Table 1 - uploaded by Yeong Yeh Lee
Content may be subject to copyright.
Fatty acid profiles of virgin coconut oil.

Fatty acid profiles of virgin coconut oil.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. This is an open-label pilot study on four weeks of virgin coconut oil (VCO) to investigate its efficacy in weight reduction and its safety of use in 20 obese but healthy Malay volunteers. Methodology. Efficacy was assessed by measuring weight and associated anthropometric parameters and lipid profile one week before and one week after...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... (Cocos Nucifera) is commonly used in Malaysia and other neighbouring countries including Thailand and Philippines as a food source and its oils are used as complementary medicine. The oil extracted from fresh coconut meat (virgin coconut oil) contains more medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) (70-85%) ( Table 1) compared to other coconut oils [7]. MCFAs are easily oxidized lipids and are not stored in adipose tissue unlike long chain fatty acids (LCFAs). ...
Context 2
... oil was certified suitable for consumption by the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MS ISO 9001:2000 and MS ISO/IEC 17025 certified). The composition profile of VCO was determined by an indepen- dent and accredited laboratory (Food Quality Research Unit, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) and is presented in Table 1. The prescribed dosage was 30 mL per day taken in three divided doses, half an hour before each meal. ...
Context 3
... emerging medicinal product of importance from coconut is virgin coconut oil (VCO) which is cheap, easily available, and widely used as over-the-counter complementary medicine in the tropics and many foreign markets [15,16]. Of all different types of coconut oils, VCO contains the highest proportion of medium chain fatty acids, with MCFA content being as high as 85.1% in VCO (Table 1). Hence this oil naturally contains a mixture of MCFA and LCFA in a ratio of 3 : 1. MCFAs are rapidly absorbed in the intestines even without catalyzation by the pancreatic lipase enzyme. ...

Similar publications

Article
Full-text available
The transport and recovery of Levafix brilliant red E-4BA and Levafix brilliant red E-6BA were investigated using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) fiber based supported liquid membrane containing tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in coconut oil as a carrier. The influencing parameters studied are: pH of the feed solution, concentration of dye in th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results of a multi-cylinder diesel engine operated on blends of ordinary coconut oil (COCO; 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) with ordinary diesel oil (OD). Methyl esters from cooking oil are less encouraging to be used as biofuel because this af fects food-fuel crisis. However , biofuel obtained from waste cooking oil is more appreciate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The convert Harmonized System (HS) to National Standard of Indonesia (SNI) result which have been already done to ten big of Indonesia commodities to Europe, include: cooper, ores and concentrates, furniture, automatic data process machines, computer hardware, footwear, coal, seats, video recording, coconut, palm, and natural rubber. From the ten b...
Article
Full-text available
Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of different TAG with CLA was performed to produce structured lipids (SL) containing CLA. An immobilized lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme IM, Novo Nordisk Inc., Franklinton, NC) was used as the biocatalyst in a solvent-free system. Conconut oil and tricaprylin, which are sources of medium-chain FA, were the starting su...
Article
Full-text available
The biosynthesis of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA) by Pseudomonas resinovorans from triglyceride substrates was investigated. Each triglyceride, whether animal fat or vegetable oil, supported cellular growth to relatively high average cell yields (3.3 ± 0.2 g/l). PHA yields ranged from 1.1 g/l to 2.1 g/l, representing approximately 45% of the bacter...

Citations

... Asam lemak jenuh berantai menengah atau sedang (MCT) merupakan yang tertinggi, lebih dari 69% (Supriatna & Mala, 2019). VCO merupakan minyak yang komposisinya sebanyak 70% adalah asam lemak rantai sedang atau MCT (Liau, Lee, Chen, & Rasool, 2011). Asam lemak rantai menengah adalah asam lemak penyusun utama dalam VCO untuk sekitar 50% dari total asam lemak (Hasanah & Warnasih, 2019). ...
... Di dalam VCO terkandung Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) dan komponen antioksidan. VCO merupakan minyak yang komposisinya sebanyak 70% adalah asam lemak rantai sedang atau MCT (Liau et al., 2011). ...
