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Flooding susceptibility of W. Rajil based on El-Shamy's approach (R b vs. D d layer superimposed on R b vs. F s layer). 

Flooding susceptibility of W. Rajil based on El-Shamy's approach (R b vs. D d layer superimposed on R b vs. F s layer). 

Citations

... This has harmed urban life and infrastructure, ruined services, and exacerbated some health issues such as starvation and disease (Maslamani et al. 2017). Aqaba, Ma'an, and Wadi Musa-Petra have all been hit by flash floods, which have wreaked havoc on lives and infrastructure (Al-Weshah and El-Khoury 1999;Al-Qudah and Abu-Jaber 2009;Farhan and Ayed 2017). ...
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Rainfall is most important factor influencing the atmospheric cycle of the atmosphere, since its spatial and temporal distributions are very complex. Heavy rainfall events may cause flash floods in the arid and semi-arid regions Middle East. The present study investigates the synoptic and dynamics situations of four extreme rainfall events that occurred in Iraq on 04, 15, 24, and 30 of November 2018. Rainfall data were acquired from the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), and surface and upper meteorological variable were acquired from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Reanalysis v5 (ERA5). The Rainfall analysis showed that November 2018 was characterized by the most unusual heavy rain events during the past two decades with a maximum of 200 mm/month (an anomaly of about 120 mm/month) near the town of Kut in the east part of the country (with an anomaly of about 120 mm/month). Analysis of surface and upper level charts indicated that during the four events the region was dominated by the Active Red Sea Trough (ARST), a situation when RST at the surface is associated by mid-tropospheric trough. The results also denoted that moisture was transported from equatorial north east Africa and the Red Sea towards north east regions including Iraq. The 850 hPa chart denoted that the warm moist air was advancing towards the cooler areas with a maximum speed of 20 m/s above the axis of the RST. The negative vertical pressure velocity along with high values of relative humidity suggests that cloud continued to develop at that level. 500 hPa charts showed that during all four events there was a positive vorticity advection towards the areas where rain was falling. This advection process contributes to a lifting of the air to upper levels. The 200 hPa composite maps of polar front jet stream and ageostrophic divergence indicated that in all four events there were high air suction from lower levels which enforced upward vertical motion at these levels and deepening low pressure areas at the surface.
... Drainage density: Drainage density (Dd) is the ratio of total length of streams of all orders to the basin area. Dd value refers to the proximity of the channel spacing; therefore, it is a quantitative measure for relief analysis, runoff potential, and thus, in turn the drainage efficiency of the river basin (Yahya and Atef, 2017). A low drainage density indicates poor drainage basin with a slow hydrological response while a high drainage density shows a highly separated basin with a relatively rapid hydrologic reaction to rainfall (Melton 1957). ...
... High Dd values denote high flow and low penetration rates due to the presence of waterproof base materials, spare vegetation, and hilly relief. Conversely, low drainage density implies low runoff, high infiltration, and groundwater recharge (Yahya and Atef, 2017). Dd value for Hieu watershed ranges from 0.035 to 0.35. ...
Chapter
The research on building a flood mapping in Lai Giang Basin of Binh Dinh Province in 2016 on the use of Sentinel-1 radar image and GIS initially determines the construction of flooded square in the studied area based on the results of the process of scattering water value threshold, extracting flooded areas on the radar image. This flood mapping is combined with the depth measured from the flood in 2016 traces to apply GIS techniques to create of flood depth map. The results of the study provide a new way of quickly creating flood maps from radar satellite images.
... These include social vulnerability to floods and flash floods (Bălteanu et al. 2015); human-related impact factors for dynamic vulnerability factors (Ruin et al. 2008(Ruin et al. , 2014Terti et al. 2015a;Aroca-Jimenez et al. 2017;Guillén et al. 2017); structural vulnerability of traditional buildings (Milanesi et al. 2018); and multi-vulnerability assessment considering physical and social factors (Karagiorgos et al. 2016a). Assessment of future risks (Åström et al. 2015;Farhan and Ayed 2017), communication of risks (Lazrus et al. 2016), economic risks (Garrote et al. 2016) and the physical or tangible impact of flash floods is also frequently studied (Basnyat et al. 2017;Pregnolato et al. 2017). There are also studies that focus on flash flood-related impacts in urban areas such as Ellicott City (Basnyat et al. 2017) and Attica, Greece (Papagiannaki et al. , 2017. ...
