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Forest cover changes in Costa Rica from 1940 to 1997/1997 Source: FONAFIFO 2001 

Forest cover changes in Costa Rica from 1940 to 1997/1997 Source: FONAFIFO 2001 

Context in source publication

Context 1
... most common approach to promote forest ecosystem conservation and combat land degradation is the development, introduction and promotion of sustainable production systems. Such approach is usually accompanied of indirect incentives such the acquisition of infrastructure, equipment, product marketing, temporary payments for labor, food for labor, etc. The assumption is that new technologies will be adopted, that a market for the derived products will develop, and that they will generate higher incomes to land owners, creating an incentive to maintain the forest ecosystems. An alternative approach to encouraging the conservation and restoration of forest ecosystem is to pay for conservation performance directly to private lands owners (Ferraro and Simpson, 2000). In this approach, those that benefit from the provision of environmental services, derived from land uses and production systems that improve the environment and life quality, make payments to those land owners that supply the services (i.e., to those that adopt the desired land uses and production systems). In the case of land uses such as forest management, commercial reforestation, as well as forest conservation, the payments for environmental services are additional to the incomes from forest products sales, therefore, they help to improve the irregular cash flow frequently seen in forest production systems. The Costa Rican Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) is an application of this approach. In this system, landowners receive direct payments for the ecological services which their lands produce when they adopt land uses and forest management techniques that do not have negative impacts on the environment and which maintain people's life quality. Costa Rica's Forest Law recognizes four environmental services provided by forest ecosystems: (i) mitigation of GHG emissions; (ii) hydrological services, including provision of water for human consumption, irrigation, and energy production; (iii) biodiversity conservation; and (iv) provision of scenic beauty for recreation and ecotourism. The Costa Rican Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP), which is executed through the Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal (FONAFIFO) and the Sistema Nacional de Areas de Conservacion (SINAC), aims to protect primary forest, allow secondary forest to flourish, and promote forest plantations to meet industrial demands for lumber and other wood products. This paper provides a brief description of the origin of the program, and the way it is presently designed. Costa Rica experienced one of the highest rates of deforestation worldwide during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1950, forests covered more than one-half of Costa Rica; by 1995, forest cover had declined to twenty-five percent of the national territory. Approximately sixty percent of forest cover, totaling 1.2 million hectares, is on privately owned lands outside of national parks and biological reserves. World Bank estimates indicate that eighty percent of deforested areas, nearly all on privately owned lands, were converted to pasture and agriculture. Deforestation was principally driven by inappropriate policies including cheap credit for cattle, land-titling laws that rewarded deforestation, and rapid expansion of the road system. These policy incentives have since been removed and Costa Rica has become one of the world’s leading proponents of environmentally sustainable development. Due to the forest conservation policy and economic factors affecting agricultural production, deforestation rates have slowed considerably (see Figure 1). Kishor and Constantino (1993) also showed that returns from land use change (i.e., deforestation), are always greater than returns from natural forest management. At low interest rates, the conversion to forest plantations dominates the lower-yielding natural forest management. At higher discount rates, the landowner's greatest profit is obtained by clear- cutting the forest (Chomitz et at, 1998). An additional problem to promote traditional forest production activities is the irregular distribution of incomes generated by wood products sales. In the case of reforestation, it requires an inversion of near US$ 600 at the beginning of the rotation – that is, during years 1 to 5 – but the incomes from wood sales are obtained 10, 12 or even 15 year later. Table 2 shows an example of the distribution of the production costs and incomes from reforestation using melina ( Gmelina arborea ) and teak ( Tectona grandis ). The table shows that the distribution of incomes are unevenly distributed during the rotation period, and therefore small or medium farmers, who normally need constant incomes to satisfy their needs, do not find the economic returns sufficiently attractive to invest in small- scale reforestation, making other land use activities (e.g. cattle-ranching and cash crops) the preferred option (FONAFIFO, 2001). Costa Rica’s efforts to internalize environmental values provided by forest ecosystems date back to 1979, with the passage of the first Forestry Law and the establishment of economic incentives for reforestation. Subsequent laws strengthened incentives for reforestation, broadening opportunities for landowners to participate in reforestation programs and making the program accessible to small landowners within rural areas. 