... Moreover, consuming MCT might decrease food intake and enhance satiety as well (19). Also giving virgin coconut oil (VCO) for 4 weeks in a pilot study showed that the waist circumference of the studied subjects was significantly reduced by 2.86 cm from their initial measurement but didn't cause any difference in the lipid profile concluding that consuming VCO is safe for use in humans (20). ...
... Moreover, consuming MCT might enhance satiety and decrease food intake (19). An open-label pilot study for four weeks giving virgin coconut oil (VCO) showed that waist circumference was significantly reduced by 2.86 cm from initial measurement with no change in the lipid profile and it is safe for use in humans (20). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim of the study: The study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with virgin coconut oil (VCO) on the anthropometric measurements and dietary intake of children with autism spectrum disorder. Subjects & Methods: Quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test study including 61 child of age group less than 18 years from both sexes. Results: Dietary supplementation with VCO caused a significant change in weight, height, as well as energy, macronutrients and some micronutrients. Conclusion: VCO supplementation was very effective in decreasing the energy and all studied nutrients after the intervention except for fat, vitamin B2, copper (among girls), phosphorus (among boys) and vitamin C there was an increase. Both weight and height increased significantly as those children are in a growing phase while body mass index did not change. It is suggested that virgin coconut oil supplementation for children with autism spectrum disorder might decrease their energy consumption from food as well as improving the dietary intake of certain macronutrients and micronutrients that were investigated.
... In a study of 40 women with abdominal obesity, supplementing with 30 mL (2 tablespoons) of CNO per day led to a significant reduction in both body mass index and waist circumference within 12 weeks. 13 A pilot study by Liau et al. 76 reported a dosage of 30 mL of VCO for a period of four weeks reduced the weight circumference significantly among male subjects. But according to the results, there was no change in lipid profile among the subjects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coconut oil is an integral part of Sri Lankan and many South Asian diets. Initially, coconut oil was classified along with saturated fatty acid food items and criticized for its negative impact on health. However, research studies have shown that coconut oil is a rich source of medium-chain fatty acids. Thus, this has opened new prospects for its use in many fields. Beyond its usage in cooking, coconut oil has attracted attention due to its hypocholesterolemic, anticancer, antihepatosteatotic, antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin moisturizing properties. Despite all the health benefits, consumption of coconut oil is still underrated due to a lack of supportive scientific evidence. Even though studies done in Asian countries claim a favorable impact on cardiac health and serum lipid profile, the limitations in the number of studies conducted among Western countries impede the endorsement of the real value of coconut oil. Hence, long-term extensive studies with proper methodol-ogies are suggested to clear all the controversies and misconceptions of coconut oil consumption. This review discusses the composition and functional properties of coconut oils extracted using various processing methods.
... Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) is pure oil obtained from coconut fruit. VCO naturally contains a mixture of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and long chain fatty acids (LCFA) in a ratio of 3: 1 [1]. The highest MCFA content is lauric acid which is ranging from 45-55%. ...
... Furthermore, VCO increases the body's metabolism and energy expenditure, and is directly converted into energy in the liver but not stored in adipose tissue. [1]. VCO has a higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity compared to copra-derived coconut oil. ...
... VCO is extracted from fresh kernel by mechanical process and heat may or may not be utilized. VCO has higher concentrations of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), lauric acid, and higher antioxidant activity with more vitamin E and polyphenols [16][17][18]. Coconut oil is resistant to oxidation and polymerization reactions, and hence, it is perceived as a stable oil for cooking. However, it has lower smoke point and is recommended only for one time shallow frying [19]. ...
... VCO also did not cause changes in serum lipid profiles [62]. An open-label pilot study in Malaysian volunteers demonstrated that short-term use of VCO causes a decrease in truncal obesity in males with reduction in waist circumference [16]. Here also, the participants engaged in physical activity which confounded the interpretation. ...
