Figura 2 - uploaded by Marcela Acuna-Rivera
Content may be subject to copyright.
El Lugar Deteriorado El lugar real se modificó para crear un lugar más deteriorado y menos atractivo. La idea general era crear un lugar descuidado que evidenciara signos de deterioro y abandono.  

El Lugar Deteriorado El lugar real se modificó para crear un lugar más deteriorado y menos atractivo. La idea general era crear un lugar descuidado que evidenciara signos de deterioro y abandono.  

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
De acuerdo con varios estudios, la evaluación de incivilidades físicas y sociales de los lugares forma parte del proceso mediante el cual la gente estima su nivel de seguridad. El estudio que aquí se presenta investiga si tal supuesto se mantiene cuando a la gente se le permite expresar lo que piensa de un lugar antes de evaluar el nivel de desorde...

Similar publications

Chapter
Full-text available
Los efectos que el maremoto del 1 de noviembre de 1755 provocó sobre las costas de Huelva y Cádiz sorprendió a los habitantes del litoral de tal manera que sin saber muy bien lo que debían hacer tomaron decisiones poco meditadas que en algunos casos les garantizó la supervivencia y en otros les condujo a la muerte. En lo que respecta a los ciudadan...

Citations

... Como señalan Valera y Guàrdia (2014), esta lectura sobre el papel de la incivilidad es ampliada por la broken windows theory (Wilson y Kelling, 1982), teoría que plantea que el deterioro del espacio público funciona para los potenciales delincuentes como un mensaje de impunidad, lo que produce un efecto en cadena en el que una señal de desorden desembocará en más actos de incivismo y delincuencia, situación cuyo miedo producirá la inacción de los mecanismos de control, que a su vez incidirá en la no neutralización de estas pistas visuales de desorden (Wilson y Kelling, 1982). En consecuencia, desde estos planteamientos, como sintetizan Acuña- Rivera et al. (2011): "las incivilidades físicas se relacionan con señales que muestran que un lugar no se mantiene o se usa correctamente; las incivilidades sociales se asocian con un comportamiento desordenado e impredecible, problemático y amenazante"(p.116). ...
... Una revisión de la literatura psicoambiental reciente nos permite afirmar que no se han generado explicaciones e interpretaciones sobre las incivilidades sustancialmente diferentes a la de los textos clásicos. Si bien se han sofisticado los métodos de investigación con el desarrollo de nuevos instrumentos de medición (Acuña et al., 2011;San-Juan et al., 2010;Milam et al., 2016), el uso de nuevas técnicas como fotosimulaciones (Jiang et al., 2017), sistemas informáticos de información geográficos (Spicer y Song, 2017), histogramas fotográficos (Lis y Iwankowski, 2021), realidad virtual (Tabrizian et al., 2018) y nuevas formas de análisis como las técnicas de estadística multivariante (Chataway y Hart, 2016; Valera y Guàrdia, 2017), la manera en que son entendidas las incivilidades urbanas sigue asociada a la broken windows theory (Brown et al., 2016;Chataway y Hart, 2016;Lockwood et al., 2020;Medway et al. 2016Jiang et al., 2017Jamme et al., 2018;Lis y Iwankowski, 2021; Valera y Guàrdia, 2017, o al trabajo de Perkins et al., (1992de Perkins et al., ( y 1993 sobre la percepción del miedo y el desorden urbano (Foster et al., 2015(Foster et al., y 2019;Milam et al., 2016;Spicer y Song, 2017;Francis et al., 2017;Lockwood et al., 2020o Medway et al., 2016. ...
... Como señalan Valera y Guàrdia (2014), esta lectura sobre el papel de la incivilidad es ampliada por la broken windows theory (Wilson y Kelling, 1982), teoría que plantea que el deterioro del espacio público funciona para los potenciales delincuentes como un mensaje de impunidad, lo que produce un efecto en cadena en el que una señal de desorden desembocará en más actos de incivismo y delincuencia, situación cuyo miedo producirá la inacción de los mecanismos de control, que a su vez incidirá en la no neutralización de estas pistas visuales de desorden (Wilson y Kelling, 1982). En consecuencia, desde estos planteamientos, como sintetizan Acuña- Rivera et al. (2011): "las incivilidades físicas se relacionan con señales que muestran que un lugar no se mantiene o se usa correctamente; las incivilidades sociales se asocian con un comportamiento desordenado e impredecible, problemático y amenazante"(p.116). ...
