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1 Executive summary .............................................................................................................5 1.1 General overview ..........................................................................................................5 1.2 Goal/Purpose and framework of the document ............................................................5 1.3 Main findings ................................................................................................................6 2 Relationship to the Description of Work (DOW) ..................................................................9 3 Theoretical and methodological approach (Werner Krauß & Scott Bremer) .........................9 3.1 Allochronism ...............................................................................................................11 3.2 Chronotopes ...............................................................................................................12 3.3 'Milles plateaux' .........................................................................................................13 4 Case Studies ......................................................................................................................15 4.1 Jade Bay (Werner Krauß) ................................................................................................15 4.1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................15 4.1.2 The 'coastal mentality' .............................................................................................16 4.1.3 Chronotope: Coastal protection ...............................................................................17 4.1.4 Chronotope: Dike inspection ....................................................................................18 4.1.5 Chronotope: The Dangast tidal gates .......................................................................20 4.1.6 Art chronotope ........................................................................................................22 4.1.7 Narratives about seasons, the weather and climate change.....................................24 4.1.8 Climate services .......................................................................................................25

1 Executive summary .............................................................................................................5 1.1 General overview ..........................................................................................................5 1.2 Goal/Purpose and framework of the document ............................................................5 1.3 Main findings ................................................................................................................6 2 Relationship to the Description of Work (DOW) ..................................................................9 3 Theoretical and methodological approach (Werner Krauß & Scott Bremer) .........................9 3.1 Allochronism ...............................................................................................................11 3.2 Chronotopes ...............................................................................................................12 3.3 'Milles plateaux' .........................................................................................................13 4 Case Studies ......................................................................................................................15 4.1 Jade Bay (Werner Krauß) ................................................................................................15 4.1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................15 4.1.2 The 'coastal mentality' .............................................................................................16 4.1.3 Chronotope: Coastal protection ...............................................................................17 4.1.4 Chronotope: Dike inspection ....................................................................................18 4.1.5 Chronotope: The Dangast tidal gates .......................................................................20 4.1.6 Art chronotope ........................................................................................................22 4.1.7 Narratives about seasons, the weather and climate change.....................................24 4.1.8 Climate services .......................................................................................................25

Citations

... The previous paragraphs have emphasized the importance of places in narratives. Time is also important, in relation to the human experience of weather and climate (Krauß et al., 2018a). There is a rich literature painting the human experience of time: in geography (Thrift, 1977a,b), history (Bender and Wellbery, 1991), anthropology Douglas, 2013), and sociology (Bourdieu, 1977). ...
... Time is often framed differently between local communities and scientists (Krauß et al., 2018a). This allochronism (i.e. ...
... flood stones; Krauß et al. (2018a)). In this landscape, climate change is part of the weatherworld we inhabit (Ingold, 2010) rather than a threat coming from outside (Krauß et al., 2018a). ...
Thesis
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Climate change has various impacts on society, but future changes are uncertain and a wide gap remains between the scientific knowledge and societal action (mitigation, adaptation). The gap in climate adaptation was partly addressed by the recent growth of climate services, but their local usability is associated to many barriers. France is an example of lacking climate adaptation at territorial level, and this thesis focuses on the Gulf of Morbihan as a case study. My research aims first to identify the role of climate change in the territory, second to support the local development of adaptation planning, and third to explore future climate change through the angle of clustering approaches.To identify the local role of climate change, I analyze the literature (grey and academic) and engage in field interviews with various stakeholders. Particular features of the territory emerge: the coastal-inland contrast (economy, demography), the socioeconomic life organized seasonally, and the dependence and conflict between agriculture and tourism. The local role of climate change is complex, impacting emblematic activities (oyster farming, salt production), overlapping with existing issues (socioeconomic imbalance, land-use conflict), and affecting agriculture negatively (warmer and drier summers) but tourism positively (longer summer weather). The local experiences are generally consistent with scientific knowledge (ongoing changes, link to climate change), although some elements are scarce in local perceptions (heatwaves).To assist local adaptation, I participated to the experimentation of different foresight