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" Fishbone " pattern of deforestation off of a main road in Amazon forest in Rondônia, Brazil (a) in 1975 prior to main road construction (Landsat 2 MSS), (b) in 1986 just after the main road was built (Landsat 5 MSS), and (c) in 1992 (Landsat 4 TM) [72]. Red color indicates vegetation, light blue is bare ground. Images from US Geological Survey [72].  

" Fishbone " pattern of deforestation off of a main road in Amazon forest in Rondônia, Brazil (a) in 1975 prior to main road construction (Landsat 2 MSS), (b) in 1986 just after the main road was built (Landsat 5 MSS), and (c) in 1992 (Landsat 4 TM) [72]. Red color indicates vegetation, light blue is bare ground. Images from US Geological Survey [72].  

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The use of remote sensing for environmental policy development is now quite common and well-documented, as images from remote sensing platforms are often used to focus attention on emerging environmental issues and spur debate on potential policy solutions. However, its use in policy implementation and evaluation has not been examined in much detai...

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... sensing has been extensively used in other countries to first visualize and then track deforestation, particularly after road construction [20,65,66]. Indeed, one of the most striking examples of the self-perpetuating impact (where disturbance begets more disturbance) of "unofficial" and official roads was the "fishbone" pattern of forest clearing in the Amazon rainforest [67] (Figure 1). ...

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... However, having an imperfect policy for natural resource protection, which can be refined over time, is better than unmanaged landscape conversion. This policy also led to research into wetland management approaches such wetland mitigation and mitigation banking (e.g., Bendor, 2009;Mayer and Lopez, 2011;Levrel et al., 2017). The ability of these approaches for preservation of natural or appropriately functioning wetlands also has been vehemently debated. ...
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... Although the potential for geospatial researchers to participate in policy has been lauded (Mayer and Lopez 2011), often such participation has not been well-linked to policy specifics (De Leeuw et al. 2010). Despite successful implementation of remote sensing into some aspects of policy (such as satellite detection of the ozone-layer hole which culminated in a chlorofluorocarbon ban), remote sensing is under-utilized to answer specific policy questions and evaluate policy outcomes. ...
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Land use and land cover studies can help in the monitoring and management of important landscapes and priority areas for conservation, especially those threatened by anthropogenic processes. The Middle Coastal region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) – the southernmost State of Brazil, comprises a variety of ecosystems recognized as highly important for conservation. Threats to their integrity include Pinus sp forestry and its rapid invasiveness over natural areas, like the surroundings of Paurá Lagoon (-31°34’, -51°17’ and -31°35’, -51º18’). Through remote sensing and field observations, the present study sought to identify, quantify and map the main thematic classes of land use and coverage in the vicinities of the Paurá Lagoon. Changes and influencing factors over 26 years were studied using four Landsat TM 5 satellite images, dated from 06/02/1985, 30/07/1996, 23/05/2006 and 28/10/2011. Besides lagoon water, eight other thematic classes were identified and quantified: Dune, Vegetated Dune, Restinga Forest, Wet Grassland/Marsh, Sandy Field/Exposed Soil, Pasture Field, Forestry and Forested Dune. Various relevant changes in the landscape were observed, measured and compared over time, including the occupation of the legally-bound permanent preservation areas (PPA) by Pinus sp and its subsequent partial disposal in compliance with environmental licensing. Creation of a local conservation unit is recommended. Measures are suggested for an integrated management of this coastal environment, enabling preservation of the landscape and its mosaic of ecosystems in conjunction with sustainable land use. Information raised in this paper may assist planning and decision-making for licensing, management and monitoring of the Paurá Lagoon region and other similar important coastal regions.
... Remote sensing can become an essential tool for evaluating the implementation of environmental policies (Mayer and Lopez, 2011), for assessing the extent and condition of habitats, and for quantifying losses, degradation or recovery associated with events and processes (Nagendra et al., 2013). Today, a broad variety of data is available from different sensors, ranging from multi-resolution optical imagery, to radar and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) products (Corbane et al., 2015). ...
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Thesis
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