Flow diagram of the review approach.

Flow diagram of the review approach.

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Essential oils are one of the most notorious natural products used for medical purposes. Combined with their popular use in dermatology, their availability, and the development of antimicrobial resistance, commercial essential oils are often an option for therapy. At least 90 essential oils can be identified as being recommended for dermatological...

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... The dressing should also be able to control the temperature for optimum tissue perfusion, semi-permeable to water and air, biocompatible, hypoallergic, enable tissue renewable, cost-effective and not be traumatic upon removal (Negut et al., 2018). There are various types of dressing frameworks such as natural products and hydrogels (Jamil et al., 2016;Orchard & Van Vuuren, 2017). Hydrogels are polymeric networks consisting of hydrophilic groups which can interact and form 3-D matrices to trap liquids, including water or wound exudates (Arafa et al., 2018). ...
One of the greatest challenges faced during surgical procedures is closing and healing of wounds, which are essential in the field of orthopaedics, trauma, intensive care and general surgery. One of the main causes of death has been linked to chronic wounds, especially in immunosuppressant or diabetic patients. Due to increasing chronic wound fatality along with different pathologies associated with them, the current therapeutic methods are insufficient which has established an eminent need for innovative techniques. Traditionally, wound healing was carried out using formulations and ointments containing silver combined with different biomaterial, but was found to be toxic. Hence, the advent of alternative nanomaterial-based therapeutics for effective wound healing have come into existence. In this review, we have discussed an overview of wound infections such as different wound types, the wound healing process, dressing of wounds and conventional therapies. Furthermore, we have explored various nanotechnological advances made in wound healing therapy which include the use of promising candidates such as organic, inorganic, hybrid nanoparticles/nanocomposites and synthetic/natural polymer-based nanofibers. This review further highlights nanomaterial-based applications for regeneration of tissue in wound healing and can provide a base for researchers worldwide to contribute to this advancing medical area of wound therapy.
... Therapeutic dressings with plant extracts of wounds are gaining importance because of the multifactorial properties of plant extracts (such as antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory). There are many experimental evidences to suggest that plant products have beneficial properties on wound healing as well on many skin diseases [3,4,5,6] . Essential oils extracted from plants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-microbial properties [7,8,9] . ...
... Essential oils are one of the commonly used natural products, with one of their main applications being their use in dermatology. At least 90 essential oils have been identified for dermatologic use, with at least 1500 combinations [6] for many decades essential oils have been used safely in perfumery, food and sanitation products. However, essential oils or their main components are scarcely used in wound healing. ...
... In dermatology, essential oils are one of the commonly used natural products. 90 essential oils have been identified for use in dermatology and about 1500 essential oil combinations have been reported [6] . Essential oils also have antiinflammatory and wound healing applications [6] . ...
... These essential oils may contain one or more active constituents that produce the therapeutic effect [46]. The commonly used essential oils and their active constituents may include anise (anethole, anisaldehyde, linalool) [52], bergamot (linalyl acetate, limonene, linalool, and γ-terpinene) [53], black pepper (trans-caryophyllene, limonene, and β-pinene) [54], balsam (β-pinene, borynyl acetate, δ-3-carene) [52], clary sage (linalyl acetate and linalool) [52], clove (eugenol, β-caryophyllene and eugenyl acetate) [52], chamomile (α-pinene, terpinene-4-ol, and chamazulene) [52,55], coriander (linalool, geranyl acetate) [52], cypress (α-pinene, δ-3-carene, and limonene) [56], eucalyptus (1-8-cineol and α-pinene) [52], fennel (limonene and (E)-anethole) [52], grapefruit (limonene and myrcene) [57], ginger (α-zingiberene, β-bisabolene, β-sesquiphellandrene, limonene, citral, geraniol) [58], juniper (α-pinene and myrcene) [52], jasmine (linalool and benzyl acetate) [52], lavender (linalyl acetate, linalool and terpinen-4-ol) [52], lemongrass (geranial, neral, myrcene, limonene and citral) [52], lemon myrtle (geranial and neral) [52], lime (limonene, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, β-pinene, citral) [52], marjoram (terpinen-4-ol, trans-sabinene hydrate, γ-terpinene) [59], macadamia (oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) [60], mandarin (limonene and γ-terpinene) [61], pine needle (α-terpineol, linalool and, limonene) [62], pimento berries (eugenol, methyl eugenol and caryophyllene) [63], petitgrain (linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol) [64], rosemary (p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and thymol) [65], rosewood (1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, 4-terpinen-4-ol, and myrcene) [66], sandalwood (α-santalol and β-santalol) [52], spearmint (carvone, cis-carveol and limonene) [67], sea fennel (γ-terpinene, β-phellandrene and sabinene) [68], spikenard (sesquiterpene and sesquiterpenols) [69], sage (α-thujone, camphor, and α-pinene) [70], thyme (carvacrol and γ-terpinene) [52], vetiver (zizanol and β-vetirenene) [52], and wintergreen (methyl salicylate) [71], respectively. However, some other popular essential oils are discussed below. ...