activities (scenario workshop, art-science exhibition, conference-debate) with local stakeholders, based on an assessment of climate services and on creative art-design tools (e.g. poker design cards). The main outcomes are two long-term scenarios, multiple short-term actions and several hinge points on which the scenarios depend. The two scenarios represent divergent visions of the territory: continued occupation of the coast despite increasing risks, or withdrawal from the coast and densification of urban areas inland. The scenarios depend on the issue development of urbanization and spatial planning, food and energy autonomy, and demographic balance. The theme of food and energy autonomy concentrates conflicting views between inhabitants, highlighting fears and desires about long-term territorial choices.My investigation of the territory highlighted several climatic themes (e.g. seasonality of weather conditions) that are linked to atmospheric circulation, but future circulation changes are highly uncertain. To investigate the future seasonality of atmospheric circulation, I classify year-round patterns of geopotential height at 500 hPa (Z500) from a reanalysis and several climate models. Despite their biases, climate models reproduce similar evolution of circulation seasonality as the reanalysis. During the last decades, winter conditions have decreased while summer conditions have increased, and these changes strengthen under future climate change. Yet circulation seasonality remains similar relatively to the increase in average Z500, and the same happens for surface temperatures associated to the circulation patterns. I additionally developed the perspective of a new approach to study the local evolution of weather seasonality, based on the classification of multiple variables (temperature, precipitation, windspeed).In addition to the effects from future climate change, the Gulf of Morbihan will probably welcome new populations, and an active collective strategy of adaptation is required. Several routes have been featured in my research to address the local needs in climate adaptation, including perspectives inspired from existing climate services in other countries. The findings from this thesis highlight the physical and social dimensions of climate change.
... Then, we changed our point of view when analyzing the same data and interrogating narratives from the Gulf of Morbihan. We took Braudel's three-tiered chronology of historical time (1949): very long time, medium time, and short time, and redefined this typology according to timescale and to the physical markers that distinguish them (Krauß et al., 2018a). As a result, we defined four narratives of change for the Gulf of Morbihan (geo-social, historical, seasonal and climatic effects), as well as two chronotopes: the coastal pathway and the Megaliths of Er Lannic. ...
... The year in Europe is generally marked by four distinct seasons and changes in the weather are as significant to the local populations as the scientific news about climate change (Krauß et al., 2018a). The difference between the autumn-winter and the spring-summer seasons is obvious in the Gulf of Morbihan. ...
... The narratives of change and the chronotopes provide a new point of view to help to restructure our data. Following Braudel's guidelines (1949), we developed an analysis of specific configurations of time and space, confronting us with an exercise of thinking about geo-social, historical, seasonal and climatic effects relative to human lifetime (Krauß et al., 2018a). This approach allowed us to adopt a new perspective based notably on history and prehistory in an attempt to better understand the present. ...
Article
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In France, integrating adaptation to climate change into planning policies is a prerogative that has recently been delegated to municipalities. There are also various injunctions to engage the local population in this decision-making process. How can municipalities co-construct an adaptive future with their citizens? This article critically describes a community-led foresight process, based on the mapping, analysis and interpretation of narratives of change. Based on empirical results, we explore and discuss the role past, present and future narratives may play in the process of outlining incremental scenarios and how these might enable the identification of pathways and hinge points. The role of design in supporting the process by proposing an innovative foresight workshop is also discussed. We then highlight how these narratives stimulated reflections through an art, design and science foresight experiment.
... We conducted various research activities over 2018/2019 (Krauß et al., 2018a(Krauß et al., , 2018b(Krauß et al., , 2019, including (a) reviewing relevant scientific studies and literature related to Bergen; (b) studying non-scientific literature including government policy; tourism websites and brochures; public information booklets and websites; books about Bergen's residents like biographies, histories or photo montages; and Bergens Tidene newspaper archives; (c) observations of public spaces and events in the city; (d) a series of 19 interviews with actors in different public spheres in early 2018 (see Table 1); and (e) a scenario workshop in November 2018 with 18 participants discussing how Bergen could be resilient to climatic change in 2050 (see Table 1). ...
Article
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Climate change is dramatically shifting the way cities interpret and live with their local climate. This paper analyses how climate change is emerging as a matter of concern in the public spheres of Bergen, and interprets how this concern is effecting Bergen’s identity, with implications for the city’s climate risk governance. Historically, Bergen has a strong identity as Europe’s rainiest city, manifested in its cultural and social life. In the past 15 years, Bergen’s identity has been shifting from a ‘weather city’ to a ‘climate city’. This paper draws on ethnographic research, interviews and document analysis to map this shift as co-produced by certain social and natural events and processes; told as narratives of change. This identity shift is creating surprising hybrid representations of climate that are locally meaningful, shaped as much by Bergen’s cultural weatherworld as by incoming ideas of climate change. These representations influence Bergen’s attitudes towards climate risk governance, and may extend influence to global scales via climate city networks. This identity shift also moves the timeframe of risk governance. As a weather city, risks were implicit to the city’s heritage and peoples’ lived experience. But as a climate city, risks are predicted to foresee and prevent impacts. Critically employing co-production as an analytical lens can help us understand the multiple facets to cities’ climate risk governance, including the role of culture and identity.