3 Kishor Costa A Costa World Rica’s Rica and Bank adopted Constantino efforts review to Forestry of internalize deforestation (1993) Law also environmental No. in showed Costa 7575 Rica in that values 1996. carried returns provided It out recognizes from in by the land forest early four use ecosystems 1990s environmental change identified (i.e., date deforestation), back three services to principal 1979, provided with types are by always the of forest passage forest greater ecosystems, intervention of the than first returns provides in Forestry Costa from the Rica: Law legal natural and (i) and clear the forest regulatory establishment cutting management. to basis change of to economic contract At the low use interest incentives of with lands landowners rates, under for the reforestation. forest for conversion environmental cover; to (ii) Subsequent forest selective services plantations laws provided cutting dominates strengthened of by large, their the valuable lands, incentives lower-yielding empowers trees for in natural reforestation, FONAFIFO primary forest or management. broadening secondary to issue such forest; opportunities contracts At higher and (iii) for discount for exploitation the landowners environmental rates, by the to owners participate landowner's services of pasture in provided greatest reforestation areas profit by that privately-owned programs is contain obtained and patches by making clear- forest of cutting the forest ecosystems, program cover. the forest and accessible The establishes (Chomitz study to small confirmed et a financing at, landowners 1998). that mechanism An clear-cutting within additional rural for this and problem areas. purpose. selective 3 to promote logging traditional are principally forest production driven by economic activities interests. is the irregular While distribution loggers play of an incomes important generated role in such by wood activities, products the sales. main motivation In the case for of reforestation, these processes it requires comes from an inversion landowners of near seeking US$ 600 to obtain at the revenue beginning from of the timber rotation sales – or that agricultural is, during activities. years 1 to Environmental 5 – but the incomes concerns from tend wood be sales external are obtained to decisions 10, 12 made or even by landowners 15 year later. when Table 2 they are shows not directly an example related of the to on-site distribution productivity. of the production costs and incomes from reforestation using melina ( Gmelina arborea ) and teak ( Tectona grandis ). The table shows that the distribution of incomes are unevenly distributed during the rotation period, and therefore small or medium farmers, who normally need constant incomes to satisfy their needs, do not find the economic returns sufficiently attractive to invest in small- scale reforestation, making other land use activities (e.g. cattle-ranching and cash crops) the preferred option (FONAFIFO, 2001). Costa Rica adopted Forestry Law No. 7575 in 1996. It recognizes four environmental services provided by forest ecosystems, provides the legal and regulatory basis to contract with landowners for environmental services provided ...

Citations

... Globally, countries like Indonesia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, and Vietnam have successfully implemented PES schemes in their country (Wunder 2005). For example, Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) is the Costa Rican PES program designed for protection and enhancement of forests through specified individual contracts with small and medium sized farmers, who directly consumed forest outputs (Malavasi and Kellenberg 2002). Ecuador created employment out of the PES payment scheme whose income was spent on food, medicine and schooling of students (Wunder 2005). ...
Article
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Payment for ecosystem services (PES), a voluntary transaction for the optimum use of scarce natural resources, are highly recommended for conservation of forests and watershed. Despite multiple recommendations, there has not been enough studies regarding PES in Nepal, except for limited areas like hydropower plants and community forests. Every PES scheme is unique, depending upon the conditions prevalent in its site therefore more studies are required to understand appropriateness of PES mechanism. Taking drinking water scheme in Sundarijal watershed as a case, this study assessed drinking water supply scheme prevalent in the site, and prioritized its problems, and expectations, from stakeholders’ perspectives. A phenomenological cross-sectional research approach was used and data were collected through in-depth interviews with major stakeholders. The result transcripts were analyzed in Atlasti version 7 and prioritized based on their frequency. The proper buying and selling mechanisms were not found in the current drinking water supply scheme in Sundarijal. The poor economic condition of users, inadequate funds in water users committee, and inadequate water collection for sales were determined as primary obstacles associated with PES establishment at the study site. Since the area has immense potential for PES, building additional water collection tanks with filter plants, a collaboration of multiple local organizations in the preparation of baseline document, identification of additional water sources, and adequate funding are perquisite to establish proper payment mechanism.
... Globally, countries like Indonesia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Brazil, Bolivia, and Vietnam have successfully implemented PES schemes in their country (Wunder 2005). For example, Payments for Environmental Services Program (PESP) is the Costa Rican PES program designed for protection and enhancement of forests through specified individual contracts with small and medium sized farmers, who directly consumed forest outputs (Malavasi and Kellenberg 2002). Ecuador created employment out of the PES payment scheme whose income was spent on food, medicine and schooling of students (Wunder 2005). ...
