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Effects of spirulina on immune system. Spirulina enhance rate of production of RBCs and WBCs by enhancing hematopoeisis. Spirulina also shows direct effect on both innate and specific immunity. Spirulina activate macrophage and NK cells. Spirulina induce production of the antibodies. Spirulina also activate of T-cells.  

Effects of spirulina on immune system. Spirulina enhance rate of production of RBCs and WBCs by enhancing hematopoeisis. Spirulina also shows direct effect on both innate and specific immunity. Spirulina activate macrophage and NK cells. Spirulina induce production of the antibodies. Spirulina also activate of T-cells.  

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Spirulina, a filamentous cyanobacterium, possesses diverse biological activities and nutritional significance due to high concentration of natural nutrients, having bio-modulatory and immuno-modulatory functions. Different Spirulina preparations influence immune system viz. increase phagocytic activity of macrophages, stimulating the production of...

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... Consumption of cyanobacteria results in several health benefits so they have traditionally been used as a "food for fitness". Arthospira platensis is a rich source of β-carotene and several other biomolecules of nutraceutical value are popularly regarded as "food for the future" (Desai & Sivakami, 2004;Khan, Bhadouria, & Bisen, 2005;Mohan, Misra, Srivastav, Umapathy, & Kumar, 2014). ...
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Cyanobacteria are ubiquitously distributed oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes, present even in extreme environments. Many cyanobacteria have been found to be excellent sources of proteins and bioactive compounds. Their cosmopolitan availability, abundant important bioactive compounds and their associated health benefits make cyanobacteria an ideal target for therapeutic applications. Cyanobacteria have a potential role in nutraceutics and are also important in drug development. Several studies have advocated the use of cyanobacteria and their active principles in the treatment of various diseases because cyanobacteria display anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-immunosuppressive, anti-tumour, neuroprotective, and antiviral activities. Thus, in this review, we have summarized and updated the therapeutic applications of cyanobacteria in drug development, with the introduction of the new term “cyanotherapeutics”.
... It is used as supplements for human and food additives for animal feed, due to its high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities (Reddy et al., 2000;Abdel-Daim, 2014;Ibrahim and Abdel-Daim, 2015). Also, C-phycocyanin endogenous to Spirulina exhibits anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-hypertensive, antigenotoxic and anticancerous activities (Reddy et al., 2000;Khan et al., 2005;Basha et al., 2008). Spirulina has a protective effect against the heavy metal toxicity in multiple tissues Simsek et al., 2009;Ponce-Canchihuaman et al., 2010;Paniagua-Castro et al., 2011;El-Desoky et al., 2013). ...
... PA could significantly promote the growth of E. gracilis and increase its cell aspect ratio [26]. However, the flocculation phenomenon by PA was not found in other species (as shown in Figures S1, S2, and S3), such as E. gracilis, Haematococcus lacustris, and Botryococcus braunii, and indicated that flocculation effect of PA was celldependent. A. platensis is a type of cyanobacteria with extremely high levels of protein (around 70% of the dry weight) [1,27] and iron elements [2], and its soft cell wall consists of complex sugars and proteins [28]. However, protein content in E. gracilis, H. lacustris, and B. braunii was all less than 35% [29][30][31]. ...
Article
The recovery of algal biomass is one of the critical steps involved in the commercial production of beneficial metabolites from Arthrospira platensis. Efficient and safe harvesting methods that do not sacrifice quality of final product are important for commercial application. Phytic acid (PA) is a natural non-toxic phytochemical widely distributed in plant tissues. Effect of PA from rice bran on the growth, trichome morphology such as spiral number and algal filament length, and harvesting efficiency of A. platensis were investigated. Cells aggregated into large cell flocs after the addition of PA in the medium, and algal spiral number and filament length increased. UV-vis spectra indicated the interactions between PA and algal cells. Adding PA at stationary growth phase is a good strategy for harvesting, since no adverse effect to biomass growth and harvesting efficiency. Harvesting efficiency of 95.69% at 0.5% (v/v) PA was superior to other conventional harvesting methodologies. Abbreviations PA: Phytic acid; PUFAs: Polyunsaturated fatty acids; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization; γ-PGA: Poly (γ-glutamic acid); CNF: Cellulose nanofibrils; NIES: National Institute for Environmental Studies; SOT: Spirulina–Ogawa–Terui; CG: Control group; pI: Isoelectric point.
