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... second set of tables is an adaptation of the outcomes/vote count table, with further information taken from the data extraction table and the intervention components table described above (table 6 gives an example for the 'final smoke alarm ownership' outcome). Intervention, population and setting columns were included to identify potential subgroups/moderators. ...

Citations

... The data was tabulated for each of the countries included, in readiness for calculating the final scores for each of the three nutrient profiling models. Nutrient composition data of edible insects was obtained through a systematic review by screening 483 published articles obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, using criteria given by Kitchenham (2004), Popay et al. (2006), and Green et al. (2010). The articles were scrutinized for quality and inclusion using European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) guidelines (Ifr et al. 2009;Payne et al. 2015). ...
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Abstract Background Meat and meat products have been blamed for a myriad of problems facing human kind like lifestyle illnesses, environmental degradation, and climate change. Edible insects have been suggested as the suitable alternatives to conventional meats in order to ameliorate these drawbacks. Healthfulness is the ability for a given food to impart health benefits to the consumer. Evidence is however scanty on the healthfulness of both the meats and edible insects in order to have grounds for replacing meats with insects in the diet. This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the healthfulness of meats and edible insects in Sub-Saharan Africa using modern nutrient profiling models. Materials and methods Nutritional data for meats and edible insects were obtained from Food Composition Tables (FCTs) and a systematic review, respectively. The data was applied to three nutrient profiling models: the WXYfm (Ofcom) model that was designed to regulate advertising of foods to children, the RRR (Ratio of Recommended to Restricted) model that assesses the ratio of positive to negative nutrients in foods, and the GDA (Guideline Daily Amounts) model which has been used to regulate health claims on foods. Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test (The SAS System) was used to check for significance in differences of healthfulness using mean scores. Results The WXYfm model classified all foods as healthful, and Nasutitermes spp. was significantly more healthful than duck (P = 0.05). The RRR classified all foods as healthful, and Nasutitermes spp. was significantly more healthful than all other foods except Macrotermes bellicosus and tilapia (P = 0.05). Duck (for women and men) and pork (for women), were classified as unhealthful by the GDA scoring system, and duck was significantly less healthful than all other foods (P
... A narrative synthesis was applied to the extracted data guided by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) Methods Programme framework (see [34]). The synthesis process was iterative and nonsequential, rather than linear, thereby facilitating general inferences to be delineated regarding CFs and their impact on cLBP patients' pain intensity and physical functioning outcomes. ...
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Background and objective Chronic low back pain is pervasive, societally impactful, and current treatments only provide moderate relief. Exploring whether therapeutic elements, either unrecognised or perceived as implicit within clinical encounters, are acknowledged and deliberately targeted may improve treatment efficacy. Contextual factors (specifically, patient’s and practitioner’s beliefs/characteristics; patient-practitioner relationships; the therapeutic setting/environment; and treatment characteristics) could be important, but there is limited evidence regarding their influence. This research aims to review the impact of interventions modifying contextual factors during conservative care on patient’s pain and physical functioning. Databases and data treatment Four electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED) were searched from 2009 until 15th February 2022, using tailored search strategies, and resulted in 3476 unique citations. After initial screening, 170 full-text records were potentially eligible and assessed against the inclusion–exclusion criteria. Thereafter, studies were assessed for methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black scale, data extracted, and synthesised using a narrative approach. Results Twenty-one primary studies ( N = 3075 participants), were included in this review. Eight studies reported significant improvements in pain intensity, and seven in physical functioning, in favour of the contextual factor intervention(s). Notable contextual factors included: addressing maladaptive illness beliefs; verbal suggestions to influence symptom change expectations; visual or physical cues to suggest pain-relieving treatment properties; and positive communication such as empathy to enhance the therapeutic alliance. Conclusion This review identified influential contextual factors which may augment conservative chronic low back pain care. The heterogeneity of interventions suggests modifying more than one contextual factor may be more impactful on patients’ clinical outcomes, although these findings require judicious interpretation.
... A narrative synthesis was used for quantitative findings [12]. Qualitative studies and reports were analysed following an inductive thematic analysis as described by Braun and Clarke (2006) [13]. ...
