Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... Flora Farnese, Velletri Pallas and Bar- berini Faun (Figs. 1 -3) are three gypsum plaster casts dating back to the end of the 18th century: their sizes constitute a challenge for the conservators, being in the range from 2,04 m to 3,55 m approximately. They were made from original marble statues which are currently conserved in three different museums: the Archaeological Museum of Naples (Flora Farnese), the Louvre Museum (Pallas of Velletri) and the Munich Glypto- thek (Barberini Faun). ...
Context 2
... spectrum (Fig. 10) shows the absorption pattern of unknown material sampled from the grey layer. It displays a good overlapping referring to the mineral Newberyte. This is a magnesium hydrogen phosphate which crystallizes with three molecules of water [Mg(HPO₄)·3H₂O]. The hydrogen phosphate ion is reported to be prevalent in weakly basic conditions, but ...
Context 3
... Dry cleaning (Fig. 24) 2. Wet cleaning (Fig. 11) 3. Agar Gel cleaning ( Fig. 11 and Fig. 25) Processing with a dry cleaning on a decayed gypsum surface, using a synthetic rubber or a sponge, kneads the soiling onto the gypsum matrix. This is a drawback, because it produces an uneven cleaning level, which gives the impression of a stained sur- face. Wetting the surface with a water ...
Context 4
... Dry cleaning (Fig. 24) 2. Wet cleaning (Fig. 11) 3. Agar Gel cleaning ( Fig. 11 and Fig. 25) Processing with a dry cleaning on a decayed gypsum surface, using a synthetic rubber or a sponge, kneads the soiling onto the gypsum matrix. This is a drawback, because it produces an uneven cleaning level, which gives the impression of a stained sur- face. Wetting the surface with a water based system and adding water to the gypsum ...
Context 5
... Agar gel was not effective inside the scratches and the poultice seemed to dam- age the morphology of the plaster surface (Fig. 11). ...
Context 6
... laser cleaning tests were performed (Figs. 12 -13). As already mentioned, with gels and poultice solvent (hydro-alcoholic solution) the cleaning resulted in an unsat- isfactory surface respect to the laser, which on the contrary, proved a correct balance between harmfulness and ...
Context 7
... it is possible to see in the maps of the elements, the ablation at FL over 1.9 J/cm 2 removed almost completely the magnesium and phosphorus formations, clearly indi- cating an overcleaning (Fig. 17). The visual results displayed in Fig. 15 highlighted in fact an unnatural white surface, where a portion of the near-surface region has been removed with the outcome that it damaged the surface of the gypsum work (Figs. 14 ...
Context 8
... it is possible to see in the maps of the elements, the ablation at FL over 1.9 J/cm 2 removed almost completely the magnesium and phosphorus formations, clearly indi- cating an overcleaning (Fig. 17). The visual results displayed in Fig. 15 highlighted in fact an unnatural white surface, where a portion of the near-surface region has been removed with the outcome that it damaged the surface of the gypsum work (Figs. 14 ...
Context 9
... at FL over 1.9 J/cm 2 removed almost completely the magnesium and phosphorus formations, clearly indi- cating an overcleaning (Fig. 17). The visual results displayed in Fig. 15 highlighted in fact an unnatural white surface, where a portion of the near-surface region has been removed with the outcome that it damaged the surface of the gypsum work (Figs. 14 ...
Context 10
... conclusion, analyses were carried out to evaluate the differences between the untreated and cleaned laser zones; they allowed to observe the partial lowering of the Newberyte formation avoiding its com- Fig. 12. Laser test at 1.5 J/cm². Fig. 13. Laser test at 0.7 J/cm². plete removal, except for the over cleaning ...
Context 11
... conclusion, analyses were carried out to evaluate the differences between the untreated and cleaned laser zones; they allowed to observe the partial lowering of the Newberyte formation avoiding its com- Fig. 12. Laser test at 1.5 J/cm². Fig. 13. Laser test at 0.7 J/cm². plete removal, except for the over cleaning ...
Context 12
... because the plaster base had an irregular rocky surface, which carries the working marks, transferred on the plaster from the original marble. During this first laser tests, it was obligatory to take into consideration the cleaning of the bas-relief located in the front of the wooden base structure on which the plaster cast of the Pallas stands (Figs. 18 -19). Fluence = 0.7 J/cm² was used to remove the homogenos grey layer of the background, while the figures were treated with fluence = Fig. 17. Overcleaning. These maps show that the Newberyite is no longer present. 0.8 J/cm², also increasing the value on stains up to a maximum of 1 J/cm². It was necessary to modulate the values of fluence ...
Context 13
... During this first laser tests, it was obligatory to take into consideration the cleaning of the bas-relief located in the front of the wooden base structure on which the plaster cast of the Pallas stands (Figs. 18 -19). Fluence = 0.7 J/cm² was used to remove the homogenos grey layer of the background, while the figures were treated with fluence = Fig. 17. Overcleaning. These maps show that the Newberyite is no longer present. 0.8 J/cm², also increasing the value on stains up to a maximum of 1 J/cm². It was necessary to modulate the values of fluence and the repetition frequency, instead of using fixed parameters, to be able to clean effectively the draped dresses of the two female ...
Context 14
... cleaning proved to be particularly effective to eliminate the accumulated black particles in the areas underneath the verti- cal folds and under the laying zones of the richly decorative elements of the breastplate (depicting snakes and the head of Medusa) (Figs. 20 ...
Context 15
... correspondence with the anatomical parts, it was necessary to be very careful and delicate and to use the right manual skills. In Fig. 18. Low relief before irradiation. Fig. 19. Low relief after irradiation at 0.7 J/cm². particular, the nudity of the Faun regained the full lapse definition of details, which pre- viously were hidden by deposits irregularly distributed on the modelled ...
Context 16
... correspondence with the anatomical parts, it was necessary to be very careful and delicate and to use the right manual skills. In Fig. 18. Low relief before irradiation. Fig. 19. Low relief after irradiation at 0.7 J/cm². particular, the nudity of the Faun regained the full lapse definition of details, which pre- viously were hidden by deposits irregularly distributed on the modelled ...

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