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Flow diagram of reverse logistics activities 

Flow diagram of reverse logistics activities 

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Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a framework to manage product returns for reverse logistics by focusing on estimation of returns for select categories of products in the Indian context. Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops a conceptual model and thereafter an integrated modeling framework borrowing from existing litera...

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Context 1
... review Figure 1 shows the basic flow diagram of RL activities. The complexity of operations and the value recovered increase from bottom-left to top-right in the figure. ...

Citations

... happens, producers get the opportunity to recycle or replace packaging [7]. The framework governing reverse logistics product returns is based on the heuristic decomposition method [8]. At the same time, the functional integration of operations marketing can create a higher level of customer value described through a conceptual framework [9]. ...
Article
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In 2020, there will be 1% bulk sugar product returns. Direct return to warehouse; it is not known how much and what kind of sugar was returned. Changes in the number of uncontrolled product availability occur in the logistics sector. We designed a sugar volume return mechanism to verify the identity of the buyer, the amount and time of the transaction, using the steps of investigation, analysis, and system design that can implement. The application is based on the truffle test framework and smart contracts on the Ropsten test network on the Ethereum Metamask platform wallet, localhost memory, and a decentralized web-based dashboard. Input data on the smart contract so that during the Ropsten net test process, it will generate blocks, hash codes, and contract hashes as transaction details. It also displays a summary report and a blockchain transaction dashboard. How much volume will increase or decrease due to returns, buyers, type of sugar commodity, time, and volume of sugar during data transactions is known. The features developed for smart contracts are private, semi-public transactions with consensus proof of work as validation and verification of the success of transaction data records.
... Numerous studies have analyzed product returns from a logistics and operations management perspective. These studies focus on aspects of logistics chain optimization and cost reduction in order to improve a firm's bottom line (e.g., Anderson, Hansen, & Simester, 2009 ;Horvath, Autry, & Wilcox, 2005 ;Sahay, Srivastava, & Srivastava, 2006 ). Product returns have also been studied from a marketing perspective: Hess and Mayhew (1997) investigated how customers' characteristics and purchase behaviors influence their future Table 1 Overview of selected studies linking firms' marketing instruments and product returns. ...
Article
Online retailers implement various marketing instruments to boost their sales. These marketing instruments can not only impact sales, but also product returns. However, when assessing the performance of marketing instruments, retailers often ignore potential return effects. Theoretically, marketing instruments could increase or decrease returns, depending on how they affect expected and experienced costs and benefits related to a product. In this paper, we empirically examine whether, and how a comprehensive set of marketing instruments (newsletters, catalogs, coupons, free shipping, paid search, affiliate advertising and image advertising) affects product returns. We use data from two major online retailers and show that return effects vary largely across marketing instruments. Surprisingly, none of the instruments reduces product returns. Newsletters, paid search, catalogs and free shipping increase returns substantially by up to 18%. For free shipping and catalogs, the return effects emerge prevalently for fashion categories, whereas online advertising and newsletters increase returns of both fashion and non-fashion products. These findings enhance our understanding of how firm-initiated marketing instruments affect returns and provide guidance for online retailers in multimedia environments.
... For example, sponsoring the environmental event with ecological organization, update label on packages, recuperation and recycling system, and update the website on environmental issues (Srivastava and Srivastava, 2006), ...
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Organizations started realizing the importance of green supply chain management (GSCM) for competitive advantages and sustainable environments. This paper is proposing a structural model relating the antecedents of GSCM to the adoption practices and implementations of GSCM. It starts by identifying an important set of GSCM antecedents and another set of implementation types and adoption practices and defining an initial structural model. Then a rigorous statistical analysis study is performed on data set collected from Egyptian electrical and electronic sector using two statistical models. The first model is called measurement model containing the descriptive statistics of all variables under study, and factor analysis to reduce this large number of variables. The second model is called structural model since it shows the structural relationship between the GSCM antecedents as independent variables and the GSCM implementation types as dependent variables. This structural model is based statistically on both univariate model and multivariate model. As a result of this detailed study some hypotheses are supported, and others are not supported (rejected) and this leads to a final structural model for green supply chain management.