... 11 Lauric acid in VCO inhibits enzymes for bacterial growth so that it is effective in reducing colony Staphylococcus. 12 Based on the results of the study there were significant differences between the control group and the intervention group. Lauric acid can also damage bacterial cell membranes so that they interfere with protein signaling for bacterial cell growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diabetic ulcers often result in amputations. The bacteria found in diabetic ulcers are Enterobacter sp, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp and Pseudomonas sp. Nursing management of ulcer patients has been attempted but nothing has been effective yet. Using virgin coconut oil (VCO) contains anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and has an analgesic effect to increase the formation of new blood vessels with faster wound healing. Aim was to study the effect of wound care by giving VCO on the colonization of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in diabetic ulcers.Methods: Quasi-experimental research with the two-group pre-test and post-test design approach involved 36 diabetic ulcer patients with consecutive sampling by doing wound care for 4 days. The duration of treatment was 30-40 minutes. Data was taken by swab on wound fluid before and after the intervention. Bivariate analysis carried out t-independent test of DM ulcers.Results: The results showed the average number of colony staphylococcus in the intervention group before being given wound care with VCO 72.88, while after being treated with 38.88 wound VCO and the average results of the number of colony staphylococcus in the control group before being treated with NaCl 77.88, whereas after being treated with VCO 38.88 wound with NaCl 72.88 in the statistical test the p value is 0,000.Conclusions: There was a significant influence between the number of colony Staphylococcus in the control group and the intervention group.
... In a study of 40 women with abdominal obesity, supplementing with 30 mL (2 tablespoons) of CNO per day led to a significant reduction in both body mass index and waist circumference within 12 weeks. 13 A pilot study by Liau et al. 76 reported a dosage of 30 mL of VCO for a period of four weeks reduced the weight circumference significantly among male subjects. But according to the results, there was no change in lipid profile among the subjects. ...
... Nevertheless, at 400 and 600 mg/kg, VCO seemed to have no effects on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we suggested that the administered dose of VCO could be responsible for the lack of relationship between coconut oil and lipid profile as documented in some studies [30,31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
There is no report in literature on possible physiological changes that accompany dietary modification in obese condition. Moreover, there is no conclusive evidence on the optimal amount of virgin coconut oil (VCO) that could be of health benefit, although it is known to enhance lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the antiobesitogenic action of graded doses of VCO (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) in obese rats fed with normo/hyper-lipidaemic diet. Sixty rats (n = 10) were divided into 6 groups and treated as follows: the control and high fat diet (HFD) groups were administered normal saline (0.1 mL/day, p.o.) during the last four weeks of the study, and were fed with normal and HFD respectively throughout the twenty weeks duration of the experiment. Groups 3–6 were fed with HFD for 16 weeks, then normal diet during the next 4 weeks. While group - 3 received saline (0.1 mL/day, p.o.) during the last four weeks, groups 4–6 received graded doses of VCO. The results showed that HFD-induced obesity caused impaired glucose homeostasis, distorted hepatic histoarchitecture, selected deviations in hepatic function indices, pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and dsylipidaemic effects. There were evidence of escalated and reversed pathological actions following the replacement of HFD with normal diet. VCO showed no effect on glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, total protein, uric acid and TAC; but equitable effects on CAT, IL-6, CRP, ALT, AST & GGT, irrespective of the dose. Compared to the effects of VCO at 400 and 600 mg/kg, at 200 mg/kg, VCO had more significant therapeutic effects on LDH, MDA, SOD, GPX, TC, TG, LDL-C, total bilirubin, atherogenic and lee indices and hepatic histoarchitecture. Conclusively, VCO, preferably at a low dose could be used to reverse hepatic structural alteration and some biochemical deviations following dietary modifications in obese condition.
... 10 Penelitian lain menunjukkan bahwa konsumsi VCO membantu menurunkan komposisi lemak visceral. 11 Penurunan kadar lemak tubuh ini tampaknya disebabkan oleh berkurangnya nafsu makan. 12 Dengan tingginya konsumsi VCO sebagai suplemen diet, terutama diet rendah karbohidrat, maka perlu diteliti apakah pemberian VCO sebanyak 5 ml per kilogram berat badan selama satu bulan dapat bermanfaat dalam memperbaiki parameter antropometrik dan metabolik, terlebih karena VCO adalah suplemen yang cukup aman dan mudah didapatkan di masyarakat. ...
... Minyak jagung hanya sedikit sekali mengandung MCFA, yaitu kurang dari 1%, sedangkan VCO mengandung MCFA hampir 60%. 11,20 Selama proses pembuatan obesitas melalui induksi diet tinggi lemak-sukrosa, metabolisme tikus cenderung glukogenik. Asupan makanan tinggi sukrosa yang diberikan lewat minuman menyebabkan tubuh lebih cenderung memanfaatkan glukosa sebagai sumber energi utama. ...