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Background Leave events are a public health concern resulting in poorer health outcomes. In Australia, leave events disproportionally impact Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. A systematic review was conducted to explore the causes of leave events among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and strategies to reduce them. Methods A systematic review was conducted using Medline, Web of Science, Embase and Informit, a database with a strong focus on relevant Australian content. Additionally, we examined the references of the records included, and performed a manual search using Google, Google scholar and the Australia’s National Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. Two independent reviewers screened the records. One author extracted the data and a second author reviewed it. To appraise the quality of the studies the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used as well as the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Quality Appraisal Tool. A narrative synthesis was used to report quantitative findings and an inductive thematic analysis for qualitative studies and reports. Results We located 421 records. Ten records met eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review. From those, four were quantitative studies, three were qualitative studies and three reports. Five records studied data from the Northern Territory, two from Western Australia, two from New South Whales and one from Queensland. The quantitative studies focused on the characteristics of the patients and found associations between leave events and male gender, age younger than 45 years and town camp residency. Qualitative findings yielded more in depth causes of leave events evidencing that they are associated with health care quality gaps. There were multiple strategies suggested to reduce leave events through adapting health care service delivery. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander representation is needed in a variety of roles within health care provision and during decision-making. Conclusion This systematic review found that multiple gaps within Australian health care delivery are associated with leave events among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The findings suggest that reducing leave events requires better representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people within the health workforce. In addition, partnership with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is needed during the decision-making process in providing health services that meet Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural needs.
... Studies were not quality assessed as the core aim was to summarize emerging evidence, rather than compare individual study quality or assess the overall strength of a body of evidence. The extracted data were summarized via narrative synthesis, 21,22 of which all authors discussed, contributed to, and refined. ...
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Objectives: Investigations of healthcare harm often overlook the valuable insights of patients and families. Our review aimed to explore the perspectives of key stakeholders when patients and families were involved in serious incident investigations. Methods: The authors searched three databases (Medline, PsycInfo, and CINAHL) and Connected Papers software for qualitative studies in which patients and families were involved in serious incident investigations until no new articles were found. Results: Twenty-seven papers were eligible. The perspectives of patients and families, healthcare professionals, nonclinical staff, and legal staff were sought across acute, mental health and maternity settings. Most patients and families valued being involved; however, it was important that investigations were flexible and sensitive to both clinical and emotional aspects of care to avoid compounding harm. This included the following: early active listening with empathy for trauma, sincere and timely apology, fostering trust and transparency, making realistic timelines clear, and establishing effective nonadversarial communication. Most staff perceived that patient and family involvement could improve investigation quality, promote an open culture , and help ensure future safety. However, it was made difficult when multidisciplinary input was absent, workload and staff turnover were high, training and support needs were unmet, and fears surrounded litigation. Potential solutions included enhancing the clarity of roles and responsibilities, adequately training staff, and providing long and short-term support to stakeholders. Conclusions: Our review provides insights to ensure patient and family involvement in serious incident investigations considers both clinical and emotional aspects of care, is meaningful for all key stakeholders, and avoids compounding harm. However, significant gaps in the literature remain.
... Firstly, a quality assessment of the final articles selected was conducted before analysing the main results (Harrison et al., 2021). Then, a qualitative synthesis was developed given the heterogeneity of study designs defined in the inclusion criteria (Popay et al., 2006) and the present systematic review aims. ...
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In an unprecedented fashion, COVID-19 has impacted the work-family interface since March 2020. As one of the COVID-19 pandemic consequences, remote work became widely adopted. Furthermore, it is expected that other pandemics will occur in the future. Hence, this context represents a chance to gain deeper insight into telecommuters’ work and family spheres. Following PRISMA guidelines, the present narrative review aims to synthesise the COVID-19 impact on the work-family interface. Out of 121 screened references, 32 articles that measure at least one of the following variables–work-family conflict (25), work-family enrichment (3), work-family balance (8), and boundary management (21) were included. A thematic analysis using NVIVO12 was conducted, from which eight topics emerged: “paid workload, unpaid workload, and gender”; “well-being and gender”; “job resources, job demands, and gender”; “couples and gender”; “parenting and gender”; “occurrence of work-family enrichment with work-family conflict and gender”; “enforced blurred boundaries, its management, and gender”; “boundary management impact on work-family conflict, work-family enrichment, and work-family balance.” Overall, studies point out that COVID-19 had a complex effect on both work-family conflict and work-family balance, making it difficult to state whether these variables were mitigated or augmented. Findings demonstrated that COVID-19 produced little changes in work-family enrichment. As for the COVID-19 impact on work-family boundary management, individuals had to create new tactics to manage them due to the absence of boundaries between both systems. Besides, due to traditional gendered roles, the COVID-19 health crisis seems to have brought additional hurdles to couples and women. Systematic Review Registration [ https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021278254 ], identifier [CRD42021278254].