... Firms can use reverse logistics to achieve sustainable development. At the end of a product's life cycle, the reverse supply chain aims to recover value through reuse, recycling, redevelopment, and refurbishment (Prahinski & Kocabasoglu, 2006;Mutha & Pokharel, 2009;Millet, 2011) Firms that are concentrating on developing their reverse logistics capabilities in order to achieve the best possible results by maintaining high quality standards in the form of remarkable performance (Srivastava, 2006;Lam & Lee, 2012). Studies by Jack, Powers, and Skinner (2010) have spawned a plethora of literature on reverse logistics capabilities, which are defined as a firm's ability to correctly utilise existing information and the operational time periods required to provide reverse logistics information. ...
Article
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Purpose: The research looked into the impact of supply chain coordination and integration on Reverse logistic cost saving and customer satisfaction with moderating role of information technology. Design/Method : Employees and supervisors working in supply chain connections were asked to complete a survey. The response of 240 participants was analysed quantitatively using the newest version of SPSS. Findings: The findings suggest that IT enables the impact of supply chain coordination and integration on customer satisfaction while its role in reverse logistic cost saving was not proven in this study. This study's practical applications include assisting managers in developing a reverse logistics dynamic capability to meet the growing problem of returns by integrating and coordinating with supply chain participants. The moderating influence of an IT skill is specifically addressed since it improves the impact of reverse logistics capabilities by improving business performance.
... According to Stahel, "In old times, life extension and reuse were strategies applied in situations of poverty or scarcity [18]. At present, they are signs of management of resources and an intelligent administration value propositions that a business proposes to its clients" [19]. ...
Article
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Society is increasingly concerned about aspects of work related to sustainability. This leads organizations to reflect on the economic, environmental, and social problems that affect both current and future generations. When companies identify an environmental problem, they try to respond to it through changes in their environmental policies, aiming at the transition towards sustainability. In this context, the circular economy appears as a regenerative industrial system that replaces the concept of “end of life” with that of “restoration”. It is oriented to the use of renewable energies, eliminating the use of toxic chemicals, which are harmful to reuse. The theory of socio-emotional wealth describes the behavior patterns of family businesses in response to the environmental changes that occur and the reasons derived from the family character that make them move towards the circular economy model. This article studies the case of the Spanish textile manufacturing and distribution multinational Inditex, analyzing the information collected in its environmental balances in the period 2013–2018. The analysis allows us to observe the speed of Inditex’s transition to the circular economy. For this, transition speed indicators were formed in each of the dimensions of the circular economy model. The results of the study indicate areas in which the company is moving faster and those in which more effort is needed. Finally, a collection of good practices related to the CE used by Inditex is provided.
... Developed countries are working aggressively on the implementation of RL system in their industries due to the strict law and regulations related to the proper disposal of waste, once the product completes its life cycle. But in developing countries like India, the RL is in the emerging stage (Srivastava and Srivastava, 2006;Dutta et al., 2020). There are various RL barriers hindering the process such as lack of government support and corporate interest. ...
Article
Reverse Logistics (RL) is one of the crucial topics for discussion among academicians in the field of environmental performance and sustainability through businesses. RL is found an effective strategy for the business, environment, and sustainable development in many studies. RL is imperative due to various reasons such as reducing environmental problems, cost controlling, competitive advantage, and many more. But, still, the area of RL is not saturated enough; there are various issues that researchers need to address. In this paper, we have focused our concern towards the RL parameters and organised retailers in India. Retailers are one of the significant links in RL process and hence their role is also critical. The paper helps to analyze the RL practices adopted by the organised retailers and their performance. A Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, which is usually abbreviated as TOPSIS generally referred to as the multi-criteria decision analysis method while fuzzy TOPSIS is incorporated to choose the best practitioner of RL among all retailers. The output of the study is based on multiple case studies. Based on the results of RL parameters, the second retailer has emerged as the top while the fifth retailer is found as the lowest among all the retailers. The findings of the study provided a rank of them that aid others to improve their performances. Further, the identified RL parameters as critical inputs indicate the retailers being extra proactive and well-arranged encompassed of twenty-four retailers in three groups. The study’s emphasis on vital factors will support others to achieve higher productivity for higher sustainability in the retail sector context.
