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Fictitious heart rate signals and associated power spectra. The top panels represent pure high-frequency variability (0.25 Hz), as associated with RSA. The middle panels represent low-frequency variability (0.07 Hz), primarily of sympathetic and nonneural origin. the bottom panels represent the combined signal including both high- and low-frequency components. Actual heart rate signals include spectral power at additional frequencies (adapted from Mezzacappa et al., 1994). 

Fictitious heart rate signals and associated power spectra. The top panels represent pure high-frequency variability (0.25 Hz), as associated with RSA. The middle panels represent low-frequency variability (0.07 Hz), primarily of sympathetic and nonneural origin. the bottom panels represent the combined signal including both high- and low-frequency components. Actual heart rate signals include spectral power at additional frequencies (adapted from Mezzacappa et al., 1994). 

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In the last decade, cardiac vagal tone has emerged as a psychophysiological marker of many aspects of behavioral functioning in both children and adults. Research efforts during this time have produced an extensive list of vagal tone correlates that includes temperamental variables as well as both anxious/internalizing and disruptive/externalizing...

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... from respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), or the degree of ebbing and flowing of heart rate during the respiratory cycle (Berntson, Bigger, Eckberg, Grossman, Kaufmann, Malik, Nagaraja, Porges, Saul, Stone, & van der Molen, 1997; Hayano, Sakakibara, Yamada, Yamada, Mukai, Fujinami, Yokoyama, Watanabe, & Takata, 1991; Katona & Jih, 1975). RSA results from increases in vagal efference during exhalation, which decelerate heart rate, and decreases in vagal efference during inhalation, which accelerate heart rate. Heart rate cannot be used to assess vagal tone directly, however, because acceleratory sympathetic projections to the SA node also contribute to chronotropic (rate-related) cardiac activity (see Randall, 1994). Thus, measures of RSA have been sought that are devoid of sympathetic influences. Although consensus regarding the most preferable method has only be- gun to emerge (see Berntson et al., 1997), all such measures index heart rate variability (HRV), or beat to beat differences in the length of the cardiac cycle over time. The simplest methods of assessing HRV involve calculating descriptive statistics on series of electrocardiographic (ECG) R waves. Such indices, including standard devi- ation, variance, and mean successive difference, correlate highly with one another, and with vagal efference as assessed via pharmacologic blockade (Hayano et al., 1991). Con- cern has emerged over the use of these measures, however, both because of failures to replicate fully the results of blockade studies 1 (Grossman, Karemaker, & Wieling, 1991) and because RSA accounts for only about half of observed HRV (Grossman, van Beek, & Wientjes, 1990). Thus, alternative indices have been developed that statistically eliminate influences on HRV that are extraneous to RSA. Examples include Porges’s moving polynomial algorithm (Porges, 1986), which has been used extensively in infant and child work, and Grossman’s peak–valley technique (Grossman et al., 1990), which has more often been applied with adults. Although it is be- yond the scope of this paper to review these methods in detail, evidence suggests that estimates of RSA derived from each are highly correlated with one another, and with the descriptive approaches previously outlined (Grossman et al., 1990). In addition, the Porges method is highly correlated with descriptive measures of heart period variance in infants (Izard et al., 1991). It should be noted, however, that convergence of these alternative indices may be dependent on statistical control of respiration rate (Grossman et al., 1990), which is inversely related to RSA (see Berntson et al., 1997; Grossman et al., 1991). In addition, Grossman and colleagues (1991) have demonstrated that changes in respiration rate and tidal volume influence RSA independent of vagal tone. This point deserves elaboration because RSA and vagal tone have been treated as equivalent in much of the literature to be reviewed. Although correlations between vagal tone (as assessed via pharmacologic blockade) and RSA can approach .9 during paced breathing (Hayano et al., 1991), and when respiration rate and tidal volume are statistically controlled (Grossman et al., 1991), these correlations drop to between .5 and .7 in the absence of such controls (Grossman et al., 1991; Grossman & Kollai, 1993). Thus, RSA is an imperfect index of cardiac vagal tone (see also Jennings & McKnight, 1994), so the terms should not be used interchangeably. Moreover, few attempts to control for respiration have been included in studies involving children, providing a potential confound for many extant findings, an issue that will be revisited in later sections of this article. Additionally, although the more advanced techniques described thus far can eliminate or reduce influences on HRV that are not attributable to RSA, none can resolve those influences. This has prompted many researchers to turn to spectral analysis in their assessments of vagal tone. Spectral analysis involves the decomposition of heart rate time series into component frequencies through Fourier trans- formations. These components are divided into low-frequency variability (less than 0.04 Hz), midfrequency variability (0.04–0.15 Hz), and