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We study the impact on children of increasing maternity leave benefits using a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave in Norway in July 1977. Mothers giving birth before this date were eligible only for 12 weeks of unpaid leave, while those giving birth after were entitled to 4 months of paid leave and 12 months of unpaid leave. This...

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This paper shows how family policies aimed at reconciling the pressures of family and work generate substantial variation in labour market outcomes across developed countries. We use a life-cycle model of female labour supply and savings behaviour, calibrated to the US economy, to assess the effect of introducing to the US a maternity leave policy...

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... Indeed, most studies that explore the effects of early-life pollution exposure investigate the immediate effects on child birth outcomes (see e.g., Chay and Greenstone, 2003;Currie and Neidell, 2005;Almond et al., 2009;Currie, 2009;Jayachandran, 2009;Currie and Walker, 2011;Knittel et al., 2016;Sanders and Stoecker, 2015;Arceo et al., 2016;Hanlon, 2018;Jia and Ku, 2019;Rangel and Vogl, 2019), with only few exploring potential effects in childhood or early adulthood (see e.g., Reyes, 2007;Bharadwaj et al., 2017;Almond et al., 2009;Sanders, 2012;Black et al., 2013;Isen et al., 2017) and even fewer focusing on outcomes in older age (Bharadwaj et al., 2016;Ball, 2018a). As such, ignoring potential long-term effects 1 For example, research has explored the importance of maternal physical health (Behrman and Rosenzweig, 2004;Almond, 2006;Almond and Mazumder, 2005), maternal mental health (von Hinke et al., 2019), maternal health behaviours (Nilsson, 2017;von Hinke et al., 2014), maternal nutrition (van den Berg et al., 2021), the economic environment (Van den Berg et al., 2006;Banerjee et al., 2010), the early life health environment (Bleakley, 2007;Case and Paxson, 2009;Cattan et al., 2021), or the home environment (Carneiro et al., 2015). of pollution may lead to a substantial underestimation of the total welfare effects caused by exposure to environmental toxins. ...
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This paper uses a large UK cohort to investigate the impact of early-life pollution exposure on individuals' human capital and health outcomes in older age. We compare individuals who were exposed to the London smog in December 1952 whilst in utero or in infancy to those born after the smog and those born at the same time but in unaffected areas. We find that those exposed to the smog have substantially lower fluid intelligence and worse respiratory health, with some evidence of a reduction in years of schooling.
... L'hétérogénéité importante existante entre pays dans les caractéristiques de leurs systèmes de congés parentaux (montant de la prestation, durée du congé légal, protection de l'emploi) contribue à des résultats empiriques très mitigés. Certaines études trouvent des impacts positifs ou nuls sur l'emploi et le salaire des mères pour les années post-congés [Baker and Milligan (2008) ; Kluve and Tamm (2013) ; Rossin-Slater et al. (2013) ; Asai (2015) ; Bergemann and Riphahn (2015) ; Carneiro et al. (2015) ; Baum and Ruhm (2016) ; Byker (2016) ; Dahl et al. (2016) ; Lacroix et al. (2017b), ] alors que d'autres documentent des impacts négatifs, notamment à long terme [Lalive and Zweimüller (2009) 8. Dans beaucoup de pays, l'instauration des congés familiaux n'a pas entièrement eu les effets escomptés en matière d'égalité entre les mères et les pères. Certes, certains travaux examinant les retombées des congés réservés aux pères (paternité ou parentaux) ont mis en évidence leurs effets positifs sur l'implication des pères dans les tâches domestiques et parentales, qui peuvent aller au-delà de la période de congé [Kotsadam andFinseraas (2011), Bünning (2015), Pailhé et al. (2018), ] et de pair avec une moindre spécialisation des mères dans ces tâches, les rendant plus disponibles pour l'emploi et favorisant la négociation au sein des ménages au regard des réductions d'activités. ...
