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Figure . Types of Islamic education. 

Figure . Types of Islamic education. 

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This article examines the tenets of today's two contemporary traditions in Islam, neo-traditional Salafism and liberal or progressive Islam and analyzes how they cultivate a typology of Islamic religious education. The typology under study clarifies the meaning of tarbi yya and ta`dib in Islamic educational philosophy and demonstrates the place of...

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... It can, therefore, be seen as an educational implementation of what Vryhof (2012) named the "rooted intellectual" or as affirming Alexander's claim (Alexander 2012) that logic is understood through history, culture, and language and comes from a certain perception of what is good. Implementing the methodology of Arkoun in reading the Quran will help create independent learners who carry their own religious knowledge and will involve students in the "why" of Islamic education, finally creating an Islamic perception compatible with democratic, pluralistic, and open societies (Saada 2018). While not ignoring the Divinity of the Quranic message and emphasizing critical thinking, Arkoun's hermeneutic methodology of reading the Quran could allow RIE to give students an experience of human freedom. ...
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The study of the Quran is central to Religious Islamic Education (RIE). Exposed to different political and social pressures, teachers in RIE still struggle between traditional approaches concerning the divine nature of the Qur'an and more secular approaches emphasizing the historicity and critical analysis of the religious text. Mohammed Arkoun (d. 2010), an Algerian-born Sorbonne professor, offered a hermeneutical methodology for reading the Quran that was Western, scientific, and critical, and at the same time related to the Living Islamic Tradition, faith, and thought. The article analyzes Arkoun's methodology for reading the Quran and its possible implications on RIE in a way that creates a space for creativity, criticism, and dialogue between worldviews and opens new possibilities for the faithful to teach and learn the Qur'an.
... Scholars have criticized the devotional approach to religious education in democratic and multicultural societies (Feinberg 2006;Thiesen 2012;Tan 2008;Saada 2018). It is possible to summarize the limitations of communitarian religious education into the following points: ...
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Balancing the communitarian, civic, and liberal aims of faith-based education presents a significant challenge to most religious education teachers. The communitarian approach to religious education is the most common, as it socializes children to become members of a given faith community. It recognizes students’ rights to collective identity and belonging. The civic approach to religious education asks, “what is the preferred meaning of respect in a religiously pluralist society, and how can it be promoted in the context of a deep belief in the primacy of one religion?” This approach also concerns itself with managing religious identities in a multifaith and democratic society. Liberal religious education involves asking the question, “how can one’s own religious doctrine be taught so as to allow the widest possible scope for critical reflection within [and about] a faith tradition?”. The current review essay addresses these questions by exploring the meanings, significance, and limitations of each approach and their possible implications for Islamic education in Israeli-Arab and Muslim-majority schools.
... Nilai-nilai ini bahkan sudah masuk ke dalam ruangruang keluarga dan apabila salah memilihnya, siapa pun dapat terjerumus ke dalam dekadensi moral (Ashraf, 2014;Nasucha, 2016). Di sinilah pentingnya akhlaq sebagai benteng agar manusia dapat tetap mempertahankan nilai-nilai agama dan terhindar dari akhlak yang buruk (Susanti, 2016;Nasucha, 2016;Saada, 2018). Sebagaimana dinyatakan oleh Bolandhematan (2019) bahwa setiap agama memiliki aspek tatanan moral-ritual, selain dari keyakinan metafisik-kosmologis dan perasaan yang menjadi dasar dari pengalaman religius. ...
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Tulisan ini mencoba untuk sedikit mengungkap tentang pendidikan akhlak dalam perspektif Al-Ghazali. Pemikiran Al-Ghazali digunakan karena ia adalah salah satu pemikir Muslim terbesar. Banyak pakar menilai bahwa pemikiran Al-Ghazali ini memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan bagi para pemikir Muslim setelahnya, bahkan sampai sekarang. Pemikiran Al-Ghazali tetang akhlak dan pendidikan akhlak disandarkan pada Al-Qur’an dan As-Sunnah. Dengan begitu, pandangannya tidak terlepas dari pandangannya tentang manusia yang banyak mewarnai pemikirannya dalam bidang apa pun. Meskipun sebagian bernuansa normatif, namun beberapa bagian pandangannya terlihat sangat praktis. Maka tidak mengherankan apabila pemikiran Al-Ghazali ini masih kerap digunakan dalam konteks reformasi pendidikan, khususnya di era globalisasi yang penuh tantangan seperti sekarang.
