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Figure Some examples of the pasta system

Figure Some examples of the pasta system

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Familiarity with species and species identification seems to be a prerequisite for understanding biodiversity and many syllabuses and practitioners emphasise the use of dichotomous keys. Previous studies revealed that pupils using illustrated identification books often coped better with identification tasks than pupils using dichotomous keys. One r...

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... Keys may have several shortcomings with respect to promoting efficient species memorisation. According to cognitive load theory (Randler and Birtel 2008), constraints on working memory limit the amount of information that the mind can process and translate into learning (Sweller 1994). A 'keying-out' activity is a complex task with a high cognitive load that is likely to reduce the working memory available for species memorisation (Randler and Birtel 2008). ...
... According to cognitive load theory (Randler and Birtel 2008), constraints on working memory limit the amount of information that the mind can process and translate into learning (Sweller 1994). A 'keying-out' activity is a complex task with a high cognitive load that is likely to reduce the working memory available for species memorisation (Randler and Birtel 2008). A key that relies on botanical terminology will add to cognitive load, since the beginner is required to master a new set of vocabulary at the same time. ...
... In Experiment 1, we compared species retention produced by three teaching methods used in a group-learning environment: a text-based dichotomous key; learner-generated mnemonic aids; and a pictorial card game. Text-based keys have the advantage of encouraging close attention to the characters in the key rather than reliance on matching specimens to photographs or illustrations (Randler and Birtel 2008;Randler 2008). The keys used here were tailored to plant groups and minimised the use of botanical terminology to make them accessible for complete beginners with varying levels of literacy (Ohkawa 2000). ...
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Most beginners are introduced to plant diversity through identification keys, which develop differentiation skills but not species memorisation. We propose that mnemonics, memorable ‘name clues’ linking a species name with morphological characters, are a complementary learning tool for promoting species memorisation. In the first of two experiments, 64 adults in a group-learning environment were taught species identification using mnemonics, an educational card game and a text-based dichotomous key. In the second experiment, 43 adults in a self-directed learning environment were taught species identification using mnemonics and a pictorial dichotomous key. In both experiments, mnemonics produced the highest retention rates of species identification based on vegetative characters. The educational value of these findings is discussed for vegetative plant identification and broader applications.
... Stevenson et al (2008) suggested using games to familiarise users with a new key type. Randler (2008) demonstrated that students' performance with an unfamiliar key was improved if they were first acclimatised using a key based on familiar specimens as this reduces the cognitive load associated with key use. ...
... Learning biodiversity specific to locality and relevant to learners' lives is an effective way of improving intrinsic motivation (motivation driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself) (Lindemann-Matthies, 2002;Jakel, 2013). By tailoring a key to locality, the students encounter and differentiate a manageable number of species, an important element of biodiversity learning (Randler, 2008;Goulder and Scott, 2006;Jakel, 2013). An inquiry- based learning approach, where it is the students that research and produce the key as part of the module coursework, is another approach to explore. ...
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Bryophytes are a rewarding study group in field biology and the UK bryophyte flora has international importance to biodiversity conservation. We designed an identification key to common woodland moss species and compared the usability of two formats, web-based multi-access and printed dichotomous key, with undergraduate students. The rate of correct species identification and identification speed both showed an advantage for the printed dichotomous key. Our findings suggest that, even in the digital age, printed keys remain valuable in biological education and that quality of key design is more important than presentation medium. We discuss the relative advantages of multi-access and dichotomous keys and how to approach bryophyte identification with beginners.
... Stevenson et al (2008) suggested using games to familiarise users with a new key type. Randler (2008) demonstrated that students' performance with an unfamiliar key was improved if they were first acclimatised using a key based on familiar specimens as this reduces the cognitive load associated with key use. ...
... Learning biodiversity specific to locality and relevant to learners' lives is an effective way of improving intrinsic motivation (motivation driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself) (Lindemann-Matthies, 2002;Jakel, 2013). By tailoring a key to locality, the students encounter and differentiate a manageable number of species, an important element of biodiversity learning (Randler, 2008;Goulder and Scott, 2006;Jakel, 2013). An inquiry- based learning approach, where it is the students that research and produce the key as part of the module coursework, is another approach to explore. ...
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Novel approaches for counteracting plant blindness