Fatty acid composition (%) of buriti oil.

Fatty acid composition (%) of buriti oil.

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Although Amazonian oils present great potential for various applications, they have not been extensively explored for commercial use. In this study, the effects of enzymatic interesterification of buriti oil in relation to its triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution of fatty acids, and minority compounds were evaluated. The results...

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Context 1
... to the interesterification reaction, the buriti oil was characterized for its fatty acid compo- sition (Table 1). The results indicated that this oil is a rich source in oleic acid (74.2%), followed by pal- mitic acid (19.8%). ...
Context 2
... Figure 1A, it can be verified that the buriti oil is totally unsaturated in the sn-2 position of the TAG, and is basically composed of oleic acid, the main unsaturated fatty acid in this oil (Table 1). The sn-1,3 positions present saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in a ratio of approximately 1: 2, respec- tively. ...

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Citations

... Jaramillo et al. (2019) evaluated the lipidic profile of buriti, which presented a predominance of triglycerides, fatty acids and diglycerides. Speranza et al. (2018) reported triglyceride content of (93.33 ± 0.16) %. There was a predominance of monounsaturated fatty acids, followed by saturated and polyunsaturated ones (Speranza et al., 2016). ...
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The Amazon region has a significant biodiversity composed of several fruits with health benefits and distinguished potential for technological application and development of novel products. Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) is one of the main Amazonian fruits with expressive nutraceutical properties. For this reason, this review aims to elucidate the current state of knowledge on buriti, providing information on its bioactive compounds, nutraceutical, and health potential for both technological and economic development especially in food and pharmaceutical areas. Different parts of buriti are important sources of carotenoids, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and fibers. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, prebiotic, anti-diabetes, and anti-cancer properties have also been reported. In addition, the buriti oil presents a synergistic effect with antibiotics and it has been also an alternative to artificial dyes. However, there is a lack of information about the in vivo evaluation of the buriti’s bioactive compounds providing a clearer elucidation on its biological potential, toxicity information and mechanisms of action. Proper sensory methods and the relationship between sensory quality and consumer perception are also needed to extend the possibility of developing new products. Finally, the use of non-thermal techniques is encouraged to improve the bioavailability of nutraceutical compounds and potentiate their action on human health.
... Thus, it allows to obtain fat products with a structure unparalleled in nature. Additionally, the use of biocatalysts in interesterification allows the reaction to proceed with a sufficient speed, under mild conditions, which contributes to easier control of the process [5]. Enzymatic catalysis also gives a chance to obtain modified fat free of trans isomers, which from the nutritional point of view gives the product an unquestionable advantage [6]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the enzymatic modification of muton tallow and hemp seed oil fat blends. An attempt of application of these fat blends as fat phases in emulsion systems with various amount of carboxymethylcellulose was made. Fat blends before and after enzymatic catalysis were assessed in the context of polar and non-polar fractions content, antioxidant activity, oxidative stability and texture. Emulsions were investigated in the terms of their stability, color, microstructure, droplets diameter, and viscosity. The study revealed that emulsions containing as a fat phases modified blends with greater share of mutton tallow showed more favorable properties, and greater stability. The presented emulsions are a model dispersion system, after adjustment of the additives they could be used as chemical, food or cosmetic products.
... The leaves are also rich in gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, rutin and quercetin (Araruna et al. 2013). Not only pulp and almond were reported as source of biocompounds, there is use of peel as source of heteropolysaccharide pectin, for example (Leão et al. 2018). From this point of view, several biomolecules have been evaluated according to their possible effect on the biological system, as detailed later. ...
... The fruit is edible (Cordeiro et al. 2015) locally consumed directly or processed into beverages, ice creams, sweets and other food products (Horn et al. 2018). It contains a large amount of oil that is used for frying and applied to the skin to treat sunburn, and on the other hand, it is specially useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry (Speranza et al. 2018). The cakes and flours obtained from the fruit have shown fiber, protein and carbohydrate content, qualities that could be exploited for food supplies and ingredients for the food industry (Restrepo et al. 2016;Quispe-Jacobo et al. 2009). ...
