a trade-off between the program’s effectiveness and an equitable outcome. • Conclusion An ideal strategy could target those localities with few remaining forests, where a program might lead to agricultural intensification rather than expanding the agricultural frontier. Alternatively, the scheme could incorporate remaining forests to avoid deforestation while encouraging reforestation. An uneven distribution of costs and benefits, where some stakeholders may draw benefits from others’ losses, could nevertheless set the stage for conflict. Acknowledging these trade-offs should help design a politically feasible program that is effective, efficient, and equitable.
... We expect that Ukraine will also be an active member at future climate negotiations. Because of the growing attention to role of LULUCF in reducing CO 2 emissions, Ukraine needs to explore the potential of this sector. of Ukraine and is the largest in Polissja and Carpathian Mountains -more than 40 % [23]. In the past a large part of forests were lost but in 50-70s of 20th century a substantial amount of new forests were created [19]. ...
... Therefore about 50 % of Ukrainian forests are artifi cially planted [8] and consequently 45 % of forest stands are middle age [11]. Prevailing wood species are pine, oak, beech and fi r [23]. Most of the forestlands are managed by ASFRU (68%), the other parts -by Ministries and other institutions (25 %) and 7 % are reserved and unmanaged forestlands [11]. ...
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A number of global land-use change and forest management models for studying CO 2 emissions in land-use change and forestry, in particular: G4M, GLOBIOM, Land-SHIFT, GTM and GCOMAP are considered. The main issues and features of forestry in Ukraine (e.g. illegal forest harvesting , lack of reliable and consistent data on forestry, difference between concepts of Ukrainian and international legislation in forestry) are analyzed. A conceptual scheme for modelling forestry and land-use CO 2 emissions in Ukraine is developed.