... We employed narrative methods for the synthesis, 12,13 allowing for aggregation of quantitative and qualitative findings. Two authors completed the synthesis, then it was cross-checked by other authors for consensus. ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the evidence describing how the controlled temperature chain approach for vaccination could lead to improved equitable immunization coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We created a theory of change construct from the Controlled temperature chain: strategic roadmap for priority vaccines 2017-2020, containing four domains: (i) uptake and demand for the approach; (ii) compliance and safe use of the approach; (iii) programmatic efficiency gains from the approach; and (iv) improved equitable immunization coverage. To verify and improve the theory of change, we applied a realist review method to analyse published descriptions of controlled temperature chain or closely related experiences. Findings: We evaluated 34 articles, describing 22 unique controlled temperature chain or closely related experiences across four World Health Organization regions. We identified a strong demand for this approach among service delivery providers; however, generating an equal level of demand among policy-makers requires greater evidence on economic benefits and on vaccination coverage gains, and use case definitions. Consistent evidence supported safety of the approach when integrated into special vaccination programmes. Feasible training and supervision supported providers in complying with protocols. Time-savings were the main evidence for efficiency gains, while cost-saving data were minimal. Improved equitable coverage was reported where vaccine storage beyond the cold chain enabled access to hard-to-reach populations. No evidence indicated an inferior vaccine effectiveness nor increased adverse event rates for vaccines delivered under the approach. Conclusion: Synthesized evidence broadly supported the initial theory of change. Addressing evidence gaps on economic benefits and coverage gains may increase future uptake.
... Therefore, we assessed the sources of funding for the eligible studies, as an indicator of bias. Also, we assessed the strength of the evidence presented in each study using the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI) approach [26], which is a recommended methodology for assessing methodological quality [27]. This tool employs four criteria to evaluate each study: (1) trustworthiness (assessed as the percent of TSIs cited and described appropriately in each study; scores: 0 = 0%, 1 = 20%, 2 = 40%, 3 = 60%, 4 = 80%, and 5 = 100%), (2) appropriateness (assessed as the appropriateness of the study's research design in addressing the current review question; scores: 0 = conference abstract, 1 = book/report, 2 = meteorology/modelling article, 3 = human study, 4 = narrative review, and 5 = systematic review), (3) relevance (assessed as the relevance of each study to the current review question; all articles were given the highest score [5] in this criterion), and (4) the overall weight of each study (assessed as the average score of the previous three criteria). ...
... In the following subsections, we adopt established recommendations [27] to ensure a high quality of evidence synthesis in this systematic review, in a way that brings together research evidence to give an overall picture of the existing knowledge that can be used to inform policy and decisions. ...
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In a series of three companion papers published in this Journal, we identify and validate the available thermal stress indicators (TSIs). In this first paper of the series, we conducted a systematic review (registration: INPLASY202090088) to identify all TSIs and provide reliable information regarding their use (funded by EU Horizon 2020; HEAT-SHIELD). Eight databases (PubMed, Agricultural and Environmental Science Collection, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Russian Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar) were searched from database inception to 15 April 2020. No restrictions on language or study design were applied. Of the 879 publications identified, 232 records were considered for further analysis. This search identified 340 instruments and indicators developed between 200 BC and 2019 AD. Of these, 153 are nomograms, instruments, and/or require detailed non-meteorological information, while 187 can be mathematically calculated utilizing only meteorological data. Of these meteorology-based TSIs, 127 were developed for people who are physically active, and 61 of those are eligible for use in occupational settings. Information regarding the equation, operating range, interpretation categories, required input data, as well as a free software to calculate all 187 meteorology-based TSIs is provided. The information presented in this systematic review should be adopted by those interested in performing on-site monitoring and/or big data analytics for climate services to ensure appropriate use of the meteorology-based TSIs. Studies two and three in this series of companion papers present guidance on the application and validation of these TSIs, to guide end users of these indicators for more effective use.
... The following data was extracted by the first author and checked for accuracy by the second author: aims, primary study design, setting/country, type of intervention, comparator (if any), population, outcomes reported, main findings in relation to the review questions, limitations, and conclusions specified by authors. Key findings from the reviews were tabulated and narratively synthesised [23]. Findings were grouped by intervention category, with evidence from higher methodological quality reviews reported first and in greater detail [following 24,25]. ...
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Aims The review of reviews had three aims: (i) to synthesize the available evidence on interventions to improve college and university students’ mental health and wellbeing; (ii) to identify the effectiveness of interventions, and (iii) to highlight gaps in the evidence base for future study. Methods Electronic database searches were conducted to identify reviews in English from high-income OECD countries published between 1999 and 2020. All review-level empirical studies involving post-secondary students attending colleges of further education or universities that examined interventions to improve general mental health and wellbeing were included. Articles were critically appraised using an amended version of the AMSTAR 2 tool. Evidence from the included reviews were narratively synthesized and organised by intervention types. Results Twenty-seven reviews met the review of reviews inclusion criteria. The quality of the included reviews varied considerably. Intervention types identified included: mindfulness-based interventions, psychological interventions, psychoeducation interventions, recreation programmes, relaxation interventions, setting-based interventions, and stress management/reduction interventions. There was evidence that mindfulness-based interventions, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and interventions delivered via technology were effective when compared to a passive control. Some evidence suggested that the effects of CBT-related interventions are sustained over time. Psychoeducation interventions do not appear to be as effective as other forms of intervention, with its effects not enduring over time. Conclusions The review of reviews located a sizeable body of evidence on specific interventions such as mindfulness and cognitive-behavioural interventions. The evidence suggests that these interventions can effectively reduce common mental health difficulties in the higher education student body. Gaps and limitations in the reviews and the underlying body of evidence have been identified. These include a notable gap in the existing body of review-level evidence on setting-based interventions, acceptance and commitment training, and interventions for students attending colleges in UK settings.
