... Ce travail s'inscrit dans la continuité des recherches conduites depuis 2015 au sein du « Réseau politiques publiques et développement rural en Amérique latine » (PP-AL), sur la construction des politiques d'agroécologie brésiliennes (Schmitt et al., 2017 ;Sabourin et al., 2019 ;Guéneau et al., 2019a). La méthodologie a consisté en premier lieu à réaliser une analyse des principales sources documentaires portant sur la littérature académique, les papiers de positionnement des différents groupes d'acteurs et les documents institutionnels, en particulier les politiques, plans d'action, et les rapports des quinze sessions de la Commission nationale pour l'agroécologie et la production biologique ( génératrice d'emplois et pourvoyeuse des biens alimentaires destinés au marché domestique côtoie donc une agriculture commerciale très productive vouée à l'exportation de produits de base, réalisée par des exploitations de grande taille. ...
... En second lieu, force est de constater que tous les acquis des dernières décennies ne sont pas perdus. Des continuités existent via la formulation récente de politiques locales d'agroécologie de certains états fédérés, de municipalités ou de territoires d'intercommunalité (Guéneau et al., 2019a ;Sabourin et al., 2019). Les réseaux qui se sont mobilisés en faveur de l'agroécologie continuent de mobiliser les acteurs sociaux, en témoignent le succès des événements récents comme le XI e Congrès brésilien d'Agroécologie qui s'est tenu en 2019. ...
This article analyzes the trajectory of agroecology policies in Brazil. The methodology includes an extended literature review and interviews with key actors based on a framework that drew from that of the sociology of public action. The results indicate that the formation of a coalition of social movements has played a major role in the adoption of the national policy for agroecology and organic production. The design and implementation of this policy are based on a series of participatory and intersectoral mechanisms. However, the coalition is faced with internal tensions about the agroecological project. The political change that took place in 2016 has blocked this process, but other dynamics can be anticipated, in particular at the local level.
A pandemia provocada pelo COVID-19 expôs vulnerabilidades sociais e ambientais a nível global, penalizando principalmente a população menos favorecida, dada a dificuldade de acesso a alimentos. Esta pesquisa teve o objetivo de analisar os canais curtos de comercialização promovidos pelo agricultor familiar do estado do Amapá (Brasil) como resposta à crise alimentar em que o estado se encontrava no período de pandemia e como estes canais fomentaram a soberania alimentar na região a partir da produção agroecológica. Utilizou-se como método análise de conteúdo, com análises bibliográficas e documentais e entrevistas estruturadas com lideranças agrícolas locais. Os resultados mostraram que o agricultor familiar, com o apoio do SEBRAE, conseguiu resistir a esta crise alimentar, organizando canais alternativos de comercialização de produção agroecológica, tais como entregas diretas, feiras nas comunidades agrícolas, entregas de cestas em condomínios e feiras Drive Thru. Alguns destes canais são reproduzidos mesmo depois da pandemia pelo agricultor familiar, fortalecidos pelos laços criados entre produtor e consumidor. Por fim, é necessária uma maior conduta participativa e democrática para endossar o consumo agroecológico de alimentos culturalmente apropriados, que atribuam as devidas responsabilidades do Estado e que dialogue com a diversidade cultural e econômica da região a fim de continuar promovendo soberania alimentar no estado.
In 2020-2021 the Covid-19 crisis worsened the harms from the hegemonic agribusiness model, while also providing opportunities for alternatives. Since long before the crisis, Latin American civil society networks had been building an agroecology-based solidarity economy (here EcoSol-agroecology for short). These networks have linked agroecological production methods with collective marketing through short food-supply chains (circuitos curtos), establishing closer relationships with consumers. Such initiatives have been expanded, despite adverse government policies and Covid-19 obstacles. This expansion has been widely understood as strengthening social proximities. As the analytical contribution here, EcoSol-agroecology networks build an 'economy of proximity', based on proximate purposes such as mutual aid, democratic self-management, women's leadership, food security and biodiverse resource conservation. These solidaristic purposes help to activate other proximities (geographical, organisational, institutional, and cultural), while also linking them. Collective capacities have developed those proximities in context-specific ways. This strategic perspective has informed EcoSol-agroecology networks in Brazil's Baixada Santista region, the site of grassroots voices in this case study. Diverse contributions have been integrated into a composite culture as a symbolic site of belonging. As global elites seek to restore the hegemonic agri-food system after the Covid-19 pandemic, a different future depends on building the social proximities of EcoSol-agroecology.
In recent years, the debate about the most appropriate mode of governance to preserve natural resources commons has been extended to knowledge commons resources. Throughout the world, increasing numbers of local communities are organizing themselves and taking a stand in favor of collective management of such resources. This is the case for collectives organized in Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS), an alternative quality certification method for the management of ecological labels. This thesis analyzes the governance of PGSs in opposing regulatory contexts: regulatory recognition of PGSs in Brazil versus the dominance of third-party certification in France. For the analysis, we use the theoretical approach of the commons, which is appropriate for studying systems of rules designed by local communities that are collectively in charge of a common resource. In this framework, we consider ecological labels as common knowledge resources. The literature emphasizes the fact that control activities, which are at the heart of quality labels, are subject to the risk of degradation or underproduction commonly encountered in the management of common pool resources (CPR). Our analysis is based on surveys and focus groups organized with actors involved in the implementation of PGS schemes, participant observation, and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using the typology of seven rules to govern a commons and the analytical tool developed by Ostrom and her colleagues to study past changes in governance rules.We show that PGS organizations are complex governance systems, capable of (i) self-organizing to comply with a technical standard and (ii) adapting their governance to foster the sustainability of their institutions. In Brazil, our results show that co-management of the commons knowledge resources is an appropriate institutional scheme to govern a PGS. The modalities of management shared between public authorities and local communities ensure the credibility of the PGS and facilitate the adaptation of rules to the local context despite being standardized. However, this kind of management leads to an increase in administrative procedures. In France, in a much less favorable context, the PGS has existed for 50 years and is currently spreading to sectors other than organic agriculture. We show that the governance of the PGS in France relies mainly on unwritten norms. This path dependency creates tensions and conflicts between users in a rapidly growing community. Finally, French organizations that use the PGS do not have a common rule base, a necessary condition for building a shared reputation for PGS.These results question the capacity of local communities that manage an ecological label to produce collective action under the constraints of the institutional environment in which they evolve and hence to tackle the challenges of the ecological and solidarity transition. A further question is whether the "participatory guarantee system" is a sufficiently stable concept to develop into a key tool for the collective management of ecological labels.