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Effects of spirulina on immune system. Spirulina enhance rate of production of RBCs and WBCs by enhancing hematopoeisis. Spirulina also shows direct effect on both innate and specific immunity. Spirulina activate macrophage and NK cells. Spirulina induce production of the antibodies. Spirulina also activate of T-cells.  

Effects of spirulina on immune system. Spirulina enhance rate of production of RBCs and WBCs by enhancing hematopoeisis. Spirulina also shows direct effect on both innate and specific immunity. Spirulina activate macrophage and NK cells. Spirulina induce production of the antibodies. Spirulina also activate of T-cells.  

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Spirulina, a filamentous cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and nutritional significance due to high concentration of natural nutrients, having bio-modulatory and immuno-modulatory functions. Different Spirulina preparations influence immune system viz. increase phagocytic activity of macrophages, stimulating the production of...

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... In the aorta of aged rats, the increase in the NO production seems to be linked to the increase of p-eNOS as demonstrated by western blot experiments, although an increase in NO bioavailability cannot been ruled out. Therefore, and based on the antioxidant properties described for Spirulina (Khan et al. 2005 important to note is that HO-1 is one of the earliest expressed proteins in response to a pro-oxidant environment, as occurs in ageing, and that exerts protecting vascular functions (Kang et al. 2015;Drummond et al. 2019). Keeping this information in mind, the possible influence of Spirulina extract on the expression of this protein was studied. ...
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Context: Vascular dysfunction is considered a hallmark of ageing that has been associated with altered vasomotor responses, in which nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species participate. The consumption of Spirulina extracts, with antioxidant properties, increased recently. Objective: This study investigates the effect of Spirulina aqueous extract (SAE) on the vascular function of the aorta from aged rats. Materials and methods: Aortic segments from aged male Sprague-Dawley rats (20-22 months old) were exposed to SAE (0.1% w/v, for 3 h) to analyse: (i) the vasodilator response induced by acetylcholine (ACh), by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), by the carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) and by the KATP channel opener, cromakalim (CK); (ii) the vasoconstrictor response induced by KCl and noradrenaline (NA); (iii) the production of NO and superoxide anion, and (iv) the expression of the p-eNOS and HO-1 proteins. Results: Incubation with SAE increased the expression of p-eNOS (1.6-fold) and HO-1 (2.0-fold), enhanced NO release (1.4-fold in basal and 1.9-fold in ACh-stimulated conditions) while decreased the production of superoxide (0.7-fold). SAE also increased the sensitivity (measured as pEC50) to ACh (control: -7.06 ± 0.11; SAE: -8.16 ± 0.21), SNP (control: -7.96 ± 0.16; SAE: -9.11 ± 0.14) and CK (control: -7.05 ± 0.39; SAE: -8.29 ± 0.53), and potentiated the response to KCl (1.3-fold) and to NA (1.7-fold). Conclusion: The antioxidant properties of SAE improved the vasomotor responses of aorta from aged rats. These results may support the use of Spirulina as a protection against vascular dysfunction.
... The protein content of Spirulina also depends upon the time of harvesting, which is relatively higher during the day time (9). C-phycocyanin accounts for about 20% of Spirulina's dry weight and is one of its major proteins (35). The BV of Spirulina is 75 and the NPU is 62 which contributes to its nutritional value and bioavailability. ...
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Spirulina is a blue-green algae which is cultivated not only for its maximum protein content but also due to the presence of other essential nutrients such as carbohydrates and vitamins (A, C and E). It is also a storehouse of minerals including iron, calcium, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Simultaneously, γ- linolenic acid (an essential fatty acid), as well as pigments such as chlorophyll A and phycobiliproteins (C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and β-carotene), is also a major component of its rich nutritional profile. Spirulina is known to have various promising effects on the prevention of cancer, oxidative stress, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and anemia. Moreover, it also plays a positive role in treating muscular cramps. The safety recommended dosage of Spirulina is approximately 3-10 g/d for adults and it's biological value (BV) is 75 with a net protein utilization (NPU) of 62. Spirulina does not have pericardium due to which it does not hinder the absorption of iron by chelation with phytates or oxalates. On the contrasting note, it may have some adverse effects due to the toxins (microcystins, β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA)) produced by Spirulina which might contribute to acute poisoning, cancer, liver damage as well as gastrointestinal disturbances. Its long-term consumption may also lead to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The current review focuses on the various aspects of spirulina including its cultivation, nutritional composition, extraction techniques, health benefits, adverse effects, industrial scope and market value which could be beneficial for its utilization in the development of value-added products and supplementary foods due to its high content of protein and bioavailability of nutrients.
