Fig 2 - available from: BMC Psychiatry
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Flowchart of patient and healthy control recruitmen. Excluded cases terminated early, reported implausible values or had a single diagnose of alcohol abuse or eating disorder. Abbreviations: BRS = Brief Resilience Scale, GPAQ = General Physical Activity Questionnaire, PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire, PSS = Perceived Stress Scale, SAM ratings = Self-Assessment Manikin for emotional analytic ratings. (…) indicates that there were questionnaires at the indicated point in the study design not analyzed in the current study but in [32]

Flowchart of patient and healthy control recruitmen. Excluded cases terminated early, reported implausible values or had a single diagnose of alcohol abuse or eating disorder. Abbreviations: BRS = Brief Resilience Scale, GPAQ = General Physical Activity Questionnaire, PHQ = Patient Health Questionnaire, PSS = Perceived Stress Scale, SAM ratings = Self-Assessment Manikin for emotional analytic ratings. (…) indicates that there were questionnaires at the indicated point in the study design not analyzed in the current study but in [32]

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Background: Patients with somatoform, depressive or anxiety disorders often don't respond well to medical treatment and experience many side effects. It is thus of clinical relevance to identify alternative, scientifically based, treatments. Our approach is based on the recent evidence that urbanicity has been shown to be associated with an increa...

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... Medicine) at Innsbruck Medical University at the inpatient or outpatient clinic. We included mainly patients with the diagnosis of somatoform, depressive and anxiety disorders. For the present analysis participants who terminated the questionnaire early i.e. prior to the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) ratings (missing data n = 436, Fig. 2) were excluded from the study. This high drop-out rate was mainly due to the fact that SAM ratings of emotional analytics were performed as the final phase of the questionnaire and it was not possible to skip questions. Comparison of participants terminating early with those included in the data analysis showed that the former were ...
Context 2
... differences in age (effect size d = 0.34) and sex distribution (odds ratio = 1.37) were comparatively small. Furthermore participants that reported implausible values (n = 8), screened positively for alcohol abuse only (n = 54) or for an eating disorder only (Anorexia nervosa and Bulimia nervosa; n = 33) were excluded from the present analysis (Fig. 2). In Anorexia nervosa or Bulimia nervosa it is known that high levels of PA are used as tool for losing weight and therefore are an expression of disease. Therefore, these patients were excluded [3]. There were 4 to 13% missing values for individual SAM ratings. The 498 participants included in the present analysis consisted of two ...

Citations

... Several intervention studies were identified [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39]. Of them, a minority included patients with MDD only [24][25][26][27][28][29], and the majority [21,[30][31][32][33][34][35][37][38][39] recruited mixed samples including patients with depressive disorders, although separate results for that group were not reported. ...
... In a laboratory investigation, Hüfner et al. [36] exposed healthy controls and patients with mental disorders, such as somatoform, depressive, and anxiety disorders, to visual stimuli from alpine environments vs. neutral stimuli. A positive effect of alpine vs. neutral visual stimuli, assessed by Self-Assessment Manikin, was observed on emotional analytics for both groups. ...
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Recent lifestyles changes have favored increased time in contact with screens and a parallel reduction in contact with natural environments. There is growing awareness that nature exposure and screen time are related to depression. So far, the roles of how these environmental lifestyles affect depressive symptoms and disorders have not been reviewed simultaneously. The aim of this review was to gather the literature regarding the role of nature exposure and screen time in depression. An emphasis was made on clinical samples of patients with well-defined depression and the different methodological approaches used in the field. A second goal was to suggest an agenda for clinical practice and research. Studies were included if they assessed depressive symptoms in patients with a clinical diagnosis of depression. An overview of the published literature was conducted using three scientific databases up to December 2021. Several interventions involving nature exposure have shown positive effects on depressive symptoms and mood-related measures. The most consistent finding suggests that walks in natural environments may decrease depressive symptoms in patients with clinical depression. Less researched interventions, such as psychotherapy delivered in a forest or access to natural environments via virtual reality, may also be effective. In contrast, fewer observational studies and no experimental research on screen time have been conducted in patients with clinical depression. Thus, recommendations for practice and research are also discussed. Scarce research, diverse interventions, and several methodological shortcomings prevent us from drawing conclusions in this area. More high-quality experimental research is needed to establish interventions with proven efficacy in clinical depression. At this stage, it is too early to formulate practice guidelines and advise the prescription of these lifestyles to individuals with depression. The present findings may serve as a basis to develop strategies based on nature exposure and screen time targeting clinical depression.