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Left: Regional Activation at orgasm compared with early stimulation. Regional brain activity during the 20 seconds at the initiation of stimulation. Right: Regional activation at orgasm compared with recovery. Brain activity during 20 seconds immediately after the button press, subtracted from 20 seconds of activity starting at the onset orgasm. Published with the permission of Prof. Barry Komisaruk. Reference: Wise NJ, Frangos E, Komisaruk BR. Brain activity Unique to Orgasm in Women: An fMRI Analysis. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 14 (11): 1380-1391; 2017. • Jannini E.A, Wise N. Frangos E. and Komisaruk BR. Peripheral and Central Neural Bases of Orgasm. In Textbook of Sexual Function and Dysfunction: Diagnosis and Treatment, First Edition, Edited by Sue W. Goldstein, Noel N. Kim, Anita H. Clayton. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2018. Chapter 13, pp:179-195; 2018.

Left: Regional Activation at orgasm compared with early stimulation. Regional brain activity during the 20 seconds at the initiation of stimulation. Right: Regional activation at orgasm compared with recovery. Brain activity during 20 seconds immediately after the button press, subtracted from 20 seconds of activity starting at the onset orgasm. Published with the permission of Prof. Barry Komisaruk. Reference: Wise NJ, Frangos E, Komisaruk BR. Brain activity Unique to Orgasm in Women: An fMRI Analysis. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 14 (11): 1380-1391; 2017. • Jannini E.A, Wise N. Frangos E. and Komisaruk BR. Peripheral and Central Neural Bases of Orgasm. In Textbook of Sexual Function and Dysfunction: Diagnosis and Treatment, First Edition, Edited by Sue W. Goldstein, Noel N. Kim, Anita H. Clayton. New York: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2018. Chapter 13, pp:179-195; 2018.

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Pleasure is a mental and emotional state that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, satisfying, giving joy and happiness or worth seeking. It may include other mind states such as happiness, entertainment, enjoyment, ecstasy, and euphoria, with peak experiences. According to the "incentive salience model" pleasure has three co...