... Following guidance on narrative synthesis in systematic reviews [23], we employed textual descriptions, tabulation, groupings and vote-counting to synthesise the findings. Due to the heterogeneity, we used the dominance ranking matrix [24] to summarize cost-effectiveness results. ...
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Background: The present study aimed to identify and critically appraise the quality of model-based economic evalu- ation studies in mental health prevention. Methods: A systematic search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Two reviewers independently screened for eligible records using predefined criteria and extracted data using a pre-piloted data extraction form. The 61-item Philips Checklist was used to critically appraise the studies. Systematic review regis- tration number: CRD42020184519. Results: Forty-nine studies were eligible to be included. Thirty studies (61.2%) were published in 2015–2021. Forty- seven studies were conducted for higher-income countries. There were mainly cost-utility analyses (n = 31) with the dominant primary outcome of quality-adjusted life year. The most common model was Markov (n = 26). Most of the studies were conducted from a societal or health care perspective (n = 37). Only ten models used a 50-year time horizon (n = 2) or lifetime horizon (n = 8). A wide range of mental health prevention strategies was evaluated with the dominance of selective/indicate strategy and focusing on common mental health problems (e.g., depression, suicide). The percentage of the Philip checkilst’s criteria fulfilled by included studies was 69.3% on average and ranged from 43.3 to 90%. Among three domains of the Philip checklist, criteria on the model structure were fulfilled the most (72.1% on average, ranging from 50.0% to 91.7%), followed by the data domain (69.5% on average, ranging from 28.9% to 94.0%) and the consistency domain (54.6% on average, ranging from 20.0% to 100%). The practice of identifi- cation of ‘relevant’ evidence to inform model structure and inputs was inadequately performed. The model validation practice was rarely reported. Conclusions: There is an increasing number of model-based economic evaluations of mental health prevention available to decision-makers, but evidence has been limited to the higher-income countries and the short-term horizon. Despite a high level of heterogeneity in study scope and model structure among included studies, almost all mental health prevention interventions were either cost-saving or cost-effective. Future models should make efforts to conduct in the low-resource context setting, expand the time horizon, improve the evidence identification to inform model structure and inputs, and promote the practice of model validation.
... Due to the nature of the review, extracted data were synthesized narratively. Narrative synthesis is an approach to the synthesis of review findings from multiple sources in textual format providing an integrated interpretation of the topic area (Popay et al., 2006). ...
... Using the framework for narrative synthesis provided by Popay et al. (2006), a preliminary synthesis of findings from included studies was developed; similarities, differences and relationships in data across the studies were explored; and assessment of the robustness of the synthesis was undertaken by discussing findings in a wider context to test the extent to which conclusions are generalizable. ...
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Aims To synthesize available data on the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on clinical supervision practices of healthcare workers and students in healthcare settings. Design A quantitative rapid review of the literature. Data Sources A search of MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and Scopus for English language papers published between December 2019 (initial onset of the pandemic) to March 2021. Review methods Using the World Health Organization and Cochrane guidelines for rapid reviews, following an identification of relevant papers and data extraction, a narrative synthesis approach was used to develop themes. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Four themes identified from data synthesis were nature and extent of disruptions to clinical supervision, unmet need for psychological support, supervisors also need support and unpacking telesupervision. Findings highlight the extent and nature of disruption to clinical supervision at the point of care. Further information on factors that facilitate high‐quality telesupervision have come to light. Conclusion The COVID‐19 pandemic has placed tremendous burden on healthcare workers compromising their own health and well‐being. It is essential to restore effective clinical supervision practices at the point of care, so as to enhance patient, healthcare worker and organizational outcomes into the post‐COVID‐19 pandemic period. Impact This review has provided initial evidence on the adverse impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic on clinical supervision of healthcare workers and students at the point of care. Available evidence indicates the urgent need to restore effective and high‐quality clinical supervision practices in health settings. The review has highlighted a paucity of studies in this area, calling for further high‐quality studies.