... Salafi di kedua konteks menunjukkan pola yang sama dari keterlibatan dengan pusat Salafi eksternal seperti Arab Saudi, Mesir, dan Yaman serta pengawasan praktik Sufi Islam di komunitas mereka masing-masing. Meskipun demikian, pertumbuhan Salafisme di Ghana dan Afrika Selatan bergantung pada kelompok dan suara oposisi yang mereka hadapi (Malik et al., 2020;Saada, 2018). Di Indonesia sendiri, Salafi telah bertemu dengan kekuatan agama yang umum dan mengakar dengan dasar pemahaman tradisionalis, meskipun terfragmentasi dengan ketegangan yang belum terselesaikan atas perbedaan teologis, sementara di Indonesia mereka telah dihadapkan dengan beragam kelompok Islam yang menjadi factor perlambatan gerakan mereka sebelum adanya media sosial yang mengakselerasi perkembangan gerakan ini. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to analyze salafiyah da'wah as a dialectic of religious communities with social developments in Indonesia. The research method used in this study is a qualitative method with a descriptive approach. The type of data used in this research is secondary data. This research begins by analyzing the development of various Salafi groups, then analyzing the da'wah methods and the ulama that are used as references, then various criticisms put forward for this group. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that the Da'wah of the Salafiyah movement prioritizes informal institutions in building a base. The essence of this movement is the spirit to purify Islamic teachings from cultural understandings that are destructive to Islam itself, which in many ways intersects with certain groups who disagree. In its development in Indonesia, this movement is not repressive towards the government and tends to prioritize various discourses on worship and Fiqh, but attracts many young people because they use social media a lot as a means of Da'wah for the Salafiyah group.
... Teachers in Islamic religious seminaries have been encouraging students to question and think critically for several decades. In that sense, a recent study suggests that Islamic seminaries are frequently organizing forums where students can exchange their ideas and thoughts related to contemporary issues independently (Saada, 2018). These kinds of sessions help students to comprehend different thoughts, perspectives and approaches as well to engage positively in a pluralistic and diverse intra-religious context. ...
Conference Paper
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The meaning of religion is, to retain. That assumes place, discipline, daily behavior taste, idealism, kindness, affection, devotion and various virtues. Making this religion the milestone different options and ways have been envisaged. The misinterpretation of religion occasionally beings about acute crisis in national life and man wipes out the real intension of religion from life. Again sometimes equipped with the thoughts of combination of as religious man has nurtured the essence of religion holding it tightly on the breast. The essence of all religions is to be exemplary and come to God. The traditional of Hindu religion in the Aryan Vedic period is no exception to it, under the calm, cool shadow of woods the monks have established the truth based religion bearing significance in the 21st century still to day. Objective The insight of the Ramayana was not only theocentric but also of social and moral values. This article shows how the insight of the ‘Ramayana’ is still reliant to make a beautiful society. Methodology This article will be presented in an analytical method and analytical way.
... Salafism (salafiyya) is a traditionalist current whose principal aim is to return to the origins of Islam and which regards the 'Salaf ' (the companions of the Prophet) as the most virtuous generation (Fernández-Montesinos 2015). As the Salafists believe that present-day Islam has distanced itself from its roots, they want to recuperate the pure Islam practiced by those generations (Saada 2018). ...
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Violent radicalisation is currently one of the most pressing global problems. Accordingly, the intention of this paper is to discover the views on terrorism in the name of Islam held by Islamic religion teachers in Spain and to analyse the preventive socio-educational measures that they propose, employing a mixed methods approach with a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Most of the teachers point to a poor knowledge of Islam among the young, especially as regards to the concept of jihad, as the main reason behind this phenomenon. The second-generation immigrants among the teachers attach great importance to possible identity crises as a factor that makes the young more vulnerable to violent radicalisation. The most frequently mentioned social measure is fostering the integration of Muslims, thus creating a sense of belonging to their country of residence. They recommend preventive educational strategies that, far from focusing on detecting possible violent extremists, place the accent on teaching the fundamentals of the Islamic religion in order to provide young people with the tools that they need to challenge violent ideologies.
... The claim that Western education is the only source of free-thinking might be baseless. Pesantren is a highly diverse institution [8]. There are only 46,97% pesantrens in Indonesia that exclusively teach Kitab Kuning (the Yellow Book), the traditional text of Islamic teachings, while the rest also teach additional formal education [1]. ...