... In line with our current study, it was reported that anemia improved in the elderly when spirulina was given. The improvement of blood markers in these patients may be due to the high protein content of spirulina (60-70% of all essential amino acids), carotenes, vitamins (B1, 2, 3 ,6, 9, and 12) and salts, all of which help correct anemia (Babadzhanov et al., 2004;Khan et al., 2005;Selmi et al., 2011). The results of this study showed that treatment with spirulina led to improved liver function, as well as decreased hepatitis virus C load in patients. ...
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Introduction: Patients with β-thalassemia major suffer from impaired function and components of the immune system. Hepatitis C virus infection exacerbates the inherited and acquired immunity of β-thalassemia patients. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of spirulina administration on the indicators of immunity, serum liver function, ferritin and viral load in children of β-thalassemia major comorbid with the hepatitis C virus. Methods: This study was a single-arm clinical trial carried on 60 children (30 healthy and 30 with β-thalassemia major and hepatitis C). Spirulina was administered daily for 3 months to patients only. Results: The results showed amelioration of the blood picture (HB, RBCs, and WBCs), ferritin level, blood transfusion intervals, liver enzymes (ALT and AST), viral load, and many of the immune markers (IFN-gamma, CD4+, and CD4+CD25+) after spirulina therapy. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that spirulina ameliorated hepatitis caused by virus C in children comorbid with β-thalassemia major disease. The mechanism may be via lowering serum ferritin levels and improved immunity.
... Spirulina platensis (SP) is a prokaryotic cell type blue green algae and is some time called cyanobacteria [12]. Dried SP is a rich source of protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins and carotenoids, so it can be used for human and animal feeding [13]. Chlorella vulgaris (CV) is a green microalgae, unicellular live in freshwater and is a rich source of essential aminoacids, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and carotenoids [14]. ...
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The study used 96 broiler chickens to evaluate the impact of three species of microalgae on performance, profiles of fatty and amino acids, antioxidants, and meat quality of breast muscles. Birds were divided into four groups (24 birds/each) with 4 replicates (6 birds each). Birds in the first group were fed basal diet and served as a control (C). Birds of 2–4 groups were fed basal diet mixed with same dose (1 g/kg diet) of Chlorella vulgaris (CV), Spirulina platensis (SP), and Amphora coffeaformis (AC). At the age of 36 days, performance parameters were reported, and breast muscle samples were collected and stored frozen at −80 °C. AC shared CV in the superiority of increasing final body weight and body weight gain compared to SP and control. AC shared SP in the superiority of increasing the level of essential fatty and amino acids and decreasing the microbial growth in breast muscle compared to CV and control. All studied microalgae reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels, cooking loss, and aerobic plate count (APC) and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in breast muscle compared to control. The current study indicated that studied microalgae, notably AC, can be used to enhance performance and meat quality in broilers chickens.
... Spirulina (Arthrospira) has the potential capacity to increase the immunity power to suppress viral infections [54]. The alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) exhibits a multifunctional role which makes it, an ideal natural drug with high therapeutic and prophylactic values [55]. By consuming Spirulina, people can get improved heath which will support them in fighting against the novel coronavirus. ...
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Today the world is exposed to the threat of human survival. The novel coronavirus challenged the human race and made them panic and spreads worldwide. The world scientists are looking for a cure for COVID-19. The primary plants (Microbes and algae) have survived in this world for several millions of years and they have faced many harsh conditions and overcame those. While facing harsh conditions they have managed to develop a lot of metabolites. Algae are with more such metabolites and those can be used against many diseases including viral infections. Carrageenan, Agar, Fucoidan, Laminaran, and Naviculan are some of such metabolites which have the high potentiality to act against the viral infections. Not only these, the microalgal species Arthrospira platensis is high in amino acids and vitamins which help in the improvement of immunity power in human beings hence this potentiality can be utilized to fight against novel coronavirus COVID-19. This particular algal species has both immunity improving capacity and also capable of suppressing the viral activities in humans. So this alga can be recommended to use against this pandemic viral infection as a preventive remedy.