... Una revisión de la literatura psicoambiental reciente nos permite afirmar que no se han generado explicaciones e interpretaciones sobre las incivilidades sustancialmente diferentes a la de los textos clásicos. Si bien se han sofisticado los métodos de investigación con el desarrollo de nuevos instrumentos de medición (Acuña et al., 2011;San-Juan et al., 2010;Milam et al., 2016), el uso de nuevas técnicas como fotosimulaciones (Jiang et al., 2017), sistemas informáticos de información geográficos (Spicer y Song, 2017), histogramas fotográficos (Lis y Iwankowski, 2021), realidad virtual (Tabrizian et al., 2018) y nuevas formas de análisis como las técnicas de estadística multivariante (Chataway y Hart, 2016; Valera y Guàrdia, 2017), la manera en que son entendidas las incivilidades urbanas sigue asociada a la broken windows theory (Brown et al., 2016;Chataway y Hart, 2016;Lockwood et al., 2020;Medway et al. 2016Jiang et al., 2017Jamme et al., 2018;Lis y Iwankowski, 2021; Valera y Guàrdia, 2017, o al trabajo de Perkins et al., (1992de Perkins et al., ( y 1993 sobre la percepción del miedo y el desorden urbano (Foster et al., 2015(Foster et al., y 2019;Milam et al., 2016;Spicer y Song, 2017;Francis et al., 2017;Lockwood et al., 2020o Medway et al., 2016. ...
Article
Desorden e incivilidad en el espacio público están asociados a una degradación del entorno urbano y a una pérdida de control que atenta contra la convivencia social. Sin embargo, la manifestación social deja huellas en el espacio que son expresión de una activación de lo común que devela el valor normativo de estas categorías. Aquí proponemos que la alteración del espacio público es una forma de tejer lo común que da continuidad a procesos de politización social. A través de entrevistas foto-elicitadas se analizan cómo son entendidas y significadas las intervenciones del espacio físico de la ciudad de Valparaíso, ocurridas durante tres meses de revuelta social en Chile, por parte de personas que simpatizan con las manifestaciones. Los resultados nos muestran que los significados que giran alrededor de las intervenciones urbanas y los elementos que las constituyen (cuerpos, textos, lugares y formas) son interpretados desde una desalienación colectiva que las legitima y valora positivamente en virtud de las funciones que se asocian y emociones que provocan. Esto permite poner en cuestión una amplia tradición de perspectivas psicosociales que asocian la alteración del entorno urbano con dinámicas de inseguridad y delincuencia.
... Most previous studies were laboratory based [37]. In recent years, more studies have been conducted in complex environments [4,7,12,14,20,[58][59][60][61][62][63], and the number of studies based on qualitative methods is increasing [64][65][66][67][68]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lighting uniformity is a key factor in traffic safety, and it could even result in energy savings for light installations. However, highly uniform horizontal road lighting for motorized vehicles may not be optimal for pedestrian roads. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the way in which pedestrians experience road lighting uniformity. Accordingly, we employed a qualitative approach to examine pedestrian road lighting uniformity. Visual analyses were used to exemplify and discuss the perceived uniformity. The case studies were performed on three pedestrian roads with similar light installations. The results show that the experience of road lighting uniformity differs substantially between the three roads. Based on the case studies, there are many aspects that need to be considered beyond the light falling on the horizontal surfaces. This study suggests that the visual experience of road lighting uniformity for pedestrians is difficult to estimate with photometric values because the visual impact of uniformity is highly influenced by the spatial context and landscape. Journal: Energies, MDPI, Special Issue: Research in Several Aspects of Outdoor Lighting: Energy, Sustainability, Safety, and Visual Perception ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 3647 Open access
... A second approach, labelled the disorder model, deals with the relationship between perceived signs of environmental disorder and the absence of social control. This combination has been shown to increase individuals' perception of risk and their fear of crime (Acuña-Rivera et al., 2011;LaGrange et al., 1992). This model includes contributions from the broken windows theory (Wilson and Kelling, 1982) and the literature on incivility (Brown et al., 2004;Hunter, 1978;Link et al., 2017). ...