Article
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Educational institutions can elevate free-thinking, for example by promoting critical thinking and democratic decision making. Religious characteristics might modify that free-thinking. We examine the correlation between Indonesian free thinkers' religious background and their works' theme. It s carried out by analyzing data of 42 free thinkers with pesantren background biographies. The result shows that pesantren-educted thinkers have wider theme that integrate Islam teachings in them. It suggests that pesantren institutions have a significant influence on the development of free-thinking culture in Indonesia.
... A pressing question is: Which path should we take in thinking about Islamic education in a democratic and plural context? There seem to be some attempts to bring examples from existing traditions in Islam to the fore (Saada 2018) for the purpose of thought and reflection. However, the major difficulty in Islamic religious education today is the lack of developmental works that would help young Muslims integrate their diverse experiences into a meaningful synthesis promoting respect and enable them to respond to contemporary challenges meaningfully (Wielzen and ter Avest 2017; Sahin 2018). ...
... The devotional approach in Islamic religious education is informed by the ideology of neotraditional Salafism (Duderija 2007) and works by Al-Attas (1979), Al-Faruki (1982) and Syed Nasr (1996) on the Islamisation of knowledge. Saada (2018) elaborates: 'Neo-traditional Salafism encourages Muslims to return to the pure and authentic Islam as manifested by the Prophet Muhammad and the al-salaf al-salih, 1 who are the four righteous caliphs 2 ' (407). Neo-traditional Salafism supports the exclusivist interpretation of the Quran, of the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad), and of Islamic law. ...
... A paradigm of critical Islamic religious education (CIRE) is seen by several authors as much more appropriate for adapting Islamic religious education to life in modern, democratic, and pluralistic societies (Saada 2018;Saada and Gross 2017;Selcuk 2012;Tan 2011;Waghid and Smeyers 2014;Wilkinson 2013). The current review reorganises the sporadic contributions of previous scholars and proposes a solid and coherent rationale on the 'what' and 'why' of CIRE. ...
... Perhaps it is much accurate to think of teachers of Islamic religious education as being located on a continuum from non-critical (devotional) to critical (liberal) in their understanding and practicing of religious education, interpreting of the moral and spiritual messages of Islam, and perceptions of Islamic identities (see Saada 2018). What is important here is to show that the exercise of internal and external critique is possible and recommended in the Islamic intellectual heritage and that, moreover, it is urgent if Muslim teachers and parents want to educate for informed and intelligent Muslim believers. ...
Article
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The teaching of Islam in Western and non-Western societies may be located along a continuum from critical to non-critical paradigms. Islamic religious education is dominated by the non-critical paradigm and a devotional discourse of religious education. This is true in both Islamic and non-Islamic countries and is relevant to the teaching of both the spiritual and moral messages of Islam. The current essay is motivated by the ‘inadequate theoretical reflections on the meaning of education, which gravely hinder the task of thinking about Islam educationally and education Islamically’. The first section reviews the tenets of Islamic religious education from a conservative and devotional perspective. In the second and third sections, the authors address the major shortcomings of this approach and its theory of Islamisation. In the final section, the authors propose a rationale for an alternative paradigm of critical Islamic religious education – which is rarely discussed in the literature – and for its appropriateness for living in modern, democratic, multi-faith societies.
... Living in a postmodern and postsecular society requires Muslims to think beyond the epistemological borders of their religion (Saada, 2018) and to be able to translate their ethical viewpoints into comprehensible, sensible and persuasive arguments which are suitable for democratic deliberation in a secular environment (Habermas, 2006;Shabani, 2011). Basically, we are talking about the exercise of moral agency with regarding to the ethical components of Islam because Islam, like many other religions, has its own teachings about the meaning of good and righteous life and this issue might be controversial in multicultural society with a competing legislative consequences (Saada, 2015). ...
... Moreover, critical pedagogy in Islamic education provides students the skills to conduct internal critique within Islam (Saada, 2018) and to question religious authorities and their use or misuse of the Quran and the Sunnah (the prophetic tradition) in order to maintain their privileged status or may be to stimulate "ecclesiastical orthodoxy that fosters dogmatism, fanaticism, and self-interest" (Tan & Ibrahim, 2017, p. 395). It is expected that Muslim students will become active interpreters or consumers of religious knowledge, and therefore are less vulnerable to religionism (Hull, 2000) -which is a monolithic, puritanical understanding of Islam and the de-legitimization of other religions and faiths. ...