... These Spirulina species include Spirulina platensis (SP) (otherwise known as Arthrospira platensis), Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima), and Spirulina fusiformis (Arthrospira fusiformis). These Spirulina species are also classified as oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria under Cyanobacteria and Prochlorales [49][50][51][52][53][54]. SP is found in alkaline water with abundant bicarbonate and saline [22,55]. ...
... Moreover, its composition includes chlorophyll, phycocyanin, and carotenoid. Chlorophyll has antioxidant and antimutagenic properties [59,60], carotenoids are vitally important antioxidants with cancer-inhibiting abilities [53], and phycocyanin is a Bili protein with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties [61]. Moreso, SP has also been credited for its cancer-and viral infection-suppressing abilities [62]. ...
... Spirulina has central neuroprotective effects in rodents [69]. It is also associated with the inhibitory effects against numerous viruses, such as HIV-1, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), influenza type A, measles, and other enveloped viruses [53,[70][71][72][73]. Moreover, it has antimutagenic and anticancer effects [57]. ...
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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most prevalent diseases globally. It is estimated that 37.7 million people are infected with HIV globally, and 8.2 million persons are infected with the virus in South Africa. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) involves combining various types of antiretroviral drugs that are dependent on the infected person's viral load. HAART helps regulate the viral load and prevents its associated symptoms from progressing into acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Despite its success in prolonging HIV-infected patients' lifespans, the use of HAART promotes metabolic syndrome (MetS) through an inflammatory pathway, excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green microalgae commonly used as a traditional food by Mexican and African people, has been demonstrated to mitigate MetS by regulating oxidative and inflammatory pathways. SP is also a potent antioxidant that has been shown to exhibit immunological, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, antidiabetic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. This review is aimed at highlighting the biochemical mechanism of SP with a focus on studies linking SP to the inhibition of HIV, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Further, we propose SP as a potential supplement for HIV-infected persons on lifelong HAART.
... Tetrapyrrole pigments are closely related to bilirubin molecules showing potent antioxidative and anti-proliferative properties when used as food supplements (Dillon et al., 1995;Konícková et al., 2014). There are several reports that most of the cyanobacterial species are laden with a higher quantity of essential amino acids, proteins, vitamins, flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals as compared to traditional food such as milk, vegetables, fruits, soybean, egg, fish, and meat (Pervushkin et al., 2001;Khan et al., 2005;Jin et al., 2021). Therefore, due to their enriched nutritional value, the extraction of bioactive components from cyanobacteria has been proven as a boon for health. ...
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Cyanobacteria have attracted the attention of researchers because of their promising role as primary and secondary metabolites in functional food and drug design. Due to an ever-increasing awareness of health and the use of natural products to avoid the onset of many chronic and lifestyle metabolic diseases, the global demand for the use of natural drugs and food additives has increased in the last few decades. There are several reports about the highly valuable cyanobacterial products such as carotenoids, vitamins, minerals, polysaccharides, and phycobiliproteins showing antioxidant, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, and antimicrobial properties. Recently, it has been shown that allophycocyanin increases longevity and reduces the paralysis effect at least in Caenorhabditis elegans. Additionally, other pigments such as phycoerythrin and phycocyanin show antioxidative properties. Because of their high solubility in water and zero side effects, some of the cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole derivatives, i.e., pigments, facilitate an innovative and alternative way for the beverage and food industries in place of synthetic coloring agents at the commercial level. Thus, not only are the tetrapyrrole derivatives essential constituents for the synthesis of most of the basic physiological biomolecules, such as hemoglobin, chlorophyll, and cobalamin, but also have the potential to be used for the synthesis of synthetic compounds used in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. In the present review, we focused on the different aspects of tetrapyrrole rings in the drug design and food industries and addressed its remaining limitations to be used as natural nutrient supplements and therapeutic agents.