high-frequency variability (greater than 0.15 Hz; see Mezzacappa, Kindlon, Earls, & Saul, 1994; Mezzacappa et al., 1997). Phar- macologic blockade studies have suggested that sympathetic influences on HRV are con- fined to the low and midfrequencies, whereas parasympathetic influences, including RSA, are observed primarily in the high-frequency range (Akselrod, Gordon, Ubel, Shannon, Barger, & Cohen, 1981; Akselrod, Gordon, Madwed, Snidman, Shannon, & Cohen, 1985; Berger, Saul, & Cohen, 1989; Pomeranz, Macaulay, Caudill, Kutz, Adam, Gordon, Kilborn, Barger, Shannon, Cohen, & Benson, 1985; Saul, Berger, Chen, & Cohen, 1989; Saul, Berger, Albrecht, Stein, Chen, & Cohen, 1991). Sample heart rate time series and associated spectra are presented in Figure 1. The area under a given peak represents the power, or amplitude, of heart rate oscillation at that frequency band. In the example pictured, spectral power in the respiratory (high-frequency) range, which represents vagal influences, is roughly double that in the low- frequency range, where sympathetic and nonneural influences predominate. This illustrates how contributions to HRV outside the RSA band can be resolved using spectral analysis. Regardless of the method employed, the assumption underlying the assessment of RSA is that, as a peripheral measure of ANS activity, it serves as a proxy for more central regulatory processes that cannot be measured non- invasively (Porges, 1996). The origins of these regulatory processes, both at neuroana- tomical and phylogenic levels of analysis, are outlined in Porges’s (1995) polyvagal theory. Porges (1995) specified two sources of vagal efference to the heart, one originating in the dorsal motor nucleus and the other in the nucleus ambiguus, and both terminating on the SA node. The dorsal motor nucleus controls what Porges refers to as the vegetative vagus, which mediates reflexive cardiac activity, including the deceleration of heart rate associated with orienting. This vagal branch is phy- logenetically older, and presumably rooted in the primary coping strategy of reptiles, which freeze when threatened. In contrast, the smart vagus, which originates in the nucleus ambiguus, is distinctly mammalian, and mediates cardiac activity when environmental demands require extra- reptilian coping. After orienting, mammals must either attend to and engage with the initial threat or resort to fight–flight responding. Engagement requires sustained attention, which is accompanied by vagally mediated inhibition of heart rate (e.g., Suess et al., 1994; Weber, van der Molen, & Molendaar, 1994). Alternatively, fighting and fleeing are accompanied by rage and panic, respectively, which are characterized by near complete vagal withdrawal and large sympathetically mediated heart rate accelerations (George, Nutt, Walker, Porges, Adinoff, & Linnoila, 1989; see Porges, 1995, 1996). Thus, the association between intense emotional experience and vagal withdrawal is functional, facilitating bursts of metabolic output in situations of danger. The assertion that vagal outflow from the nucleus ambiguus is functionally linked to attentional and emotional processing is further supported by structural characteristics of the mammalian brain stem. The nucleus ambiguus also innervates the larynx, which is used by most mammals to produce vocalization, the primary means of communicating emotional state. Additionally, the facial and jaw muscles, which are implicated in both vocal and nonvocal expressions of emotion, are in- nervated by the trigeminal and facial motor nuclei, adjacent to the nucleus ambiguus. The facial motor nucleus also innervates the inner ear, which is implicated in both attentional and communicative processes. Moreover, the actions of all of these source nuclei are coor- dinated in concert by the reticular formation (Butler & Hodos, 1996). Taken together, these structural characteristics lend support to the assertion that vagal regulation is linked to attentional and emotional processing. The empirical literature generally supports this assertion, although relations between vagal outflow, attention, and emotion are complex. Tonic indices of RSA obtained during periods of relative quiescence, for example, appear to reflect temperamental reactivity and emotionality. In contrast, shifts in RSA in response to environmental demands appear to reflect attentional focus, emotion regulation, and mood state. A potential source of confu- sion in the literature to be reviewed is the use of the term vagal tone to refer to (a) tonic measures of RSA, (b) reactivity measures of RSA, and (c) Porges’s (1986) moving polynomial method of RSA quantification. These alternative usages present two problems. First, as previously mentioned, the validity of RSA as an index of vagal tone is moderate when respiration is not controlled. Thus, in the present article, the term vagal tone will be re- served for theoretical discussion and will not be used to refer to any indices of RSA. Second, referring to both tonic RSA and RSA reactivity as vagal tone masks important distinctions in the aspects of functioning marked by each. Thus, RSA and RSA reactivity will be treated separately in an effort to clarify these distinctions. It is to the empirical relation between tonic RSA and temperament that this article now turns. Rothbart and Bates (1998) define temperament as “constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor, and attentional reactivity and self regulation” (p. 109). According to this definition and others, a central component of temperament is emotionality (see Gunnar, 1990), which refers to individual differences in displays of positive and negative affect in response to ...

