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Flow diagram of search strategy and study selection. 

Flow diagram of search strategy and study selection. 

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After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects i...

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... detailed selection process is presented in Figure 1. First access in PubMed was performed on 30 Table 1. ...

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... Wheat is the primary source of nutrition for over a third of the world's population. Wheat also provides 19% of the calories and 21% of the protein consumed by the world's population (Ali, 2017;Bordoni et al., 2017;Akan et al., 2021). Supplying the production needs for appropriate and balanced nutrition has become a major issue today and in the next years as a result of the rapid increase in population in the world and in Turkey, as well as the narrowing of production areas. ...
... Giacintucci et al. [31] compared spring emmer wheat and common wheat quality and reported that emmer wheat recorded a higher (14.4%) crude protein content than common wheat (11.8%). Bordoni et al. [32] found that the protein content in durum wheat (13.68%) is lower than those in some emmer wheat varieties considered in the present study. Sterna et al. [33] also reported that oats contain 9.7% to 17.30% protein. ...
... Contrary to our findings, Lacko-Bartošová andČurná [30] reported that the growing season has no significant influence on the fat content of emmer wheat. Lower fat content in durum wheat (2.47%) by Bordoni et al. [32] and higher fat content in oats (5.2% to 12.40%) by Sterna et al. [33] were reported compared to some of the emmer wheat varieties considered in the present study. Jocelyne et al. [34] also reported the fat content in wheat (1.73%), maize (4.18%), sorghum (3.65%), and millet (4.58%). ...
... According to Jocelyne et al. [34], the energy values in wheat, maize, sorghum, and millets were 308.22 kcal/100g, 321.79 kcal/100g, 308.84 kcal/100g, and 319.39 kcal/100g, respectively, which are lower than the energy values of emmer wheat varieties considered in the present study. Bordoni et al. [32] also reported that the energy value of durum wheat is 339 kcal/100g, which is higher than those of some emmer wheat varieties. ...
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... Kamut1 is a trademark that has been used in marketing products of the protected cultivated T. turanicum variety QK-77 since 1990 when it was registered in the USA [42]. Kamut1 wheat grain is highly suitable for the production of pasta and other products made from durum wheat, and it is characterized by high nutritional value and health benefits [43,44]. It has low water requirements, which is an important consideration in an era of climate change [45]. ...
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... Over the past century, plant breeders have used traditional and modern breeding strategies to improve agronomic and end-use quality characteristics of wheat. For example, changes in kernel physical characteristics during breeding have been included in many different studies (Bordoni, Danesi, Nunzio, Taccari, & Valli, 2017;Dinu, Whittaker, Pagliai, Benedettelli, & Sofi, 2018;Mefleh et al., 2019). Several findings suggest that the bread baking quality has improved successfully over the last century Guarda, Padovan, & Delogu, 2004;Konvalina, Bradova, Capouchova, Stehno, & Moudry, 2013). ...
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The experiment was performed on 66 breeding lines of Triticum polonicum, four T. durum cultivars, four T. aestivum cultivars, and one T. turanicum cultivar (Kamut® wheat). Wheat grain, bran, and flour were analyzed to determine the concentrations of carotenoids, free and bound phenolic acids, and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant activity in the ABTS+ assay. The total concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene in grain and milling fractions were determined at 3.17, 2.49, and 3.16 mg kg−1 in T. polonicum (in grain, flour, and bran, respectively), and at 4.84, 3.56, and 4.30 mg kg−1 in T. durum, respectively. Polish wheat grain was characterized by high concentrations of p-coumaric acid and syringic acid (9.4 and 41.0 mg kg−1, respectively) and a low content of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (65.2 mg kg−1). Kamut® wheat (T. turanicum) which is closely related to T. polonicum was particularly abundant in 4-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, ferulic, gallic, and t-cinnamic acids. The studied Triticum species did not differ considerably in the concentrations of the eight analyzed flavonoids, and significant differences were noted only in rutin levels. The grain and milling fractions of Kamut® wheat were characterized by very high concentrations of quercetin, naringenin, and vitexin, but significant differences were observed only in vitexin content. Quercetin concentration in Kamut® wheat grain (104.8 mg kg−1) was more than five times higher than in bread wheat (19.6 mg kg−1) and more than twice higher than in Polish wheat (44.1 mg kg−1). Antioxidant activity was highest in bran, followed by grain and flour (4684, 1591, and 813 μM TE g−1, respectively). The grain and flour of the analyzed Triticum species did not differ significantly in terms of antioxidant activity.
... rivet (Triticum turgidum L.), and spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta (L.) Thell)] which are not only believed to be less allergenic but also of nutritional benefit and ecologically more sustainable than highly cultivated "modern" bread wheat [3][4][5][6]. Comprehensive reviews of recent studies on nutritional aspects have been provided by Dinu et al. [7] or Shewry et al. [8]. 1 3 Next to celiac disease, which is a T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory enteropathy in genetically pre-disposed individuals, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated wheat allergy affects up to 0.5% of western pediatric and 1% of the adult population [9][10][11]. Especially in adults, augmentation (risk) factors such as physical activity, drugs or alcohol play an important role. ...
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Purpose Wheat is a frequent elicitor of food allergy in childhood. Especially in popular media, the better digestibility and the lower allergenicity of ancient grains are repeatedly postulated. We addressed the question whether ancient wheat-related grains are less allergenic than modern wheat. Methods Proteins from cultivars of spelt, einkorn, emmer and durum along with durum soft wheat flour, Tritordeum and bread wheat were separated by electrophoresis. Immunoblots were performed with a pool serum of six sera from wheat-sensitized children aged 1–11 years (wheat-specific IgE 22 kUA/l). As controls, pool serum from five sera atopic patients aged 3–13 years who had no sensitization to wheat (wheat-specific IgE 0.11 kUA/l) and six sera from non-atopics at the age of 3 months to 5 years (wheat-specific IgE 0.06 kUA/l) was used. Area under the curve (AUC) in Coomassie-stained gels and immunoblots was determined and related. Results Water/salt-soluble protein patterns were very similar among varieties. In einkorn cultivars, one protein band corresponding to an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (ATI) was absent. Water-insoluble protein fractions differed markedly among varieties and cultivars. IgE bound to a large number of proteins in all protein fractions both in wheat and in the wheat-related ancient grains. Conclusions Patients with sensitization to wheat show a significant IgE binding against both modern and ancient grain varieties of the genus Triticum. Therefore, ancient grains do not appear to have a generally reduced risk for wheat allergy sufferers. However, few individuals only sensitized to ATI could benefit from the consumption of einkorn.