... herbals, milk, and cereals. Spirulina is consumed as a super-food comprising protein, fats, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, and minerals (Smet et al. 1997;Khan et al. 2005). Spirulina is one such potential nutraceutical that has been extensively reported for its metal ion-binding efficiency. ...
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Spirulina is a blue-green alga, grown in alkaline water and used for detoxification of several toxic metal ions. Apart from its nutritional value, it is also used for the decontamination of toxic metal ions. Therefore, present study was envisaged to evaluate the adsorption and removal efficiency of Spirulina powder for mercury. The adsorption efficiency of Spirulina was evaluated in terms of weight of adsorbent, contact time, simulated gastric (SGF) and intestinal (SIF) fluid, and mercury concentration. In vivo removal efficacy of Spirulina for mercury was evaluated in mice. The mercury content in major tissues, urine and feces was estimated. The whole tissue retention and excretion of mercury after treatment with Spirulina were taken as a measure of its metal ions removal efficacy. Activated charcoal was taken as a standard adsorbent for comparative study. The maximum adsorption capacity of Spirulina and charcoal for mercury was found to be 66.667 and 158.730 mg g⁻¹ in water, 83.33 and 94.340 mg g⁻¹ in SGF and 125.0 and 133.33 mg g⁻¹ in SIF, respectively. In mice, Spirulina and activated charcoal were significantly reduced the mercury deposition in tissues and facilitated their excretion through feces. Spirulina has shown good adsorption and removal efficacy like activated charcoal. Therefore, Spirulina can be used as a potential adsorbent to remove mercury from the body.
... 14 5) Spirulina: It is a rich source of protein, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and phycocyanins and has a very long history of use as a human foodstuff with no apparent concerns over safety. 18,19 6) Sterols: Consumption of plant sterols has been shown to be associated with lower circulating concentrations of TC in humans. 20 ...
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This review classified the Nutraceuticals obtaining from various sources and it show the various significant on human health. In 1989, Dr. Stephen are show the combination pharmaceuticals and nutrients to form the "Nutraceuticals". Currently over 470 nutraceutical and functional food products are available with documented health benefits. The dietary supplement health and education act of 1994, the definition of nutraceuticals has been explained to include vitamins, minerals, herbs and other botanicals, amino acids, and dietary substance for human use as a supplement diet for human being. Nutraceuticals show health benefits as well as physical benefits. It used in various treatment such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and stomach disease.
... Carotenoids are vitally important antioxidants. Numerous studies have indicated that people whose diets contain a lot of foods rich in carotenoids lower their risk of developing various types of cancer (Khan et al., 2005). Hoseini et al., (2013) demonstrated that S. platensis protein extract possessed an excellent antioxidant activity. ...
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Article Info Spirulina (Arthrospira) is considered as generally recognized as safe as a richest sources of organic nutrients without toxicological effects and it has been widely used in several countries. Spirulina contains good quality proteins, vitamins and minerals in addition to a wide variety of natural carotene and xanthophyll phytopigments. Many researchers studied the beneficial effects of Spirulina and reported its enhancing potential on its health benefits by improving general health as well as lowering the problems of different diseases like infilammation, diabetes, anaemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders by possessing some promising biological activities such as antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, radio protective and metalloprotective effects. These pharmaceutical and medicinal properties of Spirulina could be attributed to some natural constituents such as phycocyanin, carotene, tocopherols, linolenic acid and phenolic compounds that had been shown to have strong antioxidant properties and powerful scavenging activities against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like superoxide and H 2 O 2 radicals. This review illustrates the beneficial effects of Arthrospira on human health with its specific mechanisms on its ability to protect the body physiological system against oxidative damage and source of potential pharmaceuticals based mainly on the highest levels of evidence available in the literature.