Thesis
Ce travail doctoral en économie appliquée propose une analyse des comportements individuels en matière de protection sociale, dans le contexte de la santé et plus généralement de la gestion du capital humain. Le chapitre 1 analyse l'effet du niveau de couverture assurantielle sur la consommation individuelle de soins dans le contexte français, en tenant compte de la dimension comportementale. A partir de données d’enquête, ce travail met en avant le rôle majeur de l’aversion au risque sur la nature de la relation observée entre le niveau de garanties des contrats de complémentaire santé et le niveau de dépenses de soins des assurés. Les chapitres 2 et 3 étudient l'arbitrage individuel entre assurance et prévention, à partir d’une étude expérimentale. Le chapitre 2 révèle tout d’abord une incohérence dynamique des choix des participants, qui se traduit par une diminution de la demande d'assurance avec à l’introduction d’un mécanisme de prévention, sans pour autant induire davantage d'efforts préventifs ensuite. Le chapitre 3 met quant à lui en avant le rôle de la liberté de choix en assurance sur le niveau d’effort de prévention consenti par les assurés : le fait de laisser le choix du contrat aux participants diminue le niveau d’effort de prévention qu’ils sont prêts à fournir ensuite, à niveau de couverture donné. Le chapitre 4 analyse l'impact des conditions de travail sur le recours aux arrêts maladie des salariés français. A partir de données d’enquête, enrichies de variables concernant les conditions d'indemnisation individuelles en cas d'absence, il révèle notamment l'existence de disparités dans les comportements d'arrêts maladie et l'état de santé général entre les travailleurs exposés à certains facteurs de pénibilité et ceux qui ne le sont pas, avec un rôle majeur joué par les risques psychosociaux. Enfin, le chapitre 5 propose la première évaluation de l’effet causal de la générosité des prestations familiales versées en cas de congé parental à la suite d’une naissance sur la durée du congé demandée par les mères les plus modestes. En utilisant l’approche par Regression Kink Design (RKD), mise en œuvre sur des données administratives et fiscales québécoises, ce travail confirme l’effet positif attendu de la générosité des prestations familiales versées aux mères à faible revenu sur la durée du congé parental qu'elles demandent, avec un effet plus marqué pour les mères monoparentales.
... Compared to other countries, the Swiss baby bonus is a cheap intervention to temporarily increase fertility and permanently improve newborn health. Importantly, other studies (Almond et al., 2018;Carneiro et al., 2015;Schwandt, 2018) suggest that health measures at birth translate into meaningful later life outcomes such as higher earnings or lower welfare dependence. Thus, the efficiency of the program might be underestimated by only studying outcomes visible at birth. ...
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This paper studies the effect of birth allowances (so-called baby bonus) on fertility, newborn health, and birth-scheduling in Switzerland. Switzerland provides an optimal quasi-experiment: 11 out of 26 cantons introduced a baby bonus during the last 50 years at different points in time. To identify the effect of changes in the baby bonus, we employ an event study with control groups using several administrative data sets on births, stillbirths, and infant deaths in Switzerland from 1969 to 2017. While there is no evidence for birth-scheduling, we find, however, a sizable but only temporary increase in the fertility rate of 5.5% and a permanent but diminishing increase in the birth weight of 2.8%. The latter effect is particularly strong at the lower end of the birth weight distribution. Furthermore, we document substantial heterogeneity by citizenship of mothers.
... In other countries, Baker and Milligan (2010) showed that an expansion in parental leave from six months to one year in Canada increased the leave duration among new mothers by about three 11 https://www.marchofdimes.org/peristats/ViewSubtopic 12 https://www.edd.ca.gov/Disability/pdf/qspflPFLProgramStatistics.pdf 13 Rossin-Slater (2017) months. Also, Carneiro et al. (2015) found that a new policy in Norway that gave new mothers four months of paid leave increased leave-taking by about four months. There is a large literature that has studied the impact of different types of maternity leave policies on women's labor market outcomes, both in the U.S. and around the world. ...
