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Flow chart of the propensity-score matching process.

Flow chart of the propensity-score matching process.

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Article
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Female and male very elderly intensive patients (VIPs) might differ in characteristics and outcomes. We aimed to compare female versus male VIPs in a large, multinational collective of VIPs with regards to outcome and predictors of mortality. In total, 7555 patients were included in this analysis, 3973 (53%) male and 3582 (47%) female patients. The...

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... this post-hoc analysis of these two prospective trials, all patients admitted acutely (non-electively) with complete data on age, gender, clinical frailty score (CFS) frailty score and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and 30-day-mortality were included (Supplemental Fig. 1). Elective patients from VIP1 were specifically excluded as they significantly differ from acutely admitted patients in risk distribution and outcomes as previously shown 17 . The primary endpoint of this study was 30-day-mortality. Frailty was assessed by CFS and the respective visual and simple description which were used with ...
Context 2
... propensity scores for being male were calculated ( Fig. 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports/ admission diagnosis (respiratory failure, circulatory failure, combined respiratory and circulatory failure, sepsis, multi-trauma with and without head injury, isolated head injury, intoxication, cerebral injury without trauma, emergency surgery, other). Propensity score 2 included all items of ...
Context 3
... 1. Baseline characteristics of the matched-cohort 1 (matched on propensity score 1, which included only baseline variables, see Fig. 1) are given in Table 2. Risk parameters were evenly distributed between male and female patients, but rates of renal replacement therapy were higher (13% vs. 9%; p < 0.001) in males as were lengths of ICU ...
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... not (OR 1.02 95%CI 0.92-1.14; p = 0.69) associated with intra-ICU mortality in this matched cohort. www.nature.com/scientificreports/ Matched-cohort 2. Table 3 shows baseline characteristics of matched-cohort 2 (matched on propensity score 2, which includes baseline variables and information on organ support as well as treatment limitations, see Fig. 1). Again, male patients evidenced longer ICU stays (p < 0.001). Again, in the paired analysis, the mortality in male VIPs was higher (mean difference 3.34% 95%CI 0.92-5.76%; p = 0.007) compared to females. In univariable logistic regression, male gender was associated with higher odds for 30-day-mortality (42% vs. 39%; aOR 1.15 95%CI ...

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Citations

... Twelve (n = 12, 20.6) studies exclusively used this approach [2, 18-23, 27, 58-61], without using any additional frailty score. Ten studies [10,30,33,34,37,39,46,47,52,56] only assessed functional status for follow-up, after assessing frailty at the time of hospitalization. ...
... In some studies, the pre-ICU frailty assessment was retrospectively assessed as based on data which were routinely documented for other purposes and not specifically collected for frailty measurement [56-58, 60, 61, 64, 67, 70, 72]. In these studies, the pre-ICU frailty assessment had either been reconstructed from the staff notes from the clinic where the patients were hospitalized [57,64,70] or was based on external datasets containing medical records of inpatients and outpatients, skilled nursing facilities, home health agencies, nursing homes, and permanent medical equipment [58,60,67,72], In one study [61], pre-ICU frailty status was adopted from a national registry, and in two cases [54,56], it was extracted from another study. In the remaining studies, a pre-ICU frailty or functional performance assessment was carried out at the unit where the patient was hospitalized previous to ICU admission, but without specifying exactly the method at the time of triage [2], time of inclusion [22,42], or at time of ICU admission [33,39,45]. ...
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... It also goes hand in hand with a higher risk for infections and sepsis, which is another common clinical challenge associated with high morbidity and mortality [3][4][5]. A better understanding of subgroups at higher risk could therefore contribute to improved patient care [6][7][8][9][10][11]. The pathogenesis and optimal treatment of septic patients is the subject of intensive research, whereas mortality remains high and an often limited functional capacity in surviving patients remains a challenge [6,[12][13][14]. ...
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... In very old patients, mortality was higher in female patients and in those who did not receive mechanical ventilation or vasopressors. We are aware of the limitations of subgroup analyses (44), and we demonstrated recently that there were no clinically relevant differences between the sexes in septic patients (45,46). However, the trend toward a higher mortality in patients that did not receive intubation or vasopressors could reflect a more restrictive use of this therapy in very old patients. ...
Article
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