... The activity of serum antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and TAC) increased linearly and quadratically. SPC supplementation reduced MDA linearly, which might be attributed to their potent antioxidant activity [62][63][64], resulting from radical-scavenging and metal chelation [65]. These findings are consistent with those of Abdelnour et al. [39], who discovered that adding 50 or 100 mg/kg PC to a rabbit diet increased TAC. ...
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This study investigated the dietary effect of Spirulina platensis phycocyanin (SPC) on growth performance (body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR)) at starter, grower, and finisher stages, intestinal histomorphology, serum biochem- ical parameters, inflammatory and antioxidant indices, and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and caspase-3) immune expression in broiler chickens. In total, 250 one-day-old chicks (Ross 308 broiler) were randomly allotted to five experimental groups (5 replicates/group, 10 chicks/replicate) and fed basal diets supplemented with five levels of SPC (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g kg–1 diet) for 35 days. Compared with SPC0 treatment, different SPC levels increased the overall BW and BWG without affecting the total feed consumption. However, the FCR decreased linearly with an increase in supplementation level. The serum levels of total proteins, albumin, globulins, and growth hormone increased linearly by increasing levels of SPC supplementation. Further, SPC supplementation increased the thyroxin hormones without affecting serum glucose and leptin levels. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values decreased in broilers fed SPC0.250 and SPC1 diets. Triglycerides (TG) decreased in SPC0.25-, SPC0.75-, and SPC1-treated groups. Though antioxidant enzyme activities (total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) increased linearly and quadratically, malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased linearly by increasing the SPC level. There was no effect on serum proinflammatory cytokines IL1β levels. Immunolabelling index of caspase-3 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were downregu- lated by SPC supplementation. The intestinal histomorphology is represented by increased villus height, the villus height to crypt depth ratio, and numbers of goblet cells in different sections of the small intestine. In conclusion, SPC supplementation is beneficial in broiler chicken diets due to its growth-promoting, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.
... Spirulina grows in subtropical and tropical lakes that have high levels of the minerals, especially carbonate and bicarbonate [8]. It seems to have a positive effect on immunity and has several health benefits [9]. ...
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Lately, microalgae-based value-added products have been gaining market value because they moderate the dependency on fossil fuel and high-value chemical products. To this end, the purpose of this study was to develop prebiotic products from the microalgae Spirulina sp. The microalgae were isolated from the fresh water and characterized at the molecular level. The dry biomass, chlorophyll content, phycocyanin, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the isolated strains were analyzed. Moreover, value-added products like Spirulina cake, chocolate, tea, vermicelli and Spirulina juice were made for a vulnerable population due to high nutritive value.
... Spirulina naturally grows on high-salt, alkaline water in tropical and subtropical regions [17,18]. Three species of edible spirulina are studied for their high nutritional value and potential therapeutic properties, including Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis) and Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima), and Spirulina fusiformis (Arthrospira fusiformis) [18][19][20][21]. ...
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Increasing the consumption of natural substances has increased the demand for biological sources such as Spirulina platensis. The study quantitatively investigates the antioxidant potential and phytonutrient contents in aqueous and ethanol extracts of spirulina. The spirulina was collected from a local farm near Pondicherry and mass cultured in our research laboratory. The spirulina biomass was evaluated for antioxidant potential viz. catalase, SOD, GPx, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and reduced GSH; phytonutrients contents like total phenol, flavonoid, tannin, carbohydrates, and proteins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of spirulina. Significant enzymatic antioxidant activity was observed for ethanolic extract. However, aqueous extracts were higher for catalase, SOD, and GPx activity. The same trend was observed for non-enzymatic activities. Total phenol, flavonoid, and tannin content were observed and high in aqueous extract. However, protein and carbohydrate content were higher in ethanolic extract. We observed a significant change in antioxidant activity and phytonutrient content in ethanolic extract than in aqueous extracts. The strong antioxidant property and higher phytonutrient contents of spirulina can play a vital role in the dietary supplement and combating malnutrition.