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The primary objective of the California Paid Family Leave (CA-PFL) program is to ease the burden of parenthood. One unintended consequence is that employers may bear the cost of the CA-PFL program and respond by changing their demand for those most likely to take-up the policy. I examine how the employment and wages of women of childbearing age (i.e., young women) change relative to men of the same corresponding age group (i.e., young men) in response to the enactment and to the implementation of the program. Exploiting variation in paid family leave access across industries and firm sizes, I find the CA-PFL program decreases employment for young women compared to young men by approximately 2.0% across industries and 3.0% across firm sizes. Furthermore, I find that younger women experience a statistically significant 0.2% decrease in wages relative to young men across industries and no significant change in wages when compared to young men across firm sizes. In conclusion, most women enjoy the benefits of paid family leave, but a few young women are unable to attain employment.
... De acuerdo con la literatura consultada, el impacto de los permisos y excedencias sobre el desempeño educativo infantil es nulo (Datta Gupta, 2018). Para intentar explicar la ausencia de efectos positivos, entre otros argumentos, destaca la importancia de la presencia de servicios de cuidado infantil de alta calidad que sustituyan a la atención parental (Carneiro, Løken y Salvanes, 2015). Otra de las dinámicas que pueden limitar el efecto de las prestaciones por permiso es el hecho de que los progenitores realicen inversiones compensatorias. ...
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... Fourth, conversely, we would expect a concave relation if there exists a fatigue e ect: after a certain amount of time spent with the child, we would anticipate that the parent might become too tired to be able to continue stimulating activities with the child. Studies exploring the e ects of maternity leave reforms on children's outcomes suggest concavity in these e ects, finding little impact on children's outcomes when analyzing extensions of already generous maternity leave benefits (Rasmussen 2010), but strong e ects when maternity leave entitlements were increased from a very low level (Carneiro et al. 2015). As these e ects are driven by maternal time investments, we would therefore expect a concave relation between such investments and children's outcomes. ...
... Apart from the direct impact on increasing the income of households with children and reducing poverty and inequality in society, the "Family 500+" programme may also have significant consequences in other areas. Empirical studies conducted for other countries show that financial transfers for families with children may have a positive impact on health, educational results, higher employment and higher pay achieved by such children in the future (Aizer et al. 2016;Carneiro et al. 2015). ...
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We use the microsimulation approach and household budget survey data from 2015 to estimate the short-term impact of the “Family 500+” programme on household incomes, poverty and inequality. The results suggest that the programme will have the strongest impact on the incomes of households at the lower end of income distribution. Extreme consumption poverty in the whole population is reduced in the range from 35 to 37%, while child poverty in the range from 75 to 100%, depending on the choice of equivalence scale and assumptions about changes in household expenditures. The paper shows also that the programme will reduce the Gini index of income inequality in Poland by a few percentage points. The programme can lead to a lower risk of extreme poverty for households with children as compared to small households (e.g. single-person households). Analysis based on certain equivalence scales suggests that even before the implementation of the “Family 500+” programme extreme poverty among households with children was comparable or lower than among one-person or childless households. The progressive impact of “Family 500+” programme on income distribution in Poland may be reduced in the longer run if labour market activity of low income households will be affected negatively.
... To overcome self-selection bias issues, we use a change in the rules governing SNAP eligibility that occurs when a member of a household reaches age 60 as a natural experiment to estimate a quasi-experimental difference-in-regression-discontinuity (DRD) design that models the effects of the SNAP program on the prevalence of diet-related disease. [18][19][20] We hypothesize that SNAP expansions would decrease diet-related disease, as it provides access to a finance mechanism for more nutritionally adequate food sources. dataset, we refine the study sample to individuals over 130% of the federal poverty level, as our identification strategy is designed to address potential selection issues for persons residing in households greater than 130% of the federal poverty level. ...