Article
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This paper explores the status of Invasive Alien Plant Species in an urban forest of Hetauda, Nepal. The study is based on a quadrate survey (130 quadrants) within the transect line at an interval of 30 m within different six habitat types. This study identified a total of 22 invasive alien plant species representing 20 genera and 12 families out of recorded 26 species representing 24 genera and 15 families in the country. This study identified four species namely Chromolaena odorata, Eichhornia crassipes, Lantana camara and Mikania micrantha in the study area that were listed as the world’s 100 worst invasive species. The invasion was found to be negatively correlated with canopy cover. The higher the canopy cover; the lower the abundance of invasive alien species. Regarding the habitat type, settlement area had the highest number of invasive species followed by forest and roadside. Mikania micrantha, Lantana camara, Ageratum houstonianum and Chromolaena odorata were mostly abundant in forest whereas Eichhornia crassipes was highly abundant in wetlands. Mikania micrantha was mostly abundant in settlement area and Senna tora was confined to open land. The relative abundance of Ageratum conyzoides, Senna occidentalis, Ageratum adenophora, Leersia hexandra, Mimosa pudica, Bidens pilosa, Oxalis latifolia, Ipomoea carnea, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Esosphaerum suaveolens were lower
... Payments are distributed for the maintenance and restoration of forest cover(de Camino Velozo et al., 2015). The ecosystem services identified under Costa Rica's forest laws are: 1. mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions; 2. hydrological services, including the provision of water for human consumption, irrigation and energy production; 3. biodiversity conservation; and 4. provision of scenic beauty for recreation and ecotourism(Malavasi and Kellenberg, 2002). Such a scheme has contributed to the channelling of funds to landowners controlling approximately 20 per cent of Costa Rica's territory(Wallbott et al., 2019). ...
Technical Report
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This study highlights the key factors at the national or sub-national scale that motivate the initiation of forest restoration, enable its implementation at scale and sustain it. The report features examples of how these enabling factors have played out in different countries, and emphasises that approaches have to be context-specific to be successful.
... El sistema nacional de PSE cubre alrededor del 20% del territorio nacional y facilita la vinculación de la conservación y la gestión de los recursos forestales con el desarrollo socioeconómico [71]. Los propietarios de tierras tienen derechos a las ERR como parte de su derecho a beneficiarse de los servicios eco-sistémicos [72]. Guatemala: En Guatemala, la propiedad de los bosques está vinculada a la de la tierra, excepto cuando el título de propiedad de la misma especifique lo contrario. ...
Article
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La siguiente es una traducción no-oficial del siguiente artículo: Who owns REDD+? Carbon markets, carbon rights and entitlements to REDD+ finance, Forests 2020, 11, 959; doi:10.3390/f11090959 La traducción ha sido posible gracias a la PID (www.pidamazonia.com), iniciativa liderada por Climate Focus (www.climatefocus.com) y financiada por la iniciativa de cambio climático (IKI) del gobierno federal de Alemania. Reseña: La pregunta de quién tiene derecho a beneficiarse de las transacciones realizadas en el marco de las Naciones Unidas para reducir las emisiones derivadas de la deforestación y la degradación de los bosques (REDD+) sigue siendo uno de los temas más controvertidos en torno a los esfuerzos de cooperación para reducir la deforestación en los países en desarrollo. REDD+ se concibió como un marco internacional para alentar los esfuerzos voluntarios de los países en desarrollo por reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero y aumentar la absorción de carbono de las actividades forestales. Se diseñó como un marco internacional bajo la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas para el Cambio Climático (CMNUCC) para permitir la generación de reducciones y remociones de emisiones (ERR, sigla en inglés) a nivel nacional-y, provisionalmente, subnacional-y es, por lo tanto, principalmente una creación del derecho internacional. Sin embargo, al definir las ERR de carbono forestal, el marco internacional compite con los sistemas nacionales de comercio de emisiones y la legislación nacional sobre REDD+, así como con las normas privadas que definen las unidades comercializadas en el mercado voluntario de carbono. A medida que surgen sistemas basados en resultados y en el mercado del carbono, la pregunta sigue pendiente: ¿Quién puede reclamar la participación en proyectos REDD+ y del mercado voluntario de carbono? La existencia de diferentes estándares internacionales, nacionales y privados que valoran las ERR plantea un desafío a los países que participan en REDD+, así como a las comunidades y los actores privados que participan en los proyectos del mercado voluntario de carbono. El presente documento busca aclarar la naturaleza y la limitación de los derechos relativos a las transacciones del mercado de REDD+. También vincula la noción de derechos de carbono tanto a los mercados de carbono como a la decisión de los gobiernos sobre la distribución de beneficios. Observándolo desde la perspectiva legal, el presente documento es una herramienta para comprender las diversas reivindicaciones y derechos subyacentes a la participación en las transacciones de REDD+ y aborda las ambigüedades que pueden provocar conflictos en torno a la implementación de REDD+. La definición de los derechos de carbono y la naturaleza jurídica de los créditos de carbono dependen de la legislación local y difieren entre los países. Sin embargo, al categorizar los derechos de carbono, en el documento se resumen varias consideraciones jurídicas que son pertinentes para regular REDD+ y compartir los beneficios financieros de las transacciones de ERR. Palabras clave: REDD+; deforestación evitada; mercados voluntarios de carbono; comercio de emisiones; derechos de carbono; reparto de beneficios
... The national PES system covers about 20% of the national territory and facilitates the linkage of conservation and management of forest resources to socioeconomic development [71]. Landowners hold rights to ERRs as part of their right to benefit from ecosystem services [72]. Guatemala: In Guatemala, ownership of forests is linked to that of the land, except when the land title specifies otherwise. ...