... M. flexuosa oil, thanks to its high oleic acid content, is very resistant to oxidation, which would make it a high-quality oil, superior to olive oil (Vásquez-Ocmín et al. 2010). This oil has also been used to obtain an alternative fuel to diesel (Forero et al. 2003;Garcia-Quiroz et al. 2003;Luz et al. 2011), engine lubricant and edible oil for the food industry Manhães et al. 2015), as an emollient and sunscreen in the cosmetic and in the pharmaceutical industry (Zanatta et al. 2010b;, however, some researchers have considered that its use is still limited, which is why attempts have been made to modify its functionality through enzymatic interesterification to obtain oils richer in oleic acid without altering the rest of its natural components (Speranza et al. 2018). Another use studied is the possibility of incorporating M. flexuosa oil in the production of naturally antioxidant biodegradable films based on chitosan or fish gelatin and that could increase the resistance and shelf life of the products in which it is applied (De Silva et al. 2016. ...
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The Caryocar spp. plants are well known in Brazil, especially for inhabitants of Cerrado biome, commonly called as Pequi, Piqui or Piquiá. The fruit is a typical and characteristic fruit of the midwest region, being appreciated in the traditional cuisine, especially because of their “exotic” flavor and unique manner to consume it, due to its thorny endocarp. Due to its traditional use, mainly as food, nutraceutical, or as medicine, the whole plant has been paid attention to by the scientific community. Thus, considering the high potential of the plant, especially pulp and almond fruit parts, this chapter presents a wide introduction about the chemical composition, food properties and a large biological properties identified by several studies, mainly in the last decades. The fruit presents excellent properties as food, being a satisfactory source of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and minerals. The fatty acids content varies including the saturated palmitic acid, monounsaturated oleic acid and polyunsaturated arachidonic acid. Besides, several bioactive compounds were identified such as carotenoids; phenolic compounds, including flavonoids; α-tocopherol and tannins. The Caryocar spp. plants have shown interesting biological action for several purposes, i.e., as anti-inflammatory, dermatological, anti-microbiological, gastroprotection, hepatic, vascular and cardioprotection as well as anticancer and antigenotoxicity properties, being a promising ally to human health.
... The leaves are also rich in gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, rutin and quercetin (Araruna et al. 2013). Not only pulp and almond were reported as source of biocompounds, there is use of peel as source of heteropolysaccharide pectin, for example (Leão et al. 2018). From this point of view, several biomolecules have been evaluated according to their possible effect on the biological system, as detailed later. ...
... The fruit is edible (Cordeiro et al. 2015) locally consumed directly or processed into beverages, ice creams, sweets and other food products (Horn et al. 2018). It contains a large amount of oil that is used for frying and applied to the skin to treat sunburn, and on the other hand, it is specially useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry (Speranza et al. 2018). The cakes and flours obtained from the fruit have shown fiber, protein and carbohydrate content, qualities that could be exploited for food supplies and ingredients for the food industry (Restrepo et al. 2016;Quispe-Jacobo et al. 2009). ...
... M. flexuosa oil, thanks to its high oleic acid content, is very resistant to oxidation, which would make it a high-quality oil, superior to olive oil (Vásquez-Ocmín et al. 2010). This oil has also been used to obtain an alternative fuel to diesel (Forero et al. 2003;Garcia-Quiroz et al. 2003;Luz et al. 2011), engine lubricant and edible oil for the food industry Manhães et al. 2015), as an emollient and sunscreen in the cosmetic and in the pharmaceutical industry (Zanatta et al. 2010b;, however, some researchers have considered that its use is still limited, which is why attempts have been made to modify its functionality through enzymatic interesterification to obtain oils richer in oleic acid without altering the rest of its natural components (Speranza et al. 2018). Another use studied is the possibility of incorporating M. flexuosa oil in the production of naturally antioxidant biodegradable films based on chitosan or fish gelatin and that could increase the resistance and shelf life of the products in which it is applied (De Silva et al. 2016. ...