Article
Crime and fear of crime are key challenges for civic coexistence in contemporary cities, specifically because of the unequal relationship between the two phenomena. In the case of Italy, for instance, even though crime has been trending downward over the past few decades, people are increasingly concerned about their safety. Based on survey data (N = 6,002) collected in Milan, Naples, Rome, and Turin, this research provides a cross-city comparison of the factors that influence individuals’ feelings of unsafety. The results of a multi-group structural equation model endorse the prior literature by revealing that being the victim of a crime predicts higher levels of subjective unsafety. On the other hand, perceived disorder in the neighbourhood, community disaffection, and objective and subjective measures of social exclusion are also consistent predictors of residents’ fears in all four cities. All in all, the model outputs indicate that non-criminal factors have a higher explanatory power on perceived unsafety than victimization. The implications of these findings for urban safety management are discussed.
... Esta relación entre desorden social y desorden ambiental, desarrollado ampliamente a partir de la Broken Windows Theory (Wilson & Kelling, 1982), propone una de las hipótesis más fructíferas en relación con nuestro tema de estudio, a saber: las personas que perciben más desordenado un barrio tenderán a sentirse 445 más preocupadas por su seguridad (Swatt, Varano, Uchida, & Solomon, 2013;Wyant, 2008). Sin embargo, en el momento de analizar el impacto del desorden físico o social sobre la percepción de inseguridad, recientes estudios han cuestionado la Broken Windows Theory mostrando la importancia de la percepción del desorden social sobre el ambiental en la explicación del miedo (Acuña-Rivera, 450 Uzzell, & Brown, 2011;Hinkle, 2015). Complementariamente se ha venido reclamando una reinterpretación del concepto de civismo en la ciudad no como una imposición sino como un síntoma de consideración democrática del espacio público (Bannister, Fyfe, & Kearns, 2006;Boyd, 2006;Groth & Corijn, 2005;Phillips & Smith, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The concept of vulnerability is directly linked with perceived insecurity and fear of crime, especially with regard to women and older people in our cities. However, it is not the only paradigm contemplated in 10 the analysis of this phenomenon. In addition to a model of vulnerability, some scholars propose a model of disorder and a model of social integration. The aim of this article is to set out some of the results obtained from a questionnaire about perceived insecurity in eight public spaces in the city of Barcelona. It analyses the relationship between the variables of gender and 15 age, and factors in the questionnaire linked to the model of vulnerability (coping, prior experiences and social representation), disorder (perceived environmental quality and tolerance towards uncivil behaviours) and social integration (satisfaction/identification and social cohesion). The findings indi- cate that the models of vulnerability and disorder have a greater impact on 20 perceived insecurity in the case of women, whereas older people displayed no differences from other groups with regard to perceived insecurity, associated with a greater influence of the model of social integration.
... This factor refers to psycho-social processes that contribute to defining socio-spatial configurations as threatening. It is related to the aforementioned neighborhood perspective and the social factors involved in the experience of fear of crime (Acuña-Rivera et al., 2011;Kruger, 2008). Several variables are notably explicit, including previous spatially-located experiences of both direct and indirect victimization. ...