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... Porges suggests that in response to personally and emotionally evocative environmental stimuli, the regulation of emotional and social states occurs through the regulation of cardiac activity. Indeed, RSA has been identified as a physiological marker of emotion regulation theoretically (Beauchaine, 2001(Beauchaine, , 2015Calkins, 2007;Graziano & Derefinko, 2013;Porges et al., 1994) and has been associated with more effective emotion regulation empirically (Degangi et al., 1991;Gentzler et al., 2009;Huffman et al., 1998;Vasilev et al., 2009). ...
... Considering these gaps, the goal of the present study was to examine whether infants' physiological regulation indexed via changes in RSA from baseline to a stressor moderated the association between infant regulatory capacity at 8 months and behavior problems at 14 months. RSA was selected as a measure of state physiological regulation because of the strong theoretical and empirical basis for its use as an index of physiological regulation (Beauchaine, 2001(Beauchaine, , 2015Calkins, 2007;Degangi et al., 1991;Gentzler et al., 2009;Graziano & Derefinko, 2013;Huffman et al., 1998;Porges et al., 1994;Vasilev et al., 2009) and because it can be passively collected while the infant is exposed to an emotionally evocative stimulus. We elected to use the Still-Face Paradigm as a context to examine infants' physiological regulation because it has been used reliably as an emotionally salient stressor for infants for over 40 years (Tronick et al., 1978), and the standardized phases allow for the observation of infants' physiological reactions to a play baseline and stressor induction in the absence of external regulation provided by the mother (Mesman et al., 2009). ...
Article
Although correlates of temperamental regulatory processes in childhood have been well established, there is considerably less work examining correlates and moderators of rudimentary forms of temperamental regulation in infancy. We examined whether infants’ physiological regulation indexed via changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across phases of the Still-Face Paradigm moderated the association between maternal-reported infant regulatory capacity at 8 months (N = 50, Mage = 8.51 months, SDage = 0.28 months, 25 girls) and behavior problems at 14 months. We found that cardiac vagal regulation from baseline to still-face moderated the relation between infant regulatory capacity at 8 months and behavior problems at 14 months. Among infants who displayed relatively high cardiac vagal regulation from baseline to still-face, regulatory capacity was negatively associated with behavior problems. There was no relation between regulatory capacity and behavior problems among infants who displayed average or relatively low cardiac vagal regulation. We speculate that high levels of regulatory capacity and cardiac vagal regulation may allow infants to focus their attention outward and cope with emotionally evocative environmental demands as they arise even in the absence of external regulation provided by their caregivers.
... The physiological approach is targeted at behaviors undertaken by students through facial expression, eye-gaze, and neural specificity (Taylor et al., 2004), posture and body language (Boulay, 2011), and wearable sensory devices such as electroencephalography (EEG) and smartwatches (Bauer et al., 2019) are usually employed to capture some of the behaviors. The approach determines behaviors based on complex interactions among physiological, biological, and cognitive systems (Beauchaine, 2001). Examples of student characteristics modeled through the approach include motivation (Taylor et al., 2004), boredom and curiosity (Jaques et al., 2014), and engagement (Monkaresi et al., 2017). ...