... It contains over 2000 different enzymes. [9,10] ...
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ABSTRACT Supplementation of foods is of current interest because of increasing nutritional awareness among consumers. A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. Spirulina is selected to this study for its high protein content and its varieties health benefits. The objective of this study is to produce dietary capsule from marine sources and evaluate its efficacy on health and nutrition. Proximate composition of Spirulina plus capsule was analyzed. Protein content of Spirulina plus capsule was (71.19±1.11) % and it removes protein energy malnutrition. It contains a considerable amounts of ash, fiber which has beneficial health effects. The final product Spirulina plus capsule contained (9.16±0.004) % fat which can help for brain development. Spirulina plus capsule had (12.09±0.02) % fiber which can remove constipation. Microbial test of final product represents that the product was safe. It was concluded that Spirulina plus capsule is enriched with the mixture of some other ingredients and it becomes a good dietary supplement to the consumers. KEYWORDS: Spirulina; Dietary supplement; Marine sources.
... Early studies on phytoplankton were focused on their use for food by fish and other aquatic organisms, both in their natural habitats and in aquaculture (Brown et al., 1997) however, microalgae are being used for other numerous purposes presently. In mid 2000s, the world Spirulina production for human use was estimated to stand at more than one thousand metric tons annually (Khan et al., 2005). However, it is obvious that more production is needed since it has numerous uses including the pharmaceutical industry where a major challenge with drug active ingredients from natural sources is their insufficient supply. ...
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HighlightsTrends in the uses of Spirulina over different decades were critically examinedFindings from surveyed literature indicated that Spirulina utilization was mainly focused on its food and feed potential before the last 20-30 yearsThe review observed that research focused on the health and pharmaceutical uses, biofertilizer, bioplastic, cosmetic, bioenergy and pollution control applications of Spirulina are trends that sprouted out within the last 20-25 years.The review has successfully compiled numerous uses of Spirulina microalga for easy readership by readers since many studies have been performed on the uses Spirulina but reviews of this type spanning through different beneficial aspects of Spirulina are still scarce. Hence, this review fills such gap. AbstractThere is a need to have a single document that summarises the present day uses of Spirulina. In this review, the research trend on the health and other applications of Spirulina microalga was critically evaluated. In terms of the health uses, antioxidant, antibacterial, and immunostimulant effects of Spirulina were emphasized. Other uses of the microalga discussed include the use of Spirulina for human and animal food, bioenergy, pollution and ecotoxicology control, cosmetics, bioplastics and biofertilizers. Literature search revealed that Spirulina polysaccharides, phycocyanin size and content play a role in antioxidant activity and DNA repair. The double bonds and positions of –COOH and –OH in Spirulina phenol content and γ-linolenic fatty acids (γ-LFA) have antimicrobial activity. Some compounds in Spirulina improve immune, increase survival rate and enhance distribution of proteins like hepcidin and TNF-α in animal models. High protein, vitamins, fatty acids (FAs) and glycoproteins in Spirulina are easily digestible due to its lack of cellulose and can improve human and livestock growth. Spirulina produces biodegradable and non-toxic biodiesel and useful co-products. Absorption of heavy metals by chemisorption occurs in Spirulina. Phycocyanin and β-carotene of Spirulina increase skin health, Spirulina also cause high cell proliferation and aids wound healing. Bioplastics produced from Spirulina are biodegradable, non-toxic with high blends. Biofertilizers from Spirulina have little or no residual risks, adds soil Nitrogen through Spirulina Nitrogen fixation ability. In addition, the survey of published works on Spirulina for the past two decades indicates that more research is been carried out in recent years using Spirulina, especially studies involving its health potentials and those concerned with molecular analysis. In conclusion, Spirulina is an exceptional commodity with numerous applications, and probably, some of its compounds causing those effects are yet to be isolated and that is one area for further research.