Article
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Small-scale flash flood events are climate-related disasters which can put multiple aspects of the system at risk. The consequences of flash floods in densely populated cities are increasingly becoming problematic around the globe. However, they are largely ignored in disaster impact assessment studies, especially in assessing socioeconomic loss and damage, which can provide a significant insight for disaster risk reduction measures. Using a structured questionnaire survey, this study applied a statistical approach and developed a structural equation model (SEM) for assessing several socioeconomic dimensions including physical impacts, mobility disruption, lifeline facilities, health and income-related impacts. The study reveals that respondents have experienced a stronger impact on direct tangible elements such as household contents and buildings as well as direct intangible elements with β coefficients 0.703, 0.576 and 0.635, respectively, at p < 0:001 level. The direct intangible impacts affect mobility disruption with β coefficients equal to 0.701 at p < 0:001 level which then further cause adversity to income-generating activities with β 0.316 at significant p < 0:001 as well. The overall model fit indices show highly acceptable scores of SRMR 0.068, RMSEA 0.055 and PClose 0.092. Thus, the SEM has successfully incorporated the socioeconomic dimensions of disaster impact and explained the impact phenomena reliably. This modeling approach will allow inclusion of various variables from different disciplines to assess hazard impact, vulnerability and resilience.
... Group (2) has parameters that are inversely proportional to the degree of risk, including the parameters such as elongation ratio, compactness number, hypsometric integral, geometry number, and shape factor. Farhan and Ayed (2017) assessed the flash-flood hazard in arid watersheds of Jordan. Flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainstorms is common in arid Jordan and often has induced immense damage to life and infrastructures. ...
... Flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainstorms is common in arid Jordan and often has induced immense damage to life and infrastructures. The morphometric hazard degree assessment method employed eleven morphometric parameters with a direct effect on flash floods (Yousif and Bubenzer (2015) and Farhan and Ayed (2017)). Eight parameters are characterized with a directly proportional relationship with the degree of risk (drainage area, drainage density, stream frequency, basin shape index, relief ratio, ruggedness number, slope index, and drainage texture ratio), whereas three parameters have an inverse proportional relationship with the degree of risk (mean bifurcation ratio, length overland flow, and sinuosity). ...
Article
Morphometric analysis is vital to prioritize sub-watershed for flood hazard assessment in drainage basins for proper planning and management of natural resources for sustainable development. The present study was aimed to assess flash flood hazards and prioritize sub-watersheds in the Heliopolis basin, East Cairo, Egypt. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) with 90 m resolution DEM has been used to generate drainage networks and delineation of sub-watersheds. This basin has been classified into ten sub-watersheds; three groups of morphometric parameters: basic, derived, and shape parameters were measured and calculated quantitatively using Arc GIS and WMS10.1 package. The morphometric hazard degree assessment method has been employed to generate a flooding risk susceptibility map. Results reveal that W. Al-Nasory Al-Kabir constituting 24.74% of the total area has a “high hazard degree”, and thus represents dangerous sub-basins with high flooding susceptibility, whereas the susceptibility of the other sub-watersheds has been found as “moderate” [W. El Forn trunk, W. Al-Aqabia, W. El-Halazony, W. Al-Debah, W. Al-Yahmoum, and W. Al-Monaqee (62.03%)], and “slight hazard” [W. Abu Dorma, W. El-Daltan, and W. Elwiat El-Widian (13.23%)]. Ten morphometric parameters have been selected and used for ranking and prioritizing sub-watersheds to detect the most vulnerable sub-watershed to soil erosion and to generate a flooding priority map. In this regard, W. Al-Aqabia, El -Forn trunk, W. El-Halazony, W. Al-Yahmoum, W. Al-Nasory Al-Kabir, and W. Al-Debah sub-watersheds have been categorized into higher priorities. Therefore, these sub-watersheds are relatively affected by runoff and soil erosion. The obtained results can help decision-makers to understand flooding risk susceptibility in the different sub-watersheds in the study area and this led to better management to avoid flood risk disasters.