Article
The question of who is entitled to benefit from transactions under the United Nations framework to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) remains one of the most controversial issues surrounding cooperative efforts to reduce deforestation in developing countries. REDD+ has been conceived as an international framework to encourage voluntary efforts in developing countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance carbon removals from forest activities. It was designed as an international framework under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to enable the generation of emission reductions and removals (ERRs) at the national-and, provisionally, the subnational-level and is, thus, primarily a creature of international law. However, in defining forest carbon ERRs, the international framework competes with national emission trading systems and domestic REDD+ legislation as well as private standards that define units traded on the voluntary carbon market. As results-based and carbon market systems emerge, the question remains: Who can claim participation in REDD+ and voluntary carbon market projects? The existence of different international, national and private standards that value ERRs poses a challenge to countries that participate in REDD+ as well as to communities and private actors participating in voluntary carbon market projects. This paper seeks to clarify the nature and limitation of rights pertaining to REDD+ market transactions. It also links the notion of carbon rights to both carbon markets and government's decision on benefit sharing. Applying a legal lens, this paper helps to understand the various claims and underlying rights to participate in REDD+ transactions and addresses ambiguities that can lead to conflict around REDD+ implementation. The definition of carbon rights and the legal nature of carbon credits depend on local law and differ between countries. However, by categorizing carbon rights, the paper summarizes several legal considerations that are relevant for regulating REDD+ and sharing the financial benefits of transacting ERRs.
... Costa Rica's PSA payments depend on the ownership and PES contract type (i.e. forest conservation easement, sustainable forest management and reforestation types) and the length of the contract (Malavasi andKellenberg 2002, Porras et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs have emerged as a financial mechanism to ameliorate market failures associated with the multitude of non-market ecosystem services (ES) provided by forest ecosystems. However, the defining principles of PES in theory is far from what pertains in practice. Focusing on the concept of total economic value (TEV) of ES, we identify that PES often include compensation as a proxy for the supply of ES and largely neglect to encompass the different attributes of an ES' TEV, particularly existence values. Most PES schemes are limited by scope of funding and incentives often account for as little as 0.1% to 8.5% of the full annual ES economic values per ha. The mechanism of PES therefore needs to be broadened to integrate potential levels of payments that direct and indirect beneficiaries might be willing to pay to preserve forest ecosystems and their services. Some beneficiaries might be willing to pay for some ES and altruistically expect others to free-ride on their payment. Research efforts should aim at providing better understanding of beneficiaries' willingness to pay in order to expand the demand-side of PES and reduce uncertainties.
... Proponents of the new Global Forestry Fund generally use a "voluntarily" word before the fund in discussions. The mechanisms based on "voluntarily" may be better than mandatory applications seen in different countries such as Colombia (Keipi, 1997), Costa Rica (Malavasi and Kellenberg, 2014), and Indonesia (Pirard, 2012). However, if there is a difference between the parties that pay the cost of forest management and accept the benefits produced by forestry, then the voluntary or mandatory mechanisms must generate a balance among the parties. ...