... Using both the rule change at age 60 and the variation in tax filing status, we estimate a difference-in-regression-discontinuity (DRD) model. [18][19][20] The DRD model is an improvement over the standard RD model because it goes beyond relying on just a comparison of outcomes before/after the rule change to estimate the effects of SNAP. Instead, the DRD model compares the before/after rule change differences in outcomes for itemizers with the before/after F I G U R E 2 Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) enrollment rates and annual nutritional assistance received by federal tax filing status. ...
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Objectives To examine the health effects of the Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) and the differential impact of SNAP across race/ethnicity among older adults. Data Source/Study Setting 2008‐2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative population‐based complex sample survey. Study Design A difference‐in‐regression‐discontinuity (DRD) design is used to assess the impacts of SNAP on diet‐related disease morbidity. The primary outcomes were the prevalence rate of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. We also conducted supplemental analysis to examine potential co‐occurring trends in medical utilization. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data are publicly available. Principal Findings In the full sample, SNAP eligibility was associated with a significant decline in diabetes (−3.71 percentage points [pp]; P < .05). Non‐Hispanic (NH) White respondents reported trends similar to the full sample; however, NH Black respondents reported large declines in hypertension (−13.95 pp; P < .01) and Hispanic respondents reported declines in the prevalence of angina (−6.94 pp; P < .05) and stroke (−4.48 pp; P < .05). Conclusions Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program eligibility was associated with the reduced prevalence of diet‐related disease among older adults. These observed declines in the prevalence of diet‐related disease do not appear to be attributable to increased medical visits or spending on medical services and prescriptions.
... Durante los primeros años de vida, son los padres o cuidadores principales del niño(a), los que, a través de su interacción con el niño(a), modelan la trayectoria del desarrollo (Borra, Iacovou, & Sevilla, 2012;Carneiro, Løken, & Salvanes, 2015;Del Bono, Ermisch, & Francesconi, 2012). Las habilidades, prácticas y procesos familiares son determinantes en la calidad de la interacción entre el cuidador principal y el niño(a) (Melhuish, Lloyd, Martin, & Mooney, 1990). ...
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El 40% de las habilidades cognitivas del adulto se forman en los tres primeros años de vida, y las habilidades sociales, emocionales y cognitivas de los niños y niñas menores de tres años sientan las bases para su desarrollo y el aprendizaje futuro (Consejo Nacional de Investigación e Instituto de Medicina, 2000; Shonkoff, 2010, Thompson, 2001, 2016). Los primeros 1000 días de una persona son una ventana única de oportunidades para incidir en su buen desarrollo. Entender bien la calidad del cuidado que reciben los niños y niñas en este período nos dará herramientas para mejorar los cimientos de una sociedad más justa, donde todos los niños y niñas puedan desarrollar su potencial. El estudio longitudinal Mil Primeros Días busca caracterizar las trayectorias de tipos de cuidado que experimentan los niños y niñas, distinguiendo entre cuidado materno exclusivo, cuidado en salas cunas o jardines infantiles, y cuidado de un familiar o no familiar, poniendo el foco en la calidad de estos tipos de cuidado y su asociación con el desarrollo cognitivo, del lenguaje y socioemocional de los niños y niñas. La Primera Ola de medición del estudio fue aplicada entre mayo y octubre del 2019, y en ésta participaron 1,162 familias de niños y niñas de 13 meses de edad, en promedio, que se atienden en el sistema público de salud en el Gran Santiago. El 19% de estas familias son extranjeras. A las familias se les visitó en sus hogares y se aplicó un cuestionario de caracterización socioeconómica, un diario de registro de actividades de los niños y niñas durante un día común, y se evaluaron la salud mental de los cuidadores(as), las actitudes y creencias parentales, las interacciones entre cuidadoras y niños(as) y el temperamento, desarrollo cognitivo y lenguaje de los(as) niños(as). Los