... Group (2) has parameters that are inversely proportional to the degree of risk, including the parameters such as elongation ratio, compactness number, hypsometric integral, geometry number, and shape factor. Farhan and Ayed (2017) assessed the flash-flood hazard in arid watersheds of Jordan. Flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainstorms is common in arid Jordan and often has induced immense damage to life and infrastructures. ...
... Flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainstorms is common in arid Jordan and often has induced immense damage to life and infrastructures. The morphometric hazard degree assessment method employed eleven morphometric parameters with a direct effect on flash floods (Yousif and Bubenzer (2015) and Farhan and Ayed (2017)). Eight parameters are characterized with a directly proportional relationship with the degree of risk (drainage area, drainage density, stream frequency, basin shape index, relief ratio, ruggedness number, slope index, and drainage texture ratio), whereas three parameters have an inverse proportional relationship with the degree of risk (mean bifurcation ratio, length overland flow, and sinuosity). ...
Article
Morphometric analysis is vital to prioritize sub-watershed for flood hazard assessment in drainage basins for proper planning and management of natural resources for sustainable development. The present study was aimed to assess flash flood hazards and prioritize sub-watersheds in the Heliopolis basin, East Cairo, Egypt. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) with 90 m resolution DEM has been used to generate drainage networks and delineation of sub-watersheds. This basin has been classified into ten sub-watersheds; three groups of morphometric parameters: basic, derived, and shape parameters were measured and calculated quantitatively using Arc GIS and WMS10.1 package. The morphometric hazard degree assessment method has been employed to generate a flooding risk susceptibility map. Results reveal that W. Al-Nasory Al-Kabir constituting 24.74% of the total area has a "high hazard degree", and thus represents dangerous sub-basins with high flooding susceptibility, whereas the susceptibility of the other sub-watersheds has been found as "moderate" [W. El Forn trunk, W. Al-Aqabia, W. El-Halazony, W. Al-Debah, W. Al-Yahmoum, and W. Al-Monaqee (62.03%)], and "slight hazard" [W. Abu Dorma, W. El-Daltan, and W. Elwiat El-Widian (13.23%)]. Ten morphometric parameters have been selected and used for ranking and prioritizing sub-watersheds to detect the most vulnerable sub-watershed to soil erosion and to generate a flooding priority map. In this regard, W. Al-Aqabia, El-Forn trunk, W. El-Halazony, W. Al-Yahmoum, W. Al-Nasory Al-Kabir, and W. Al-Debah sub-watersheds have been categorized into higher priorities. Therefore, these sub-watersheds are relatively affected by runoff and soil erosion. The obtained results can help decision-makers to understand flooding risk susceptibility in the different sub-watersheds in the study area and this led to better management to avoid flood risk disasters.
... The potential maximum retention of soil can be obtained from the following equation: (6) Where S: potential maximum retention (inch) CN: Curve number. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jordan is located in an arid zone that is subject to flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainfall storms that frequently prompt massive damage to life and infrastructure. The Zarqa Ma'in catchment area is located in the central part of Jordan, East of the Dead Sea and about 10 km southwest of Madaba city. A major flash flood event occurred in the Zarqa Ma'in area on October 25th, 2018. This event was characterized by a rainfall precipitation amount of 43 mm within 22 minutes. The impact of this flood has been disastrous, with 21 people killed and several injured. This study deals with the analysis of the various factors that caused this flash flood as well as calculation of runoff values for Zarqa Ma'in catchment area through the use of the hydrologic modeling Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method, a method that is often used by hydrologists in arid regions and Watershed Modeling System model (WMS 11) and Geographic Information System (GIS 10.7). Rainfall and climatological data analysis and interpretation by using frequency analysis indicated an increase in rainfall amounts and temperature during the last 40 years due to global climate change. Analysis of morphometric parameters showed that the morphometric characteristics of the watershed contribute to high-speed floods with low infiltration rates. LU/LC results showed that the bare rocks and soil cover about 35% of the Zarqa Ma'in catchment area which will increase the velocity of runoff water and accelerate its flood peak. In the hydrological modeling, the HEC-HMS model was applied to Zarqa Ma'in watershed to predict the surface runoff after passing with WMS. The peak discharges obtained for the thunderstorm which occurred on October 25th, 2018. The flood hydrograph volume is about 2.98 MCM with a peak discharge of about 102.94 m3/s for sub-basin 1, 1.31 MCM with a peak discharge of about 126.66 m3/s for sub-basin2 and 4.3 MCM with a peak discharge of 146.7 m3/s at the outlet of Zarqa Ma'in catchment. The result of the cross section of sub-basin1 indicate a water depth of 11m from the ground, while the water depth in the cross-section of sub-basin2 from the ground was 3m.