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Student characteristics affect their willingness and ability to acquire new knowledge. Assessing and identifying the effects of student characteristics is important for online educational systems. Machine learning (ML) is becoming significant in utilizing learning data for student modeling, decision support systems, adaptive systems, and evaluation systems. The growing need for dynamic assessment of student characteristics in online educational systems has led to application of machine learning methods in modeling the characteristics. Being able to automatically model student characteristics during learning processes is essential for dynamic and continuous adaptation of teaching and learning to each student's needs. This paper provides a review of 8 years (from 2015 to 2022) of literature on the application of machine learning methods for automatic modeling of various student characteristics. The review found six student characteristics that can be modeled automatically and highlighted the data types, collection methods, and machine learning techniques used to model them. Researchers, educators, and online educational systems designers will benefit from this study as it could be used as a guide for decision-making when creating student models for adaptive educational systems. Such systems can detect students' needs during the learning process and adapt the learning interventions based on the detected needs. Moreover, the study revealed the progress made in the application of machine learning for automatic modeling of student characteristics and suggested new future research directions for the field. Therefore, machine learning researchers could benefit from this study as they can further advance this area by investigating new, unexplored techniques and find new ways to improve the accuracy of the created student models.
... The PNS serves to relax the body and can be assessed using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). RSA measures changes in heart rate during respiration (Beauchaine, 2001). In absence of stress, resting RSA is linked to flexibly responding to environmental demands (Fortunato et al., 2013) and regulating stress, emotional arousal, and attention (Bornstein & Suess, 2000). ...
... This pattern reflects inhibition and avoidance underlying trait anxiety (Gehricke & Shapiro, 2001;Gray, 1987). Low resting SCL may also foster high levels of withdrawal in response to threat that maintains anxiety symptoms (Beauchaine, 2001). Moreover, lower resting RSA levels represent a restricted ability to maintain a relaxed physiological state, thus keeping the body prepared for environmental threats, such as aggressive parenting (Bornstein & Suess, 2000;Fortunato et al., 2013). ...
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Purpose Exposure to aggressive parenting is a well-established environmental risk factor for anxiety symptoms. Moreover, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, including activity in both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems (PNS and SNS), may moderate the effects of aggressive parenting on anxiety. This study aims to examine the interactive effects of aggressive parenting and ANS activity (both PNS and SNS) in accounting for trait anxiety among emerging adults. Methods Participants (n = 190, mean age = 19.29, 56% females) reported retrospectively on childhood aggressive parenting and trait anxiety. In addition, we measured resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of PNS, and resting skin conductance level (SCL), an index of SNS. Results Regression analyses revealed that the three-way interaction between resting SCL, RSA, and aggressive parenting significantly accounted for trait anxiety. Simple slope analyses suggest that the relation between aggressive parenting and trait anxiety is stronger at lower conditional values of resting RSA and lower conditional values of resting SCL. Conclusion Coinhibition, or relatively low activity across both systems, may exacerbate the link between aggressive parenting and trait anxiety. This study highlights the importance of considering the interaction effects of multiple physiological systems and environmental context on later psychological functioning.
... Over the past years, the interest in neurophysiological indicators of problematic and PBs has increased substantially, with several studies focusing on heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) reactivity to aversive stimuli in children (see the meta-analysis by Fanti et al., 2019). Both SC and HR are activated in response to stressful or threatening experiences and prepare the body for "flight or fight" responses (Beauchaine, 2001;Lorber, 2004). As such, HR and SC are considered stress regulating indicators and have been used to index individual differences in emotional responses early in life . ...
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This study investigated whether the associations between parental distress with conduct problems (CPs) and prosocial behaviors (PBs) are moderated by children's skin conductance (SC) and heart rate (HR) reactivity to fear. Participants were 147 Greek-Cypriot children (Mage = 7.30, 44.2% girls), selected from a larger screening sample (data were collected from 2015 to 2018). Longitudinal associations suggested that children with high HR reactivity to fear were more likely to display PB, whereas those with low SC reactivity were more likely to engage in CP behaviors. In contrast, interaction effects suggested that children high on SC reactivity to fear were more susceptible to the effects of parental distress, as indicated by their higher vulnerability to engage in CP (cross-sectionally) behaviors and their lower scores on PB (cross-sectionally and longitudinally).
... Individuals who engage in high frequency NSSI often demonstrate greater impulsivity, attention deficits, and emotion dysregulation relative to those who engage in moderate to low NSSI [52][53][54][55][56]. Although exploratory, we expected that, like other forms of pathology associated with behavioral and mood regulation [57][58][59][60][61], more extensive history of NSSI will be associated with diminished physiological flexibility in response to environmental changes. We hypothesized that any attenuating effects of maternal emotional support on youth SNS activity and anger would be weakest for individuals with a history of frequent NSSI, and more pronounced among control adolescents and those with a history of few NSSI episodes. ...
