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Figure D. Material composition of a coffee machine.  

Figure D. Material composition of a coffee machine.  

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Article
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The publication summarises the results and conclusions of the research project Advanced Solutions for Recycling of Complex and New Materials. The aim of the project has been to create an understanding of the future development needs of waste recycling and management by conducting an in-depth analysis of five selected waste value chains.The chains a...

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... The fraction of wood in C&D waste is particularly high in the Nordic countries where, in Finland, for instance, it accounted for 36%, by mass, in 2007 (Meinander et al., 2012). Currently, around 90% of wood recovered from C&D activities in Finland is chipped for energy (Meinander et al., 2012;OSF, 2019aOSF, , 2019b, with a consequent low degree of reuse and recycling in products (Sokka et al., 2015). ...
... The fraction of wood in C&D waste is particularly high in the Nordic countries where, in Finland, for instance, it accounted for 36%, by mass, in 2007 (Meinander et al., 2012). Currently, around 90% of wood recovered from C&D activities in Finland is chipped for energy (Meinander et al., 2012;OSF, 2019aOSF, , 2019b, with a consequent low degree of reuse and recycling in products (Sokka et al., 2015). In the absence of fungal decay or insect attack, however, the natural ageing of wood does not necessarily result in any significant loss in properties (Kránitz et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The aims of this study were to quantify the amount of wood in residential houses in Finland in 2017 that could be available for cascading, and to characterize the age distribution and gross floor area of the houses in the stock. Through a bottom-up material stock analysis, the mass of wood and the gross floor area of buildings in each building type and construction period were estimated. The study found that 10 million tons of wood are contained in the structures of residential houses built before 1969, equivalent to around 59% of the stock. Since much of this stock is nearing end of life, this material should soon become available for cascading so providing a significant potential resource. It was also found that, overall, the structural parts of residential houses embody 17.5 million tons of wood, of which around 9 million tons is, theoretically, reusable and recyclable. However, for effective reuse and recycling, further analysis of the quality, type and future availability of recovered wood is required. The current results could be used for material stock and flow analyses to help planning for the use of recovered wood. Further research is needed to fill in gaps in the time-series of the number and gross floor area of buildings constructed and their average gross floor area. Moreover, a material intensity analysis of Finnish buildings is needed to better quantify the wood used.
... Lower cost of virgin raw materials [8,37,38] Low economic value of the waste materials and lack of market for secondary raw materials [39] Elevated cost of storage and handling of IM waste, given IM low density and cost of required associated machines and infrastructures [37] Elevated cost of transport, given IM low density and under-optimal logistics and transport network [8,38] Low cost of disposal methods alternative to recycling (i.e., low landfilling and thermal valorization cost) [8,37,38] Unequal costs and benefits sharing among the different IM-involved stakeholders [20] Quality and technical requirements ...
Article
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The limits to linear models of production based on material extraction, manufacture, use, and disposal are becoming increasingly apparent across the global economy. The Circular Economy (CE) describes an alternative to this problematic “take-make-waste” linear model that is concerned with resource efficiency and waste minimization. The construction and demolition sector represents an important focus for a CE transition due to its significant environmental impact. The use of thermal insulation to reduce energy demand associated with heating and cooling in buildings is vital for reducing the sector’s high environmental impact; however, there are significant challenges to recycling thermal insulation materials (IM). This study examines these challenges in the context of Switzerland and evaluates the potential for more circular management of expanded polystyrene and stonewool IM. The research provides an original analysis of the Swiss IM value chain in the context of the CE agenda based on a literature review, semi-structured interviews, and a workshop. Research gaps are highlighted based on scientific literature. The roles and agency of actors involved in the Swiss IM value chain are examined. Enablers of and barriers to wider IM recycling as reported by workshop participants are outlined. Interventions for tackling the current challenges faced for the recycling of thermal IM are suggested. Finally, an agenda for future research is proposed. Throughout the discussion, the importance of the involvement, commitment, and collaboration of stakeholders across the entire IM value chain for an effective and expedient transition to a CE is highlighted.
... According to policy makers, ICT integration, takes place when teachers know how to incorporate and use ICT to teach in the classroom (Cuban, 2007). The assumption here is that once the teachers know how to use ICT to teach, the students will become engaged in using ICT as a tool to learn. ...
... Therefore, information is required about teachers' attitudes for plans about future investments in ICT. According to policy makers, ICT integration, takes place when teachers know how to incorporate and use ICT to teach in the classroom (Cuban, 2007). The assumption here is that once the teachers know how to use ICT to teach, the students will become engaged in using ICT as a tool to learn. ...
... Three types of construction sites generate C&D waste: demolition (57%), renovation (27%), and construction (16%) sites. These sites generate waste of various characteristics and compositions [31]. The essential components of C&D waste, such as bricks, concrete, wood, metals, and ceramics, have significant potential for material restoration. ...
Article
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The objective of this investigation is to study the printing parameter requirements for sustainable 3D printable geopolymer materials. Side streams of the paper, mining, and construction industries were applied as geopolymer raw materials. The effect of printing parameters in terms of buildability, mixability, extrudability, curing, Al-to-Si ratio, and waste materials utilisation on the fresh and hardened state of the materials was studied. The material performance of a fresh geopolymer was measured using setting time and shape stability tests. Standardised test techniques were applied in the testing of the hardened material properties of compressive and flexural strength. The majority of developed suitable 3D printable geopolymers comprised 56–58% recycled material. Heating was used to improve the buildability and setting of the material significantly. A reactive recyclable material content of greater than 20% caused the strength and material workability to decrease. A curing time of 7–28 days increased the compressive strength but decreased the flexural strength. The layers in the test samples exhibited decreased and increased strength, respectively, in compressive and flexural strength tests. Geopolymer development was found to be a compromise between different strength values and recyclable material contents. By focusing on specialised and complex-shape products, 3D printing of geopolymers can compete with traditional manufacturing in limited markets.