... The potential maximum retention of soil can be obtained from the following equation: (6) Where S: potential maximum retention (inch) CN: Curve number. ...
Article
Jordan is located in an arid zone that is subject to flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainfall storms that frequently prompt massive damage to life and infrastructure. The Zarqa Ma'in catchment area is located in the central part of Jordan, East of the Dead Sea and about 10 km southwest of Madaba city. A major flash flood event occurred in the Zarqa Ma'in area on October 25th, 2018. This event was characterized by a rainfall precipitation amount of 43 mm within 22 minutes. The impact of this flood has been disastrous, with 21 people killed and several injured. This study deals with the analysis of the various factors that caused this flash flood as well as calculation of runoff values for Zarqa Ma'in catchment area through the use of the hydrologic modeling Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method, a method that is often used by hydrologists in arid regions and Watershed Modeling System model (WMS 11) and Geographic Information System (GIS 10.7). Rainfall and climatological data analysis and interpretation by using frequency analysis indicated an increase in rainfall amounts and temperature during the last 40 years due to global climate change. Analysis of morphometric parameters showed that the morphometric characteristics of the watershed contribute to high-speed floods with low infiltration rates. LU/LC results showed that the bare rocks and soil cover about 35% of the Zarqa Ma'in catchment area which will increase the velocity of runoff water and accelerate its flood peak. In the hydrological modeling, the HEC-HMS model was applied to Zarqa Ma'in watershed to predict the surface runoff after passing with WMS. The peak discharges obtained for the thunderstorm which occurred on October 25th, 2018. The flood hydrograph volume is about 2.98 MCM with a peak discharge of about 102.94 m3/s for sub-basin 1, 1.31 MCM with a peak discharge of about 126.66 m3/s for sub-basin2 and 4.3 MCM with a peak discharge of 146.7 m3/s at the outlet of Zarqa Ma'in catchment. The result of the cross section of sub-basin1 indicate a water depth of 11m from the ground, while the water depth in the cross-section of sub-basin2 from the ground was 3m.
... The potential maximum retention of soil can be obtained from the following equation: (6) Where S: potential maximum retention (inch) CN: Curve number. ...
Article
Full-text available
Jordan is located in an arid zone that is subject to flash flood hazard initiated by heavy rainfall storms that frequently prompt massive damage to life and infrastructure. The Zarqa Ma'in catchment area is located in the central part of Jordan, East of the Dead Sea and about 10 km southwest of Madaba city. A major flash flood event occurred in the Zarqa Ma'in area on October 25th, 2018. This event was characterized by a rainfall precipitation amount of 43 mm within 22 minutes. The impact of this flood has been disastrous, with 21 people killed and several injured. This study deals with the analysis of the various factors that caused this flash flood as well as calculation of runoff values for Zarqa Ma'in catchment area through the use of the hydrologic modeling Soil Conservation Services (SCS) method, a method that is often used by hydrologists in arid regions and Watershed Modeling System model (WMS 11) and Geographic Information System (GIS 10.7). Rainfall and climatological data analysis and interpretation by using frequency analysis indicated an increase in rainfall amounts and temperature during the last 40 years due to global climate change. Analysis of morphometric parameters showed that the morphometric characteristics of the watershed contribute to high-speed floods with low infiltration rates. LU/LC results showed that the bare rocks and soil cover about 35% of the Zarqa Ma'in catchment area which will increase the velocity of runoff water and accelerate its flood peak. In the hydrological modeling, the HEC-HMS model was applied to Zarqa Ma'in watershed to predict the surface runoff after passing with WMS. The peak discharges obtained for the thunderstorm which occurred on October 25th, 2018. The flood hydrograph volume is about 2.98 MCM with a peak discharge of about 102.94 m3/s for sub-basin 1, 1.31 MCM with a peak discharge of about 126.66 m3/s for sub-basin2 and 4.3 MCM with a peak discharge of 146.7 m3/s at the outlet of Zarqa Ma'in catchment. The result of the cross section of sub-basin1 indicate a water depth of 11m from the ground, while the water depth in the cross-section of sub-basin2 from the ground was 3m.