... This approach seems suitable and gives special attention to signs of statistical estimations that are congruent with the psychometric rate of perceived insecurity. If one considers the data sustaining the abovementioned dichotomy, we can observe, in line with the second hypothesis, that there is an important contribution of social aspects, very close to the contribution of environmental variables, a finding consistent with Acuña-Rivera et al. (2011), or Jackson (2004. Overall, statistical estimations of cases involving social variables reveal a deeper impact than indicators related to both personal and environmental variables. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fear of crime is one of the most important problems in our cities, even in low-crime-rate areas. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence of the issues involved in the perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime in these contexts using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) technique. Five hundred and seventy-one people living in a working-class neighborhood of Barcelona answered a 45-item questionnaire including the following 7 constructs: perception of insecurity, previous threat experiences, social representations of insecurity, personal control and coping skills, potential aggressors, urban identity, and perceived environmental quality. Findings confirm the theoretical model, in which fear of crime is structurally related to: a) environmental features, b) personal variables, and c) social representation of unsafe places. In addition, we found that the role of social aspects is as important as that of environmental and psychological ones. Residential satisfaction and urban social identity appear as relevant variables.
... Similarly, Fernández-Ramírez and Corraliza (1996 Corraliza ( , 1997 Corraliza ( , 1998) have considered two perspectives in the configuration of the dangerous places: The 'neighborhood perspective' emphasizes the psycho-social dynamics of generation of information about insecurity on a neighborhood level; the 'contextual perspective', for its part, focuses on the socio-physical characteristics of the places people perceive as dangerous and to which they react with fear (Wilcox, Quisemberry, & Jones, 2002). Recent research has observed the predominant role of social factors over environmental ones in considering a place dangerous (Acuña-Rivera, Uzzell, & Brown, 2011). Finally, other authors have considered other types of variables such as residential satisfaction, place attachment, or place identity (especially on a neighborhood level) to explain modulating factors of the perception of insecurity (Di Masso et al., 2011; Taylor, 1996; Taylor, Shumaker, & Gottfredson, 1985; Tester, Ruel, Anderson, Reitzes, & Oakley, 2011; Vidal, Valera, & Peró, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the study of the factorial structure of an inventory to estimate the subjective perception of insecurity and fear of crime. Made from the review of the literature on the subject and the results obtained in previous works, this factor structure shows that this attitude towards insecurity and fear of crime is identified through a number of latent factors which are schematically summarized in (a) personal safety, (b) the perception of personal and social control, (c) the presence of threatening people or situations, (d) the processes of identity and space appropriation, (e) satisfaction with the environment, and (f) the environmental and the use of space. Such factors are relevant dimensions to analyze the phenomenon. Method: A sample of 571 participants in a neighborhood of Barcelona was evaluated with the proposed inventory, which yielded data from the distributions of all the items provided. The administration was conducted by researchers specially trained for it and the results were analyzed by using standard procedures in the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) from the hypothesized theoretical structure. The analysis was performed by decatypes according to the different response scales prepared in the inventory and their ordinal nature, and by estimating the polychoric correlation coefficients. The results show an acceptable fit of the proposed model, an appropriate behavior of the residuals and statistically significant estimates of the factor loadings. This would indicate the goodness of the proposed factor structure.
Article
Spaces can be perceived as larger or smaller, according to how lighting affects the spatial boundaries. This is knowledge that can be used for changing the appearance of a desolate square or a cramped space. The following is a full-scale study of changing light scenarios that was conducted with 222 respondents in an urban space over five weeks. The study examines the effect of the spatial distribution of light and the placement of luminaires on our spatial understanding. A mixed methodology strategy, which combines pair-wise comparisons with qualitative interviews and a questionnaire, was used to examine the respondents’ perception of differences in spatial size and shape. The findings show that illuminated surfaces and objects, such as facades and trees, create a perception of increased or decreased depth, height and distance, depending on the spatial context and the respondent’s pre-understanding. Additionally, the perceived size of space was found to follow the height of the luminaires’ placement. This research study raises awareness of the impact of the placement of luminaires at varied heights, by developing the concept of light topography.
Article
A recent article (Peña-García et al., 2015) presented conclusions regarding the benefits of road lighting for pedestrians. Here it is demonstrated that those conclusions were drawn from incomplete evidence, in one case because the experimental designs leads only to a trivial solution and in a second case because of an incomplete search of the literature.