... These essential oils may contain one or more active constituents that produce the therapeutic effect [46]. The commonly used essential oils and their active constituents may include anise (anethole, anisaldehyde, linalool) [52], bergamot (linalyl acetate, limonene, linalool, and γ-terpinene) [53], black pepper (trans-caryophyllene, limonene, and β-pinene) [54], balsam (β-pinene, borynyl acetate, δ-3-carene) [52], clary sage (linalyl acetate and linalool) [52], clove (eugenol, β-caryophyllene and eugenyl acetate) [52], chamomile (α-pinene, terpinene-4-ol, and chamazulene) [52,55], coriander (linalool, geranyl acetate) [52], cypress (α-pinene, δ-3-carene, and limonene) [56], eucalyptus (1-8-cineol and α-pinene) [52], fennel (limonene and (E)-anethole) [52], grapefruit (limonene and myrcene) [57], ginger (α-zingiberene, β-bisabolene, β-sesquiphellandrene, limonene, citral, geraniol) [58], juniper (α-pinene and myrcene) [52], jasmine (linalool and benzyl acetate) [52], lavender (linalyl acetate, linalool and terpinen-4-ol) [52], lemongrass (geranial, neral, myrcene, limonene and citral) [52], lemon myrtle (geranial and neral) [52], lime (limonene, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, β-pinene, citral) [52], marjoram (terpinen-4-ol, trans-sabinene hydrate, γ-terpinene) [59], macadamia (oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) [60], mandarin (limonene and γ-terpinene) [61], pine needle (α-terpineol, linalool and, limonene) [62], pimento berries (eugenol, methyl eugenol and caryophyllene) [63], petitgrain (linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol) [64], rosemary (p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and thymol) [65], rosewood (1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, 4-terpinen-4-ol, and myrcene) [66], sandalwood (α-santalol and β-santalol) [52], spearmint (carvone, cis-carveol and limonene) [67], sea fennel (γ-terpinene, β-phellandrene and sabinene) [68], spikenard (sesquiterpene and sesquiterpenols) [69], sage (α-thujone, camphor, and α-pinene) [70], thyme (carvacrol and γ-terpinene) [52], vetiver (zizanol and β-vetirenene) [52], and wintergreen (methyl salicylate) [71], respectively. However, some other popular essential oils are discussed below. ...