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Onset of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is most frequent during adolescence. Etiological models indicate that abnormal affective reactivity and regulation within interpersonal contexts is related to heightened NSSI risk. The current study examined the effects of maternal emotional support on adolescent sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and observed anger during a conflict discussion among 56 mother-daughter dyads consisting of healthy adolescents and adolescents with a history of self-injury. During the conflict discussion task, maternal emotional support and adolescent anger were coded from behavior, and cardiovascular pre-ejection period was used to index SNS responding. Results demonstrated that maternal emotional support was negatively associated with adolescent anger and SNS activity during the conflict. However, these associations were not significant among adolescents with heightened NSSI history. Maternal emotional support may serve as an interpersonal mechanism for adolescent physiological and behavioral regulation, yet may function differently among adolescents with more frequent NSSI.
... One candidate physiological process associated with adaptive stress responding consistent with environmental demands is cardiac vagal control (CVC). CVC can be measured via heart rate variability in the high frequency range (Berntson et al., 1997a, b;Malik et al., 1996;Pumprla et al., 2002;Shaffer & Ginsberg, 2017), and is thought to reflect the parasympathetic nervous system's (PNS) predominantly inhibitory influence on the electrical activity of the heart via the vagus nerve (Beauchaine, 2001;Porges, 1995a). Porges' Polyvagal theory (1995a, b, 2007 posits that in humans CVC serves as a context sensitive system that assists in emotional processing and regulatory control, and is a critical index of heart-brain communication. ...
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Identifying factors that influence how individuals who smoke cigarettes respond to stress is important as stress is a risk factor for smoking and its maintenance. This study examined the modulatory role of cardiac vagal control (CVC), a physiological correlate of self-regulation, on cognitive stress appraisal processes of adults who smoke. Sixty daily cigarette smokers were randomized to receive positive or negative feedback during a modified Trier Social Stress Test. Pre- and post-task stress appraisals were assessed and resting and reactivity CVC measures were computed. Moderated regression models assessed if the relation between feedback condition and post-task stress appraisal varied as a function of CVC. We hypothesized that participants receiving negative feedback would report greater post-task stress appraisal compared to participants receiving positive feedback, and the strength of the effect of both feedback groups would be greater at higher levels of CVC. All models showed significant main effects of feedback condition (b = − 0.42, p = 0.01; b = − 0.45, p = 0.01) on post-task stress appraisal: participants receiving negative feedback reported greater post-task stress appraisal. No significant main or interactive effects of CVC and feedback condition on post-task stress appraisal were observed. This study demonstrates that stress appraisals of daily cigarette smokers are sensitive to social feedback, but are not moderated by individual differences in CVC. Future investigations are needed to clarify whether this finding is explained by smoking-specific impairments in CVC as well as the distinct and interactive effects of physiological and psychological processes implicated in stress and smoking risk.
... Interestingly, despite apparent differences in the overall parasympathetic regulation within this sample, no differences in reactivity were observed. This distinction may be an important one, whereas baseline vagal activity is suggested to be linked to temperamental states, but RSA reactivity may be linked to attention and engagement with the environment, as well as emotional regulation or mood stability (Beauchaine, 2001). As reviewed by Beauchaine (2001), depression and anxiety, among other emotional traits, are more commonly related to baseline parasympathetic tone, while emotional states, such as panic or anger, are related to atypical vagal flexibility or withdrawal. ...
... This distinction may be an important one, whereas baseline vagal activity is suggested to be linked to temperamental states, but RSA reactivity may be linked to attention and engagement with the environment, as well as emotional regulation or mood stability (Beauchaine, 2001). As reviewed by Beauchaine (2001), depression and anxiety, among other emotional traits, are more commonly related to baseline parasympathetic tone, while emotional states, such as panic or anger, are related to atypical vagal flexibility or withdrawal. Therefore, in the context of our findings, youth with ASD may be more susceptible to symptoms of anxiety and depression even though attention and emotional processes involved in the TSST response do not significantly differ relative to youth with TD. ...
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Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may demonstrate atypical autonomic (ANS) responses; however, research remains inconsistent. This study examined parasympathetic response during social evaluation in 241 youth (10–13 years) with ASD (n = 138) or typical development (TD; n = 103). Diagnosis, age, pubertal development, and body mass index (BMI) were hypothesized to be associated with ANS function. Linear mixed effects models demonstrated lower RSA in ASD relative to TD in a base model with no covariates. However, when accounting for differences in BMI, there was no evidence of atypical parasympathetic regulation in youth with ASD. As lower parasympathetic regulation may increase susceptibility for a number of conditions, it will be important to elucidate the link between BMI and the ANS, especially in ASD.