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Acrocomia aculeata contains various phytochemicals that contribute to the health benefits, and the consumption of both pulp and kernel is very popular in the Brazilian Cerrado region. Although a lot of research has been conducted, none review of the literature about health benefits of Acrocomia aculeata and its phytochemicals has been compiled. In this sense, this chapter aimed to present the results of studies carried out on the species in traditional application, phytochemicals, health benefits and toxicology of the fruit, kernel and leaves of A. aculeata. The main phytochemicals found in pulp, kernel and leaves are rutin, quercetin and tocopherols. These common phytochemicals are responsible for health effects such as: anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial, hypolipidemic and diuretic effects. Moreover, toxicological studies have been explored to evaluate the safety of parts of the plant that are commonly consumed and provide information on benefits and uses. This work compiles several useful reports for researchers interested in biological activity and main uses of A. aculeata.
... The fruit is edible (Cordeiro et al. 2015) locally consumed directly or processed into beverages, ice creams, sweets and other food products (Horn et al. 2018). It contains a large amount of oil that is used for frying and applied to the skin to treat sunburn, and on the other hand, it is specially useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry (Speranza et al. 2018). The cakes and flours obtained from the fruit have shown fiber, protein and carbohydrate content, qualities that could be exploited for food supplies and ingredients for the food industry (Restrepo et al. 2016;Quispe-Jacobo et al. 2009). ...
... M. flexuosa oil, thanks to its high oleic acid content, is very resistant to oxidation, which would make it a high-quality oil, superior to olive oil (Vásquez-Ocmín et al. 2010). This oil has also been used to obtain an alternative fuel to diesel (Forero et al. 2003;Garcia-Quiroz et al. 2003;Luz et al. 2011), engine lubricant and edible oil for the food industry (Silva et al. 2009;Manhães et al. 2015), as an emollient and sunscreen in the cosmetic and in the pharmaceutical industry (Zanatta et al. 2010b;Speranza et al. 2016), however, some researchers have considered that its use is still limited, which is why attempts have been made to modify its functionality through enzymatic interesterification to obtain oils richer in oleic acid without altering the rest of its natural components (Speranza et al. 2018). Another use studied is the possibility of incorporating M. flexuosa oil in the production of naturally antioxidant biodegradable films based on chitosan or fish gelatin and that could increase the resistance and shelf life of the products in which it is applied (De Silva et al. 2016. ...
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... The leaves are also rich in gallic, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, rutin and quercetin (Araruna et al. 2013). Not only pulp and almond were reported as source of biocompounds, there is use of peel as source of heteropolysaccharide pectin, for example (Leão et al. 2018). From this point of view, several biomolecules have been evaluated according to their possible effect on the biological system, as detailed later. ...
... The fruit is edible (Cordeiro et al. 2015) locally consumed directly or processed into beverages, ice creams, sweets and other food products (Horn et al. 2018). It contains a large amount of oil that is used for frying and applied to the skin to treat sunburn, and on the other hand, it is specially useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry (Speranza et al. 2018). The cakes and flours obtained from the fruit have shown fiber, protein and carbohydrate content, qualities that could be exploited for food supplies and ingredients for the food industry (Restrepo et al. 2016;Quispe-Jacobo et al. 2009). ...
... M. flexuosa oil, thanks to its high oleic acid content, is very resistant to oxidation, which would make it a high-quality oil, superior to olive oil (Vásquez-Ocmín et al. 2010). This oil has also been used to obtain an alternative fuel to diesel (Forero et al. 2003;Garcia-Quiroz et al. 2003;Luz et al. 2011), engine lubricant and edible oil for the food industry Manhães et al. 2015), as an emollient and sunscreen in the cosmetic and in the pharmaceutical industry (Zanatta et al. 2010b;, however, some researchers have considered that its use is still limited, which is why attempts have been made to modify its functionality through enzymatic interesterification to obtain oils richer in oleic acid without altering the rest of its natural components (Speranza et al. 2018). Another use studied is the possibility of incorporating M. flexuosa oil in the production of naturally antioxidant biodegradable films based on chitosan or fish gelatin and that could increase the resistance and shelf life of the products in which it is applied (De Silva et al. 2016. ...