... It is necessary to listen to the narratives of the people, to study the popular representations of a specific landscape, to read the historical accounts. Narratives have to be mapped, the specific configurations of time and space that characterize regional narratives have to be identified, the material and semiotic changes have to analyzed (Krauß et al., 2019a(Krauß et al., , 2019b(Krauß et al., , 2019c. Following this set of guidelines, the contributors have emphasized different features of narratives, and their relevance for climate risk governance. ...
Article
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In this introduction, we situate the topic of this Special Issue on ‘narratives of change’ in the scholarly literature about how we inform climate risk governance, including through climate services. We argue that many places experience a persistent mismatch between predominantly science-based and technical framings of climatic risk, and the place-based understandings of climate extremes and responses of people living in these places. We introduce the case studies presented in this issue and highlight their common focus on ‘narratives of change’ as one missing link in climate governance. Narratives of change address the past, present and future of a specific place understood as a weather-world; adding a cultural dimension to climate change experienced as a succession of weather events and seasons. They focus on memories of weather events and how people coped with them, and they are tested for their potential to improve climate governance under future climatic change. Moreover, attention to local narratives expands the scope of issues covered by climate information and improves its integration into social and cultural life. We offer up seven lessons for why it is important to incorporate narratives in climate governance and suggest some creative methods for doing so. Post-normal science, art-science cooperation, and the inclusion of the humanities mark the difference that the individual contributions make to the literature about climate governance and democratic decision-making.
... In D1.2 (Krauß et al., 2018b), we provided a chronology and in-depth analysis of these meta-narratives. Like mapping is more than locating narratives on a map, chronology means more than listing events on a time scale. ...
... etorics: "The shadow of tomorrow's impending ecological disaster leaps over today and reunites with abandoned conceptions of human finitude from a past rich with apocalyptic nightmares that the Enlightenment had temporarily vanquished" (Aravamudan 2013, 9). Thus, the concept of catachronism is closely linked to the one of chronotopes as defined in Krauß et. al (2018b). Backcasting from desired climate futures means more than providing the hard data about the future of objects; with the focus on narratives of change, it is about new ways of imagining the past, the present and the future. ...
... To make our input more concrete, we are not only focusing on municipal efforts, but particularly on the Reeland district and Vogelbuurt neighbourhood in specific. The city faces water from all sides: the surrounding rivers, the rain, groundwater, and the nearby sea, and the topic of water in particular plays a key role in historical events, current issues, and perceptions of the future(Krauß et al., 2018a(Krauß et al., , 2018bMarschuetz, 2018). Climate change plays an important role in exacerbating various water-related exposures and risks. ...
Technical Report
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How can scientific climate knowledge be transformed into locally meaningful knowledge? CoCliServ explores new ways in climate communication and shifts the focus on narratives in order to co-develop new forms of climate services for action. Narratives of change provide local knowledge, they facilitate decision-making, and they help identifying information needs and addressing local communities’ concerns, aspirations and goals. Narratives add value and meaning to scientific data about climate change and turn ‘matters of fact’ into ‘matters of concern’. Based on the mapping, analysis and interpretation of narratives of change, CoCliServ develops vision-based scenarios, deploying an incremental and community-led strategy. Exemplary collaborative relationships between climate science and local communities will be established in five representative case-studies: in Bergen / Norway; in the Jade Bay area in Lower Saxony / Germany; in Dordrecht / Netherlands; in St. Pierre / Kerourien and in the Golf du Morbihan in France. In this report, we present the results of D1.3. After the mapping of narratives in D1.1. (Krauß et al., 2018 a) and the chronology and in-depth analysis of weather-related local narratives in D1.2 (Krauß et al. 2018 b),in this deliverable we document and analyse place-specific excerpts of interviews and protocols. These excerpts serve to outline a corpus of narratives for the co-development of climate services for action. This choice of narratives serves to frame and to provide content for scenario building (WP2) and climate services (WP3), and is in some cases in alignment with (prospective or already active) citizen scientists and artists. The goal is to present selected narratives of change based on interview and protocol excerpts in order to • characterise place-specific conflict or problem constellations • identify the issues at stake and the relevant actors involved • outline desired futures on this basis In doing so, D 1.3 seeks to provide the link between the work packages 1 and 2 as abasis for the co-development of climate services for action.