análisis descriptivos de esta Primera Ola muestran que la mayoría del tiempo los niños(as) están en su casa siendo cuidados por su madre, y el segundo tipo de cuidado más utilizado es la sala cuna en un 18% de los casos. Las principales razones para no enviar a los niños(as) a sala cuna es la desconfianza, creer que los niños(as) son muy pequeños, y que las madres activamente tienen el deseo de cuidar a sus hijos(as). En cambio, para las familias extranjeras la razón mas común es la falta de vacantes. De los niños(as) que asisten a salas cunas se puede decir que asisten a aulas donde el apoyo emocional y conductual se encuentra en un nivel medio (4.78), y que en cambio el apoyo hacia el aprendizaje se encuentra bajo (2,35).Al analizar las creencias, actitudes parentales y las interacciones cuidadora-niño(a), encontramos que las cuidadoras tienen una buena percepción de sus habilidades para llevar a cabo el rol parental. Pero existen algunas diferencias por quintil de ingreso y nivel educativo, donde las cuidadoras de quintiles y educación más altos perciben que lo que hacen tiene un impacto mayor en sus hijos que o que perciben los cuidadores de quintiles más bajos y menor educación. Además, se observa que las cuidadoras chilenas y quintiles más bajos presentan niveles mayores de sobreprotección que las madres extranjeras o quintiles mas altos. En cuanto a la calidad y estimulación dentro del hogar, se observa diferencias en cuanto a quintiles de ingresos y entre cuidadores extranjeros y chilenos. Los quintiles más bajos presentan niveles más bajos de sensibilidad y estimulación cognitiva. En cuanto a las madres extranjeras, presentan una media de involucramiento parental menor y niveles de intrusividad e involucramiento parental mayores. A continuación, se presentan en el primer apartado de este documento, una introducción teó- rica sobre los tipos y calidad del cuidado, describiendo los tres tipos de cuidado que considera el estudio. En la segunda parte de este documento, se presenta el diseño del estudio, incluyendo sus objetivos, población objetivo, diseño muestral y el procedimiento de aplicación de la Primera Ola. En una tercera parte, se incluyen resultados, sobre características de la muestra, los hogares y las cuidadoras principales; la descripción del cuidado que reciben los niños y las niñas en el hogar, así como las principales actividades que realizan. Además, se describen las creencias de crianza y paternidad de las cuidadoras, y las interacciones que se dan entre cuidadoras principales y los(as) niños(as), al interior del hogar. Finalmente, se describen en el caso del los niños y niñas que asisten a salas cunas las interacciones que se dan entre educadoras y los niños y niñas. Por último, este documento presenta algunas reflexiones preliminares y conclusiones generales del estudio.
... A policy area which has seen reform in our sample period is family and active labour market policies, including maternity leave and childcare. The first maternity leave reform took place in 1977, providing full replacement for working mothers for four and half months (Carneiro, Løken, and Salvanes (2015)). This reform was extended successively in the 1980s and 1990s up until today with access to 49 weeks with 100 percent coverage (Dahl, Løken, Mogstad, and Salvanes (2016)). ...
... Fourth, the timing of income could be a choice variable, potentially correlated with human capital investments. One obvious case is maternity leave: parents choose to take time off at the beginning of the child's life, presumably with the goal of improving the outcomes of the child (e.g., Carneiro, Løken, and Salvanes (2015)). However, excluding income in the early years when the labour supply of mothers (and to a lesser extent fathers) are affected by child-rearing activities leads to the same conclusions as our benchmark. ...
Article
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We extend the standard intergenerational mobility literature by examining the relationship between adult outcomes of children and the timing of parental income during their childhood years, using data from Norway. We find first that, conditional on permanent household income, the child’s human capital is higher in households where income is balanced between the early childhood and late childhood years than in households with a more imbalanced income profile. Second, compared to that in the early and late periods of childhood, income in the middle period has relatively low productivity.