... References [40][41][42][43][44][45][46] applied a degree of flood hazard model. This model is based on calculating the degree of hazard for each geomorphometric criterion for the drainage sub-basins using mathematical equations, and then calculating the degree of hazards for each drainage sub-basin. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drainage basins in dry and semiarid environments are exposed to sudden, irregular flooding that poses a threat to urban areas and infrastructure. The associated risk is exacerbated by land use changes. Geomorphometric analyses of drainage basins based on geographic information systems (GIS) are essential tools for assessing conceptual flood hazards. Geomorphological data extracted from high-precision digital elevation models (DEMs) provide valuable information for modeling the geomorphic, surface classifications of the earth, and for flood hazard mapping. This study aimed to develop an integrative approach to the mapping of flood hazards along the AlShamal train pathway in the city of Qurayyat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) using GIS and hazard modeling for geomorphological ranking. Furthermore, we propose strategic solutions to provide mitigation and protection from negative impacts with the aim of improving the level of awareness of flood geomorphology. The hazard model of geomorphological ranking was used in mapping and calculating the degree of hazards using 24 geomorphometric criteria. These criteria were divided into formal criteria, terrain criteria, and criteria related to the drainage network. The results of the study revealed that the drainage sub-basins are exposed to flood hazards along the Al-Shamal train pathway in the city of Qurayyat. The very high flood hazard constituted 4228.3 km2, accounting for 70.3% and 65.7%, respectively, of the drainage basins of the wadis of Makhrouq and Bayer. The high flood hazard represented 61% (4712.4 km2) of the basin of the wadis of Sarmadaa. The medium flood hazard was concentrated in the drainage basin of the wadi of Hasidah, accounting for nearly 57.7% (1271.3 km2). The very low flood hazard was present in 46.5% of the drainage basin of the wadis of Hasidah Umm Nakhla, accounting for an area of 799.4 km2. The methodology applied in this study can be used in the estimation of flood hazards in different drainage basins throughout Saudi Arabia and in similar arid regions.
... The mean Lur (Lurm) is the average of all orders of the watershed. Lurm is an important variable that can be used to examine the hydrological characteristics of the drainage basin, for example, surface runoff and the hydrological properties of the underlying bedrock permeability (Farhan and Ayed 2017). ...
Article
Addis Ababa city has a degraded stream ecosystem and redundant flash flooding that can destroy the existing urban infrastructure and utilities. This research aimed to map flash flood vulnerability of the Kebena watershed inside Addis Ababa and evaluate the status of the riparian landscape. Methodologically, the study employed the Biophysical Composition Index (BCI) to detect impervious surfaces and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to classify the vegetation cover. The Arc-hydro tool was used to identify micro-watersheds and measure the morphometric factors, then principal component analysis (PCA) identified the surrogate factors. Fuzzy overlay analysis combined land cover and morphometric analysis results to produce the final flash flood vulnerability map. Moreover, riparian buffering at 15, 30, and 90 m distances were defined to measure the degree of imperviousness, greenness, and vulnerability to flash flooding. Accordingly, 969 ha of land was depicted within the watershed as flash flood vulnerable areas. These areas are primarily found in the southeastern and southwestern parts where impervious land cover prevailed, and the northwestern portion which has extremely rugged terrain and has a sparse vegetation cover. For all buffering distances, the proportion of impervious surface is greater than the vegetation cover. Even within 15 m buffering distance, which was set as the national urban planning standard. It is concluded that Kebena watershed is vulnerable to flash floods as the riparian landscape is dominated by impervious and depleted vegetation cover. Therefore, integrated geospatial and statistical techniques are helpful to devise a method for sustainable riparian landscape monitoring.