Figure One: " Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrica " , The Bantu National Anthem, by Enoch Sontonga, original sheet music from Lovedale Sol-fa-Leaflets, No. 17, 1904.
“Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika” (“God Bless Africa”), known as the African anthem, is a powerful signifier for mourning, redemption, and celebration. The Methodist hymnody patterns and the text of the song belie its roots in missionary cultural contact. The song also figures prominently in the ceremonial repertoire of many independent churches and has bee...
This paper explores how the Jesuits in Japan’s “Christian Century (1549– c .1650)” used Western mechanical clocks in missionary activities and how this new technology was received and transformed in the country. Sources show that it was a common practice for the missionaries to present clocks as unusual gifts to gain access to the ruling class. Thi...
Our Kind of Jazz: Music and Identity in South Africa The history of music, and especially that of jazz and the popular music styles it spawned, was from the start a story of blends and creations out of these blends. Music thus constantly provides a demonstration that the ideologies positing non-Europeans as inferior and segregation policies never had any foundation. From the mid-19th century, Afro-American music styles, first as a borrowing form of Blackface Minstrel songs, then under the name of jazz, took part in these creative mixes. Jazz helped to conceive and symbolically express an identitarian complex at the same time asserting that blacks are human beings like any other and that they have a specific contribution to make to human culture. South African endeavors to appropriate jazz and its local stylistic evolutions thus became closely tied into the political events that marked South African in the 20th century and the successive ideological reformulations of the fight against racism.
In encounters with African-American expressive culture, black South Africans at the dawn of the twentieth century recognized possibilities for their own lives—educational institutions free from white intervention, professional advancement, and independent nationalist governance. African-Americans seeking to reconnect with the continent worked for South Africa’s independence from apartheid. Music was a critical component of these engagements, creating lasting connections across national boundaries.
This chapter develops a reading practice from inside the discipline of British playwriting studies in order both to extend the critical frame through which tucker green’s work might be read and broaden the discipline of playwriting studies itself. With reference to Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of cultural hybridity, Tyler argues that tucker green’s writing can be seen as a hybrid approach that partly deploys and partly eschews normative dramatic models. Drawing on Helen Tiffin’s work, Tyler argues that a ‘counter-discursive’ reading practice can attend to tucker green’s postcolonial dramaturgy, and offers such a reading of tucker green’s trade (2005) and generations (2005). A counter-discursive approach can override normative reading practices, Tyler argues, thus demonstrating their constraints and the dramatic possibilities achieved in departing from them.