... These essential oils may contain one or more active constituents that produce the therapeutic effect [46]. The commonly used essential oils and their active constituents may include anise (anethole, anisaldehyde, linalool) [52], bergamot (linalyl acetate, limonene, linalool, and γ-terpinene) [53], black pepper (trans-caryophyllene, limonene, and β-pinene) [54], balsam (β-pinene, borynyl acetate, δ-3-carene) [52], clary sage (linalyl acetate and linalool) [52], clove (eugenol, β-caryophyllene and eugenyl acetate) [52], chamomile (α-pinene, terpinene-4-ol, and chamazulene) [52,55], coriander (linalool, geranyl acetate) [52], cypress (α-pinene, δ-3-carene, and limonene) [56], eucalyptus (1-8-cineol and α-pinene) [52], fennel (limonene and (E)-anethole) [52], grapefruit (limonene and myrcene) [57], ginger (α-zingiberene, β-bisabolene, β-sesquiphellandrene, limonene, citral, geraniol) [58], juniper (α-pinene and myrcene) [52], jasmine (linalool and benzyl acetate) [52], lavender (linalyl acetate, linalool and terpinen-4-ol) [52], lemongrass (geranial, neral, myrcene, limonene and citral) [52], lemon myrtle (geranial and neral) [52], lime (limonene, α-terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, β-pinene, citral) [52], marjoram (terpinen-4-ol, trans-sabinene hydrate, γ-terpinene) [59], macadamia (oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid) [60], mandarin (limonene and γ-terpinene) [61], pine needle (α-terpineol, linalool and, limonene) [62], pimento berries (eugenol, methyl eugenol and caryophyllene) [63], petitgrain (linalool, linalyl acetate and α-terpineol) [64], rosemary (p-cymene, linalool, γ-terpinene and thymol) [65], rosewood (1,8-cineole, α-terpinyl acetate, sabinene, 4-terpinen-4-ol, and myrcene) [66], sandalwood (α-santalol and β-santalol) [52], spearmint (carvone, cis-carveol and limonene) [67], sea fennel (γ-terpinene, β-phellandrene and sabinene) [68], spikenard (sesquiterpene and sesquiterpenols) [69], sage (α-thujone, camphor, and α-pinene) [70], thyme (carvacrol and γ-terpinene) [52], vetiver (zizanol and β-vetirenene) [52], and wintergreen (methyl salicylate) [71], respectively. However, some other popular essential oils are discussed below. ...
... Synergy can be achieved often if the mixed compounds are able to affect different target sites in cells of microorganism, or they may interact with one another to increase solubility, thereby enhancing bioavailability. The combined formulation also has the potential to decrease toxicity and adverse side effects by lowering the required dose of individual components [39]. Most EOs are used in blends or combinations of two or more oils or with other antimicrobial substances [39]. ...
... The combined formulation also has the potential to decrease toxicity and adverse side effects by lowering the required dose of individual components [39]. Most EOs are used in blends or combinations of two or more oils or with other antimicrobial substances [39]. ...
... According to literature data [25,[39][40][41], CEO and/or EUG were mixed with some antimicrobial compounds to obtain a synergistic antifungal effect. In our studies, selected synthetic antiseptics-cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate, chlorhexidine, silver nitrate or triclosan and polyene antibiotic-nystatin were used to assess interaction with CEO and EUG towards reference Candida spp.: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis. ...
Article
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The occurrence of candidiasis, including superficial infections, has recently increased dramatically, especially in immunocompromised patients. Their treatment is often ineffective due to the resistance of yeasts to antimycotics. Therefore, there is a need to search for new antifungals. The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and eugenol (EUG) towards both reference and clinical Candida spp. strains isolated from the oral cavity of patients with hematological malignancies, and to investigate their mode of action and the interactions in combination with the selected antimycotics. These studies were performed using the broth microdilution method, tests with sorbitol and ergosterol, and a checkerboard technique, respectively. The CEO and EUG showed activity against all Candida strains with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 0.25–2 mg/mL. It was also found that both natural products bind to ergosterol in the yeast cell membrane. Moreover, the interactions between CEO and EUG with several antimycotics—cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, silver nitrate and triclosan—showed synergistic or additive effects in combination, except nystatin. This study confirms that the studied compounds appear to be a very promising group of phytopharmaceuticals used topically in the treatment of superficial candidiasis. However, this requires further studies in vivo.
... The content of limonene and citral (a mixture of geranial and neral) in CLO depends on various factors: genotype, place and cultivation conditions, and harvest date [122]. [124,125] CLO has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties and is used in dermatology, e.g., in treating acne vulgaris and rosacea [14]. The antibacterial activity of CLO is broad; the oil was active against Gram-positive (B. ...