... This approach makes reference to several factors including collection, separation, transition processes, delivery, and integration (Sarkis, 2003). From an environmental point of view, the concept of reverse logistics places emphasis on using reusable materials or returning recyclable ones (Sahay et al., 2006). Thus, reverse logistics is considered a common adopted GSCM practice (De Sousa Jabbour et al., 2013), as it involves traditional transportation and inventory management. ...
Chapter
It is well understood that waste or scrap is a by-product of daily activities and social behavior. Waste could originate from various sectors and encompasses various components that renders it quite attractive to valorize and develop various valuable products out of. Waste could originate from industrial sectors that render it hard to classify, such as the case in end-of-life tires or industrial scrap. Both of which contain a hefty proportion of metallic fractions that make them quite attractive to reuse. To put things into a better perspective, the Oxford English Dictionary defines scrap as “odds and ends, leavings; waste material.” For hundreds of years, waste materials were viewed as undesired substances that must be disposed of after their primary use. Recycling in modern societies has received great attention since it provides the means for generating value from scrap materials. This chapter aims to provide a critical insight on the challenge of sustainable development that has been started from the last century, dedicated to develop cost-effectiveness processes for metallic-based recycles. It will also discuss the current technologies employed for metal recovery and recycling from waste to high purity metallic feedstock production, that can be used in both traditional and high-tech applications. Here we will focus on the recycling of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) metals and their alloys, originating from various sectors. Moreover, a detailed discussion on the new applications of the recycled metals in different sectors will be provided. This chapter will also present research insights and case studies of metal recycling and their advanced applications. This chapter provides a Birdseye view of possible integrated waste management holistic approaches that can render such metallic waste of high end value to the chain of waste management.
... There are very few empirical studies related to the reverse flow of products in a supply chain, despite the due consideration given to RL by both practitioners and researchers (Srivastava and Srivastava, 2006). In recent practice, RL is being adopted for strategic reasons by many manufacturing companies. ...
... Issues related to damaged goods and quality problems present substantial challenges for RL processes. This is reflected in the design of RL networks, where quantity, quality and arrival time of returns are of paramount importance (Srivastava and Srivastava, 2006). The practices of RL vary from company to company and by channel position within the supply chain. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this research is to identify major barriers to the implementation of reverse logistics (RL). Also, the study addresses best practices among reuse, remanufacture, recycling, refurbishment and repair as alternatives for RL processes. Design/methodology/approach This study targets supply chain management experts for their opinions regarding the identification of critical barriers and alternatives for RL implementation. Their opinions were extracted through a Web questionnaire based on 14 criteria with 5 alternatives. The tools of multi-criteria decision-making are used for analysis, i.e. fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS. Findings The results indicate that lack of recognition of competitive advantage to be gained through RL practice is the most critical barrier to RL implementation. The least barrier or major facilitator for RL is “supportive initiative for end-of-life products.” The top-ranked alternative in this study is reuse followed by remanufacturing. The least important alternative is “repair” in the case of Pakistan. These alternatives are ranked based on “ q values” derived through fuzzy VIKOR. Research limitations/implications The results of this study can only be generalized for the manufacturing sector of Pakistan during the period of the study. Practical implications The findings of this study will assist managers in deploying the best practices concerning RL. Originality/value Fuzzy VIKOR and fuzzy TOPSIS have not been applied to RL alternatives in previous research.