... These are issues that are often well-addressed in classic policy scenarios and backcasting exercises, because these exercises focus on designing actionable plans to reach desired futures. However, we need to be aware that there are also numerous issues (Krauß et al., 2018a), analysed the chronology and chronotopes (Krauß et al., 2018b), and provided in-depth analysis of narratives on the relevant actors, issues and values at stake, voices that are heard or unheard, and desires for the future (Krauß et al., 2019 ...
Technical Report
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We explored different issues and trends at play in the case study areas that might be relevant for designing local scenarios. Particularly, we examined both climate-related and non-climate related aspects, and aspects that the local community has considerable influence on as well as those that are largely beyond their control. These different aspects provide input for developing future visions, scenarios, and potential hinge/branching points. Most case study sites (Jade Bay, Bergen, Dordrecht, Golfe du Morbihan) face climate change related challenges, particularly related to precipitation and sea level rise, and their relation to urban planning, coastal management, and agriculture and aquaculture. For Kerourien, it was more difficult to pinpoint climatic challenges, and the case focused on other grand challenges (social justice, migration, urbanisation & housing) instead. Climate change provides added pressure to these. All case study sites discussed locally important factors that are not or less directly related to climate change, such as local diversity, urban forms, local values and customary practices, local history, economy, (un)employment, social cohesion, social justice, urban renewal and housing issues, migration, and trends in agriculture. The Jade Bay case focused less on non-climate issues, but did focus how local values and practices played an important role. Interestingly, this notion of local values, practices, and particularly also local identity seems to be important in most, if not all, of the case studies (explicitly in Jade Bay, Bergen, Dordrecht, Golfe du Morbihan). Goal/Purpose of the document • Brief exploration of the context in which the scenario exercises will be conducted. • Collect and organise first ideas on the elements that might form the future visions, hinge/branching points, and scenarios.
... Narratives of authorities and inhabitants were partly shared and partly diverging. Both organizations and citizens narrate richly about the city's long history with water and those narratives display the strong influence of history on perceptions of both present and future happenings 15,30 . Particularly prevalent in both authorities' and citizens' memories were the floods of 1421 (St. ...
... Both groups narrated that a recurrence of them ought to be avoided 31,32 . This history is well known and well embedded in the city's cultural memory, and its influence even manifests itself very prominently in the narratives collected in the form of an 'island-identity' 15,30,33 . However, the narrated specificities of the ongoing struggle with water and weather diverge between authorities and citizens. ...
Technical Report
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We conducted 5 locally-based Arts and Sciences processes, working closely with local stakeholders, artists, scientists and inhabitants in order to propose for each site a conjoint art–science analysis through shared engagement in the interpretation and representations of the various steps conducted within WPs 1, 2 and 3. We present here the theoretical roots, local processes and shared learning, with the art forms as an integral part of the climate services co-construction. The 3 main purposes of the D 4.4 document are: • Remember CoCLiServ shared challenges related with art–science conjoint analysis and share our theoretical approach; • Make explicit the site by site processes associated with the art–science conjoint analysis; • Establish what we consider to be the key points for ongoing and upcoming art–science approaches in the context of climate services.
Technical Report
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The purpose of this document is • To provide an overview over the results of Work Package 1, Narratives of change; • To critically discuss the role of narratives in the production of place-based climate services for action; • To document the lessons learned from the five case-studies; • To inform the consortium and the respective site organizers from scenario building, climate services, metadata, citizen science and knowledge assessment, • and to provide guidelines for the implementation in other sites.
Technical Report
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In this report, local climate service components are evaluated. In CoCliServ, local climate service components are 1) local narratives (input from WP1) and 2) existing climate information and services (assessed in task 3.1.). For each case study site, local narratives of change are evaluated according to potential entry points for local contextualization of climate information. Based on these results, further steps for the evaluation of climate service components are derived and carried out for each case study site.