... Biomarkers of PNS activity include respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac vagal index (CVI). RSA (also known as high-frequency heart-rate variability) is the fluctuation in heart rate accompanying inspiration and expiration, which is typically captured through time domain peak-valley analysis, spectral analysis, or application of a band-pass filter (Beauchaine, 2001;Grossman and Taylor, 2007). High resting levels of RSA activity, indicating higher levels of PNS activity, are associated with slower heart rate. ...
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Childhood exposure to violence has been consistently linked to externalizing behaviors like delinquency and aggression. Growing evidence indicates that physiological biomarkers from the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems (PNS and SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may moderate or mediate the relation between childhood violence exposure and externalizing behaviors. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize recent findings on physiological biomarkers as mediators and/or moderators of this association across the life course, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Our search yielded 3,878 articles, of which 44 met inclusion criteria (describing a total of 46 independent studies). We found consistent evidence for blunted HPA-axis reactivity as a mediator of the relation between childhood violence exposure and subsequent externalizing behaviors, and for non-reciprocal PNS/SNS activation as moderators exacerbating this relation. However, the results of the majority of included studies that demonstrated significant moderating effects of physiological biomarkers varied by participant sex, type of childhood violence exposure, and type of stimuli used to induce physiological reactivity. The observed mixed findings are consistent with some theories that emphasize that both high and low stress reactivity can be adaptive depending on one’s early environment. These findings highlight the need for systematic explorations of heterogeneity, theory-driven research questions, and longitudinal studies that span multiple developmental periods and multiple biological systems. Clinical implications include the need to assess physiological biomarkers in treatment and intervention studies and the potential to target interventions based on both autonomic functioning and environmental contexts.
... A growing body of literature reveals the crucial role of physiological factors in the development of psychopathology, especially those related to self-regulatory capacities (e.g., Beauchaine, 2001;Joormann and Stanton, 2016;Nolte et al., 2011). For instance, according to the Polyvagal Theory, the parasympathetic nervous system provides a neurophysiological basis for emotional process and interpersonal communications (Porges, 1995). ...
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Objective This study investigated the association between attachment avoidance and internalizing symptoms and the moderating role of parasympathetic nervous activity (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal) in the association. Methods A sample of 109 (Mage = 18.94 years old, SD = 0.92; 69 men) Chinese college students participated in this study. Participants reported attachment avoidance and internalizing symptoms, and their physiological data were collected. Results Results showed a positive link between attachment avoidance and internalizing symptoms. Further, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawal and attachment avoidance interactively predicted internalizing symptoms. Specifically, the positive relation between attachment avoidance and internalizing symptoms was only found among people of low, but not high, levels of RSA withdrawal. Conclusion Our study highlighted the importance of considering psychophysiological interactions in predicting internalizing symptoms in college students, and contributed to our understanding of the complicated factors underlying college students' internalizing problems.
... HRV is also an indicator of psychological resilience and behavioral flexibility, reflecting the individual's capacity to adapt effectively to social or environmental demands. Furthermore, previous studies have shown an association between higher resting HRV and performance on cognitively demanding tasks requiring executive functions [4,[34][35][36][37]. ...
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Heart rate variability (HRV) and performance response during emergency flight maneuvers were analyzed. Two expert pilots (ages 35 and 33) and two rookie pilots (ages 25) from the Portuguese Air Force participated in this case–control report study. Participants had to complete the following emergency protocols in a flight simulator: (1) take-off engine failure, (2) flight engine failure close to the base, (3) flight engine failure far away from the base, and (4) alternator failure. The HRV was collected during all these maneuvers, as well as the performance data (the time it took to go through the emergency protocol and the subjective information from the flight simulator operator). Results regarding autonomic modulation showed a higher sympathetic response during the emergency maneuvers when compared to baseline. In some cases, there was also a higher sympathetic response during the emergency maneuvers when compared with the take-off protocol. Regarding performance data, the expert pilots accomplished the missions in less time than the rookie pilots. Autonomic modulation measured from HRV through portable devices can easily relay important information. This information is relevant since characterizing these maneuvers can provide helpful information to design training strategies to improve those psychophysiological responses.