... Hasil penelitian ini bertentangan dengan penelitian sebelumnya yang mengindikasikan bahwa konsumsi virgin coconut oil dapat menurunkan massa lemak viseral. 11 Tidak didapatkan perbedaan bermakna pada massa lemak viseral pada semua kelompok tikus pada penelitian ini. Demikian juga dengan parameter berat badan. ...
Article
Full-text available
Latar Belakang: Untuk mengatasi masalah obesitas ada banyak program modifikasi gaya hidup melalui pengaturan pola makan dan peningkatan aktivitas fisik. Di antara program diet dikenal diet rendah lemak serta derivatnya dan diet rendah karbohidrat. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efek positif diet rendah karbohidrat sebagian besar diperantarai oleh keton dalam darah. Selain dapat berfungsi sebagai sumber energi alternatif yang efisien, keton dapat berperan juga sebagai molekul sinyal yang dapat mempengaruhi metabolisme sel dan perilaku. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) adalah sumber asam lemak rantai sedang alamiah dengan kuantitas dan kualitas tinggi yang dapat diserap dan dimetabolisme di dalam liver dengan mudah dan cepat menjadi keton Tujuan: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efek suplementasi virgin coconut oil terhadap kadar glukosa darah, keton darah, asupan makanan, massa lemak viseral dan berat badan pada model obesitas yang diinduksi melalui diet tinggi lemak-sukrosa.Metode: Tiga puluh dua subyek tikus wistar jantan yang sebelumnya sudah dibuat obesitas (indeks Lee >0,300) melalui diet tinggi lemak-sukrosa selama 20 minggu dibagi ke dalam empat kelompok. Kelompok (A) mendapat akuades per oral, kelompok (S) mendapat larutan sukrosa per oral, kelompok (VCO) mendapat VCO per oral, dan kelompok (CO) mendapat minyak jagung per oral selama 4 minggu, diberikan sebelum makan pada siklus malam tikus.Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan bermakna pada kadar glukosa darah, massa lemak viseral dan berat badan antar kelompok subyek. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian virgin coconut oil dapat meningkatkan kadar keton darah dan menurunkan asupan makanan (p=0,023 dan p=0,000) dibandingkan dengan kelompok perlakuan lain.Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi VCO sebelum makan dapat meningkatkan kadar keton darah dan menekan asupan makanan tikus obesitas yang diinduksi diet tinggi lemak-sukros. Namun, penurunan asupan makanan tampaknya tidak dipengaruhi oleh kadar keton dalam darah.
... Our results showed that virgin coconut oil intake promoted a decreased body weight gain, and increase in plasma glucose and HOMA-IR when compared to the linseed oil group, as well as an increase in serum cholesterol and TAG. The literature reports many articles that associate the consumption of coconut oil and weight loss (Gunasekaran et al., 2017;Liau, Lee, Chen, & Rasool, 2011;Nosaka et al., 2003;St-Onge & Bosarge, 2008;Tsuji et al., 2001), as well as health benefits similar to those of middle chain triglycerides (MCT) (Clegg, 2017). The effects of coconut oil on weight loss are related to the combination of two factors: energy expenditure increases and satiety induced by MCT. ...
Article
Full-text available
Our goal was to carry out a comparative study to evaluate the metabolic and inflammatory effects and the redox status of commercial vegetable oils supplementation [linseed (LO), coconut (VCO), and sunflower (SO)] in metabolically healthy rats. The results found in this study showed that the LO group decreased the HOMA-IR and hepatic cholesterol, and increased the serum levels of IL-6. Supplementation with VCO increased glucose and HOMA-IR, cholesterol concentration and serum triacylglycerol (TAG). In this group, there was also an increase in TBARS. In the SO group there was a decrease in serum concentrations of cholesterol and TAG and an increase in hepatic concentration of these lipids. In addition, in the SO group there was a decrease in hepatic and serum concentrations of IL-6 and hepatic levels of TNF, as well as a decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio, suggesting changes in glutathione metabolism and inflammatory mediators.