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Countries in the world might be classified for discussion purposes at international meetings using definitions such as small island developing states, low forest cover countries, rich forest cover countries, forest product exporters, importers, donors, etc. that use their forestry characteristics. While some countries generate income from forests, some have to compensate deficit on revenue to sustain their forests. Nations have rights and responsibilities to cooperate in sustainable forest management at the country level and global scale. Some mechanisms, such as the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), were generated by international institutions to support various countries' needs to solve local problems related to global concerns including sustainable forest management. The suitability of these mechanisms is under discussion at international meetings. Green economy and green accounting terms have also been discussed using mechanisms for payment for ecosystem services (PES). The aim of this study is to develop a method to compute the financial contribution levels for cooperation among countries with different characteristics regarding forestry activities and common forest values. Using general equilibrium models, a balance equation consisting of variables dealing with country rights and responsibilities for sustainable forests is offered as a method to hypothetically classify nations. This equation was tested using random hypothetical data. The results indicate the equation may be used to understand the relative classification of the countries.
... The potential of the methodology extends beyond carbon offset projects to the design of all types of market based environmental policies. The need for rigorous evidence on design is particularly large in developing countries, where government programs have spent over a billion dollars in recent years on incentives for land use changes that improve environmental outcomes (Ortiz & Kellenberg 2002, Uchida et al. 2005, Munoz-Pina et al. 2008). The next section offers a simple conceptual framework for the field experiment. ...
Article
Revealing private information to improve allocation and pricing in carbon offset projects can help improve the competitiveness of developing country offsets on global carbon markets. This study provides the first evidence from a developing country to directly compare alternative allocation mechanisms: a uniform-price, sealed bid procurement auction and a posted offer market. The field experiment was conducted in Malawi for the allocation of tree planting contracts. Results reveal highly divergent outcomes for the two strategically equivalent mechanisms. The auction set the clearing price for both mechanisms and enrolled the 38 percent of the auction treatment group that bid below the price. In the posted offer treatment group, 99.5 percent of participants accepted the contract at the auction clearing price. Compliance results show significantly more trees surviving per contract allocated under the auction. At the clearing price, the auction achieves a better selection of high compliance landholders, but potentially at greater cost than the posted offer market. Results confirm the presence of information asymmetries in these markets and demonstrate that project design affects both the cost effectiveness and the environmental effectiveness of carbon offset projects.
... Mg C ha À 1 aboveground (Redondo-Brenes, 2007). This led to an increase in the number of native tree plantations in the Payments for Environmental Services (PES) Program during the 1990s, especially on small-and medium-sized farms in rural areas (Ortiz and Kellenberg, 2002). In an evaluation of 20-year-old plantations of three exotic species with native forest and farmland in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia, the average total SOC to 50-cm depth was in the range 101.2-180.4 ...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry—the practice of growing trees and crops in interacting combinations—is recognized worldwide as an integrated approach to sustainable land-use. It is estimated to be practiced over 1 billion hectares in developing countries, and to a lesser extent in the industrialized countries. Agroforestry systems (AFSs) are believed to have a higher potential to sequester carbon (C) because of their perceived ability for greater capture and utilization of growth resources (light, nutrients, and water) than single-species crop or pasture systems. The estimates of C stored in AFSs range from 0.29 to 15.21 Mg ha− 1 yr− 1 aboveground, and 30 to 300 Mg C ha− 1 up to 1-m depth in the soil. Recent studies under various AFSs in diverse ecological conditions showed that tree-based agricultural systems, compared to treeless systems, stored more C in deeper soil layers near the tree than away from the tree; higher soil organic carbon content was associated with higher species richness and tree density; and C3 plants (trees) contributed to more C in the silt- + clay-sized (< 53 μm diameter) fractions—that constitute more stable C—than C4 plants in deeper soil profiles. The extent of C sequestered in AFSs depends to a great extent on environmental conditions and system management. Trading of the sequestered C is a viable opportunity for economic benefit to agroforestry practitioners, who are mostly resource-poor farmers in developing countries. However, more rigorous research results are required for AFSs to be used in global agendas of C sequestration.
... Mg C ha À 1 aboveground (Redondo-Brenes, 2007). This led to an increase in the number of native tree plantations in the Payments for Environmental Services (PES) Program during the 1990s, especially on small-and medium-sized farms in rural areas (Ortiz and Kellenberg, 2002). In an evaluation of 20-year-old plantations of three exotic species with native forest and farmland in the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia, the average total SOC to 50-cm depth was in the range 101.2-180.4 ...