Article
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Acne is a chronic, common disease that poses a significant therapeutic, psychological and social problem. The etiopathogenesis of this disease is not fully understood. Drugs used in general and external therapy should have anti-seborrhoeic, anticomadogenic, bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Acne treatment is often associated with the long-term use of antibiotics, contributing to the global antibiotic resistance crisis. In order to solve this problem, attention has been paid to essential oils and their terpene components with potent antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Research shows that certain essential oils effectively reduce inflammatory acne lesions through mechanisms related to the sebaceous glands, colonization of Cutibacterium acnes, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). An example is tea tree oil (TTO), a more commonly used topical agent for treating acne. TTO has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. The paper presents the latest scientific information on the activity and potential use of specific essential oils in treating acne. Evidence of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity of several essential oils and their main components was presented, indicating the possibility of using them in the treatment of acne.
... The selectivity index for all the combinations which showed antimicrobial synergy was calculated (Table 18). Various interpretations exist, however, this study considers a selectivity index of >4 as being acceptable, when the antimicrobial benefit is not lost due to the toxicity [71]. A selectivity index below four indicates that the toxicity of the compound: carrier oil combination is too high and the antimicrobial activity is most likely attributed to the toxicity of the sample and not the interaction [71]. ...
... Various interpretations exist, however, this study considers a selectivity index of >4 as being acceptable, when the antimicrobial benefit is not lost due to the toxicity [71]. A selectivity index below four indicates that the toxicity of the compound: carrier oil combination is too high and the antimicrobial activity is most likely attributed to the toxicity of the sample and not the interaction [71]. Of the 23 synergistic combinations, 10 at 24 h and 9 at 48 h had SI values of >4, with thymoquinone being the main compound present in these combinations. ...
Article
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Essential oil compounds have been identified as alternative antimicrobials; however, their use is limited due to their toxicity on human lymphocytes, skin, and reproduction. Carrier oils can reduce the toxicity of essential oils, which raises the question as to whether such activity would extend to the essential oil compounds. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and toxicity activity of essential oil compounds in combination with carrier oils. The antimicrobial properties of the essential oil compounds, alone and in combination with carrier oils, were determined using the broth microdilution assay. The toxicity was determined using the brine shrimp lethality assay. Antimicrobial synergy (ΣFIC ≤ 0.50) occurred in 3% of the samples when tested against the ESKAPE pathogens. The compound thymoquinone in combination with the carrier oil Prunus armeniaca demonstrated broad-spectrum synergistic activity and a selectivity index above four, highlighting this combination as the most favorable. The carrier oils reduced the toxicity of several compounds, with Calendula officinalis and P. armeniaca carrier oils being responsible for the majority of the reduced toxicity observed. This study provides insight into the interactions that may occur when adding a carrier oil to essential oil compounds.
... Recently, many studies have indicated that the overall activity of extracts is the result of interactions between their components [33]. Indeed, traditional phytotherapy is based on the combination of various medicinal plants [33,34,84,85]. The blend of extracts has proven to have a synergistic effect on their therapeutic properties. ...
... Juniperus communis and Solanum xanthocarpum when combined in lower doses noticeably reduced hepatotoxicity in vivo studies [34]. The abovementioned interaction is achieved when the compounds affect different target sites or increase the solubility of one another, thus enhancing their bioavailability [33,34,[84][85][86]. ...
Article
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Plant-based natural products have been used as a source for therapeutics since the dawn of civilization. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare. Numerous natural extracts, widely known in Traditional Chinese Medicine, Indian Ayurveda medicine and other practices, have led to the modern discovery and development of new drugs. Plants continuously interact with their environment, producing new compounds and ever-changing combinations of existing ones. Interestingly, some of the compounds have shown lower therapeutic activity in comparison to the extract they were isolated from. These findings suggest that the higher therapeutic activity of the source extract was due to the synergistic effect of several compounds. In other words, the total therapeutic potential of the extract cannot be explained only by the sum of its parts alone. In traditional medicine, most herbal remedies are based on a mixture of plants, and it is the interaction between different constituents that amplifies their therapeutic potential. Considering the significant influence traditional medicine has on human healthcare, knowing and studying the synergistic effect of compounds is paramount in designing smart therapeutic agents.
... Furthermore, essential oils are the most often used complementary and alternative medicine for treating fungal skin infections. Additionally, the literature on aromatherapy lists a variety of essential oils for use in dermatology, the majority of which are suggested for treating infections as they have the ability to suppress the bacteria that cause infections [5]. ...