... It is considered impurities only when the purpose is to achieve high-quality feedstock for recycling. Corresponds to quality grade III in Table 1, (Meinander et al., 2012) and 41% in UK (Defra, 2012), the compositional variations observed in this study may suggest that wood waste composition should be addressed specifically when assessing the environmental impacts associated with the recycling and management of these waste flows. ...
... metals in Off-cuts may be due to (i) contamination of the materials during waste collection, or (ii) prior treatments of the materials. Wood waste from the C&D sector was a heterogeneous fraction: construction timber was relatively clean, while wood from demolition appeared contaminated by coating, such as paints and preservatives (Meinander et al., 2012). The Pre-consumer wood samples (V) showed significantly smaller concentrations for all elements, except for Cd, Mn and Ti, where the measurements were of the same order of magnitude as the waste materials in Furniture, Misplacement, and Off-cuts. ...
Article
Recycling of post-consumer wood waste into particleboard may be hindered by the presence of physical and chemical impurities in the waste stream, therefore calling for increased attention on the quality of wood waste. However, wood waste comprises several uses/types of wood, along with different levels of contamination. This study provides the detailed sampling and characterisation of wood waste according to its source, type and resource quality grade. Eight tonnes of wood waste, intended for recycling and collected at three Danish recycling centres, were subdivided into 34 individual material fractions and characterised with respect to the presence of three classes of physical impurities (misplacements, interfering materials and low-quality wood waste) as well as chemical concentrations of more than hundred chemical elements and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The results demonstrated that contaminant and concentration levels vary significantly according to wood waste type and source, thus emphasising that wood waste should not be viewed as a single material flow but rather be understood and managed according to the presence of individual fractions. Including only clean wood waste fractions at the three recycling centres, 41–87% of the collected wood waste per weight could be recycled – the rest being physical impurities. The results showed that chemical contamination was significantly higher for low-quality wood waste, thus clearly indicating that improvements in separate collection, sorting and handling of wood waste may improve the resource quality of wood waste and potentially achieve cleaner recycling practices.
... To make landfilling unattractive to operators, the landfilling of organic waste will be restricted in Finland from 2016 by the landfill decree. This is expected to boost the recovery of waste wood and plastics in particular (Meinander et al., 2012). The composition of C&DW will most probably change in the future due to ageing buildings needing renovation and low-quality houses from especially 1960s and 70s coming to the end of their lifetimes and needing demolishing (Kojo and Lilja, 2011). ...
... In the typical Finnish C&DW, wood and mineral materials dominate, the share of wood being 36% and that of mineral materials 35% (Table 1). Metals comprise nearly 14% and the rest is other materials such as glass, gypsum, plastic, packaging materials and mixed waste (Meinander et al., 2012). ...
... The scenarios for waste compositions were based on estimates of the future development in the C&D sector. Scenario 1 (Table 1) was built on the assumption of increasing rehabilitation activities due to the age distribution of the housing stock (Meinander et al., 2012). Rehabilitation activities generate waste with higher shares of wood and metals and a lower share of mineral than other activities (Kojo and Lilja, 2011). ...
... Special focus is on the different recovery options including recycling and re-use. The structure of the recovery process is adapted from specified directions of future development in waste recycling [7]. ...
... The population data, unemployment rates, cars usage and building stock information are adapted from the city of Helsinki urban facts data [11]. The default recovery (sorting, recycling, re-use) rates for steel, concrete and wood are adapted from the specified directions of future development in waste recycling [7]. Energy profiles (hourly demand and production) were pre-calculated for typical buildings by the software tool Apros [12]. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a system dynamics simulation model of districts in greater municipal areas. The model combines in a simplified way the impacts of building material flows during their life cycle, public and private transport, and the energy use and distribution in several simultaneously simulated districts. It is designed to study the long-term effects of different policies on the combined environmental impacts from transport, energies and materials. The population aging and its effect on the dynamic movement of inhabitants across the system boundaries and between the districts is also included in the model either as a permanent relocation or a temporary travels to reach the services or work. The model will support the city authorities in the planning of new urban areas and investments into rehabilitation of existing ones. Such policies must be designed to take into account the interaction between the built environment, infrastructure, services for the inhabitants and their transport and energy needs. The dynamic interaction between several district models simulated in parallel is essential to understand the effect of the particular decision on the surrounding areas. Material flow analysis opens the possibility for improved building waste treatment policies such as separation, recycling and material re-use. The construction, maintenance and demolition of the buildings implemented in the model affects the attractiveness of the buildings to the inhabitants and their willingness to move into the area or stay there. The same negative effect as obsolete buildings may be caused by traffic congestion, insufficient public transport or the reduction of green areas by the infrastructure. Therefore the difficult task of city administration to keep the balance between the needs of inhabitants and the interventions to improve the environmental efficiency has to be aided by sophisticated simulation methods such as the presented model.
... It is assumed than forklift will be used 3.3 minutes for unloading and 5.37 minutes for preparation. Then the beam will be erected by 100-ton crane in approximately 6.01 minutes [5]. ...