... As can be seen, the environmental impact of returns can be both positive and negative. Additionally, returns are a challenge for logisticians because it is difficult to plan and forecast them in the supply chain [Mollenkopf, et al., 2007;Srivastava, Srivastava, 2006]. Since returns are an inherent part of e-commerce, they need to be properly addressed. ...
Article
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Background: Along with the very dynamic development of e-commerce, the number of logistics operations involved in order fulfilment is increasing at a similar rate in B2C relationships. Each product must be completed, packed and shipped or handed over for collection by the customer. Although online shopping is very convenient for customers, it has a negative impact on the environment. The problem lays with the transportation of individual shipments, additional packaging and materials used for this purpose, and returns. The aim of this paper is to present the main logistics challenges related to ecofriendly e-commerce and examine the influence of the green logistics approach in e-commerce on customer satisfaction and loyalty. Methods: Both computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) and computer-assisted web interviews (CAWI) were applied to gather data. In total, 592 correctly completed questionnaires were received-200 records from CATI and 392 interviews using CAWI. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the variables. Results: The empirical study confirmed the relationship between green logistics, satisfaction, and loyalty. This means that the more attention online retailers pay to green delivery (parcel lockers, pick up drop off points, click & collect), packaging (environmentally friendly materials and sizing of the packaging) and returns (returnable packaging, return of used products), the more satisfied and willing to buy from the same retailers again the customers are. Conclusions: For online shoppers, not only price, and wide products selection as well as fast delivery are important, but also environmental aspects matter more and more often. Logistics is of particular importance. If it is not well planned and organised, it can have a negative impact on the environment. The winners are those who invest in ecological solutions. The presented research results encourage further scientific exploration, which would be devoted only to this issue, taking into account other e-commerce stakeholders, i.e. sellers, suppliers and complementors.
... Sustainability in the supply chain has become a strategic intent for almost all businesses, and reverse logistics practice is key to the effort. In maximizing the value recovery and safe disposal of waste, reverse logistics expands products at the end of their life cycles through some activities such as resell, refurbish, remanufacture, and recycle, to name a few [1]. Besides optimizing value and sustainability for businesses, the reverse logistics issue that directly impacts supply chains the most is to manage the return of products from the end consumer back to the Moreover, the literature on outsourcing 3PRLP is still limited because of its recent emergence and demand from stakeholders. ...
Article
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On the heels of the online shopping boom during the Covid-19 pandemic, the electronic commerce (e-commerce) surge has many businesses facing an influx in product returns. Thus, relevant companies must implement robust reverse logistics strategies to reflect the increased importance of the capability. Reverse logistics also plays a radical role in any business’s sustainable development as a process of reusing, remanufacturing, and redistributing products. Within this context, outsourcing to a third-party reverse logistics provider (3PRLP) has been identified as one of the most important management strategies for today’s organizations, especially e-commerce players. The objective of this study is to develop a decision support system to assist businesses in the selection and evaluation of different 3PRLPs by a hybrid fuzzy multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) approach. Relevant criteria concerning the economic, environmental, social, and risk factors are incorporated and taken into the models. For obtaining more scientific and accurate ranking results, linguistic terms are adopted to reduce fuzziness and uncertainties of criteria weights in the natural decision-making process. The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is applied to measure the criteria’s relative significance over the evaluation process. The fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (FTOPSIS) is then used to rank the alternatives. The prescribed method was adopted for solving a case study on the 3PRLP selection for an online merchant in Vietnam. As a result, the most compatible 3PRLP was determined. The study also indicated that “lead time,” “customer’s voice,” “cost,” “delivery and service,” and “quality” are the most dominant drivers when selecting 3PLRLs. This study aims to provide a more complete and robust evaluation process to e-commerce businesses and any organization that deals with supply chain management in determining the optimized reverse logistics partners.