... In addition to aromatherapy, Jasminum sambac essential oil has also found its application in dentistry as it possesses antimicrobial activity against various oral pathogenic bacteria [7]. Jasminum sambac essential oil also exhibits antidiabetic activity [13], anti-acne activity, [5] and improve blood cholesterol [14]. The essential oil from Jasminum sambac is highly used in perfume industry owing to its pleasant odor as well as for skincare products, in anti-irritation products, moisturizers, anti-aging, antihyperpigmentation lotions and in sunscreens [7,5]. ...
... Jasminum sambac essential oil also exhibits antidiabetic activity [13], anti-acne activity, [5] and improve blood cholesterol [14]. The essential oil from Jasminum sambac is highly used in perfume industry owing to its pleasant odor as well as for skincare products, in anti-irritation products, moisturizers, anti-aging, antihyperpigmentation lotions and in sunscreens [7,5]. ...
... Myrrh as an antimicrobial agent, has been used to treat the gingival inflammation as well as stimulate the production of white blood cells (Lisa, Carac, Barbu, & Robu, 2017). A study done on C. albicans, a causative microorganism of candidiasis, showed that myrrh effectively inhibited the growth of these microorganisms (Orchard & van Vuuren, 2017). ...
Article
Objectives: To formulate and measure the cytotoxicity level of organic myrrh toothpaste. Materials and Methods: Myrrh extract was prepared by the freeze drying process. Toothpaste was formulated by mixing specified amounts of myrrh extract, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) polymer, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), mint, and sucralose with deionized distilled water. MTT test was performed using concentrations of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/ml to assess the effect of myrrh paste on the gingival fibroblasts viability at intervals of 24 and 48hrs. The results were analysed by using SPSS version 27. Results: The formulated myrrh toothpaste has a homogeneous consistency as the extracted myrrh successfully dissolved completely with the other components. Cell viability test showed that myrrh paste concentrations of 100 - 300mg/ml were effective in maintaining the rate of fibroblasts growth after 24 and 48 hours as compared to the control samples. Cell growth rate was suppressed in the test samples treated with paste concentration of 400mg/ml. The results of the study imply that 300mg/ml is the safe and optimal concentration for fibroblasts growth, whereas concentrations ≥ 400mg/ml are intolerable and might be suppressing the proliferation of fibroblasts. Conclusion: Myrrh toothpaste concentration at 300mg/ml is the safe and optimal concentration for fibroblasts growth as depicted in the results, suggesting that at the optimal formulation, myrrh extract may not be toxic to the soft tissues and myrrh toothpaste may be useful for oral health care. Further clinical investigations are recommended to obtain the clinical efficacy data of the organic myrrh toothpaste.
... In this study, based on the testing of the MIC and MBC, betel leaf extract appeared to be a promising candidate for an antimicrobial treatment in dogs with pyoderma. Overall, the relevant Staphylococcus isolates were susceptible to betel leaf extract, with an MIC of 252.78 mg/L, which is considered to have a significant antimicrobial activity cut-off of 1000 mg/L [50]. It was also found that betel leaf extract had a superior efficacy to azelaic acid and benzoyl peroxide. ...
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As multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) is becoming more prevalent in canine pyoderma, the discovery of new therapeutic options is required. This study aimed to test the antimicrobial activity of crude Piper betle leaf extract and some topical antimicrobial agents against canine Staphylococcus clinical strains by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results showed that the mean MICs of chlorhexidine, miconazole, crude P. betle leaf extract, azelaic acid, and benzoyl peroxide against Staphylococcus strains were 1.41, 1.62, 252.78, 963.49, and 1342.70 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, betel leaf extract demonstrated a superior efficacy to azelaic acid and benzoyl peroxide. Furthermore, the ratio of MBC/MIC of betel leaf extract was 1.75, indicating its bactericidal action. When applied to methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP), betel leaf extract was equally efficient towards both groups. S. pseudintermedius strains were more susceptible to betel leaf extract than S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans. In gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, eugenol and hydroxychavicol appeared to be the major components of betel leaf extract. Given its efficacy, dogs with pyoderma could benefit from the use of betel leaf extract as a topical antimicrobial alternative.