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... As measured by Masters and Johnson, the contraction duration of genital and pelvic area occurs at 0.8 second intervals [24]. Although males have a refractory period after one ejaculation, to become erect again, it is well documented that females have the capacity to continue having multiple climaxes if they are stimulated continuously and properly by the right partner [13,[17][18][19][20][21][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. As described by Masters and Johnson, some women can attain an orgasmic state which may last for 43 seconds, coined as status orgasmus [24]. ...
... In some women who have developed ESR; Expanded Orgasms (EO), multiple orgasms and status orgasmus can vary in duration and in number of minor orgasms they contain in the train of orgasmic pattern. Lately, such prolonged orgasms and the methods how to attain them have been published in many books and articles [1][2][3][4][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][43][44][45][46]. Sayin defined status orgasmus as [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][18][19][20][21]: A Case Study of an ESR Woman with Non-Genital or Never-Ending Orgasms (NEOs) and Brain Orgasms, but with no PGAD claim that this quantity goes up to around 50). ...
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Abstract Female orgasm is one of the unsolved phenomena in female physiology and psychology. Most of the women do not actually know their natural capacity in attaining powerful orgasms; male biases have, most of the time, shaped the norms of the sexual behavior of women in many cultures. 50 to 65 % of women can attain multiple orgasms. In some of these women, orgasms can be prolonged and expanded. Expanded Sexual Response (ESR) is a recently defined phenomenon. ESR is defined as: “being able to attain long lasting and/or prolonged and/or multiple and/or sustained orgasms and/or status orgasmus that lasted longer and more intense than the classical orgasm patterns defined in the literature”. We have recently defined the case studies of five ESR women, as well as many other cases in the books and articles we have published. Approximately 10-15 % of female population can develop ESR, by training. In this case report, we are, for the first time, defining a novel ESR Case (Afros) with non-genital orgasms, never-ending orgasms, brain orgasms and status orgasmus. Afros had the capacity of attaining various forms of female orgasms, such as clitoral orgasms, vaginal orgasms, vaginal-coital orgasms, G-Spot orgasms, non-genital orgasms, anal orgasms, nipple orgasms, ear-lobe orgasms, blended orgasms, and status orgasmus, as long as she was stimulated and aroused. She did not suffer from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD), since she could control her orgasms. The most intriguing perspective of Afros was that she experienced continuous orgasms (never-ending orgasms-NEOs) as long as she was stimulated, according to our observations and her descriptions; she could stay in the orgasmic state and consciousness for hours, even as long as for a day. Her most intriguing orgasms were recorded as 3-hour non-stop orgasms, with various forms of above orgasms, mostly status orgasmus. During another episode of 2 hours we recorded her having nearly more than 250 orgasms, some of which were combined with status orgasmus, that lasted from 15 minutes to 45 minutes. Afros is the only and unique woman who could maintain orgasmic physiological state and orgasmic consciousness incessantly in the medical literature recorded up to date. Afros also experienced mental orgasms as defined by Komisaruk et al. and Sukel (2011).
... Sexual motivation, desire, pleasure and orgasm also originate from the same limbic reward-pleasure circuitry. Love, sexual pleasure and orgasm in H. sapiens are far more complicated phenomena compared to the "mating" of the laboratory animals, although the same neurochemicals participate in the induction of sexual pleasure, such as dopamine (DA) and oxytocin (OXT), similar to animals [26,28]. Komisaruk., et al. reported, from some fMRI studies, that during the orgasms induced by vaginal-cervical stimulation or clitoral stimulation, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (where oxytocin is initially released), amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NA), nucleus Caudatus (NC), insula, preoptic area (where oxytocin is released), some basal ganglions, cerebellum, anterior cingulate gyrus, insularparietal and prefrontal cortices were activated [29][30][31][32][33]. ...
... Published with the permission of Prof. Barry Komisaruk [32,33]. [7,8,11,17,26,28,30,45,47,92]. [7,8,11,17,26,28,30,45,47,92]. ...
... [7,8,11,17,26,28,30,45,47,92]. [7,8,11,17,26,28,30,45,47,92]. ...
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Pleasure principal" is one of the most important driving forces of the human psyche. Kinds of pleasure in human beings include various satisfactions, such as food intake for the survival, satisfaction of the ego and higher cortical cognitive functions, sexual satisfaction and orgasm, satisfaction of basic physiological needs and peak experiences, such as love, satori-like experiences, and some mystical-like experiences. Pleasure phenomenon has some neural correlates, circuitries and neurotransmitter systems involved. Some pleasure centers have been defined in both animals and humans, such as ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens (NA), prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, insula, while amygdala, hippocampus and some structures of the temporal lobe may have an auxiliary role. Mainly neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and oxytocin (OXT) are the mediators of pleasure experiences in humans. During love, sexual pleasure and orgasm, those hedonic hot spots are activated, as also shown by fMRI techniques. Recently it was proposed that sexual pleasure can be expanded and there were reports on expanded orgasms (EO or ESR). Also, some researchers have reported that there are erogenous zones other than clitoris, while some non-genital orgasms have also been reported. Pudental, pelvic, hypogastric nerves and vagus control the orgasmic reflex in females. OXT, which is also a pleasure molecule, just like DA, also has some separate pleasure pathways. The limits and extents of female pleasure and orgasms have not been investigated thoroughly until recently. One of the extremes of female pleasures, ESR, has some specific neurological mechanisms which can be explained by using current data on female sexuality. There are different types of female orgasms: clitoral, vaginal, blended orgasms, EO and status orgasmus, which are still debated in the academic circles. This review discusses the possible neurological and neuropharmacological mechanisms of EO and ESR, using the informatics theory, as well.