... Spirulina is a rich source of phycocyanin, carotenoids, biliprotein pigment, proteins, phenolic acids, iodine, and vitamins [23] . Moreover, the high active ingredient of C-phycocyanin in spirulina makes it exhibit activities such as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant; immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, antigenotoxic, antitoxic, antihypertensive and anticancer [24][25][26][27][28][29][30] . Due to such biological properties about Spirulina, the current study was designed to examine for the first time the ameliorative potential of this alga against the hypothyroidism induced by PTU in albino rats. ...
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Background: Hypothyroidism is a decrease in the production of the thyroid hormones and leads to gland dysfunction. Spirulina used as an antioxidant and supposed as antihypothyroidic agent. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the impact of Spirulina on PTU-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into six groups, control group (G1), hypothyroid group (G2), SP-500 treated group (G3), SP-1000 treated group (G4), PTU+SP-500 treated group (G5) and PTU+SP-1000 treated group (G6). Thyroid gland was examined using biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical studies. Duration of treatments were for 14 days. Results: A significant decline in the body weight gain was exhibited. Biochemically, a significant decrease in T3 and T4 hormone levels in the PTU-group and a substantial increase in groups treated with Spirulina alone. While PTU+ Spirulina treated groups revealed normal hormonal levels more or less similar to the control group. Histological changes such as congestion of the blood capillaries, follicular dilatation, and vacuolar degeneration of some follicular cells were exhibited in hypothyroid group G2 and Spirulina treated-groups (G3andG4). Hyperplastic cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, depleted vacuolated-thyroglobulin, and a significant increase in the epithelial heights and the follicular diameters, were observed. Immunohistochemically, low expression of the proliferative cellular marker KI-67 was expressed in the PTU and PTU+Spirulina treated groups. While negative expression of KI-67 in Spirulina treated groups was recorded. Conclusion: Administration of Spirulina alone displayed signs of hyperactivity on the thyroid gland, but it has a mild protective role in the PTU-induced hypothyroidism groups. Therefore, caution should be used in extrapolating these results to the human being situation within different doses and durations.
... These levels did not change significantly over the following four days. This amount of protein is lower than in soybeans (36-56% DW) and the cyanobacteria Spirulina (up to 70% DW) [26], but is, however, much higher than in aquatic plants, duckweed and Azolla, widely used as sources of protein for livestock [27]. To date, only a few publications related to the yield of protein in thraustochytrids are available; these reports claim production of up to 50% DW of protein, containing all essential and nonessential amino acids [5,28]. ...
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Mangrove sediments represent unique microbial ecosystems that act as a buffer zone, biogeochemically recycling marine waste into nutrient-rich depositions for marine and terrestrial species. Marine unicellular protists, thraustochytrids, colonizing mangrove sediments have received attention due to their ability to produce large amounts of long-chain ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. This paper represents a comprehensive study of two new thraustochytrids for their production of valuable biomolecules in biomass, de-oiled cakes, supernatants, extracellular polysaccharide matrixes, and recovered oil bodies. Extracted lipids (up to 40% of DW) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (up to 80% of total fatty acids) were mainly represented by docosahexaenoic acid (75% of polyunsaturated fatty acids). Cells also showed accumulation of squalene (up to 13 mg/g DW) and carotenoids (up to 72 µg/g DW represented by astaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone, and β-carotene). Both strains showed a high concentration of protein in biomass (29% DW) and supernatants (2.7 g/L) as part of extracellular polysaccharide matrixes. Alkalinization of collected biomass represents a new and easy way to recover lipid-rich oil bodies in the form of an aqueous emulsion. The ability to produce added-value molecules makes thraustochytrids an important alternative to microalgae and plants dominating in the food, pharmacological, nutraceutical, and cosmetics industries.