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Fruits of the Brazilian Cerrado: Composition and Functional Benefits describes the nutritional, chemical and physical characteristics of the fruits of the Cerrado, as well as their pharmacological effects and use in phytotherapics. Chapters are dedicated to the morphological characteristics, macronutrients, micronutrients and active compounds of various fruits, with separate sections covering their peels, leaves, nuts, pulps, and other components. The text also includes detailed studies on the treatment of diseases with these natural products, as well as their applications in popular use by local communities. Authors explain the importance of bioactive compounds found in the fruits and their possible mechanisms of action in the organism. This text thus provides a valuable reference to researchers studying a range of topics, including functional foods, phytotherapy, and plant science.
... Analyses were carried out in duplicate, and the mean and standard deviation of each sample were calculated (12). (13). ...
... Before the interesterification reaction, buriti oil was analyzed for fatty acid composition and the interesterification was evaluated through triacylglycerol composition and lipid classes. The complete characterization was published in our earlier report (12). Nevertheless, in this paper, we summarize the most relevant data for the present discussion. ...
... After interesterification, total phenolic concentration increased (329.75 ± 10.15 µg/g), which was not an expected result. Speranza et al. (12) suggest that this result was a consequence of improved solubilization of structured lipids in the reaction medium. However, further investigations are needed at this point. ...
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Research background. Extracted from the pulp of an Amazonian fruit, buriti oil is rich in micronutrients with antioxidant properties and high biological value. The few studies available indicate that this oil could be used in a wide range of applications; however, there are no studies that work on the improvement of the characteristics of this oil for commercial application. The enzymatic interesterification is one of the tools available to improve the properties of oils and fats and our recent studies have demonstrated that the lipase could specifically act on buriti oil to produce structured lipids rich in oleic acid, while preserving most of the minor compounds present in this oil. Still looking for ways to expand the applicability of this raw oil, in this work, we are interested in studying the behaviour of this structured oil in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Experimental approach. The NLCs were produced with interesterified buriti oil and the stability, droplet size, electrical charge, microstructure, polymorphism and antioxidant activity of the samples were evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the interesterification formed more unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs), and NLCs prepared with interesterified buriti oil had smaller droplets than NLCs with crude buriti oil. Particles remained stable throughout the storage period and NLCs exhibited complex polymorphism with the presence of three crystalline forms. The ORAC value was approx. 23 % higher in nanolipid carries with structured lipids than in the nanolipid carriers with crude buriti oil, and the FRAP value 16 % higher, demonstrating the influence of interesterification on the antioxidant activity of nanocarriers. Thus, NLCs prepared with interesterified buriti oil had small droplets, high stability and antioxidant capacity, and have a potential for nutritional and biological applications. Novelty and scientific contribution. This research showed that interesterification positively influenced the physicochemical properties of NLCs, producing the oil rich in oleic acid, high stability and antioxidant capacity. Therefore, it may be interesting to use these nanocarriers to obtain efficient carrier systems for future applications.
... Besides, enzymatic interesterification can also be used as a technique to improve the biological characteristics of oils and fats. Recent work from our research group showed the development of structured lipids resultant of buriti oil interesterification generating oils richer in oleic acid and with new functionalities, while preserving most naturally occurring minority compounds present in the buriti oil [8]. ...
... It can be observed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between nanoparticles with buriti oil and negative control in relation to the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) in Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines (Figs. 7 and 8). Although there was an increase in the oleic-oleic-oleic tri-unsaturated TAG (OOO) after interesterification reaction [8], this fact did not result in the formation of secondary products of lipid oxidation. In general, TBARS are inherently insensitive to monounsaturated fatty acids since oleic acid hydroperoxides contain less than two double bonds; and significant amounts of TBARS are only formed when fatty acids with three or more double bonds are involved [42]. ...
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Buriti oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids and tocopherols and it is used for the treatment of various diseases. One strategy to restructure the triglycerides is enzymatic interesterification and nanocarriers have been employed to improve the solubility, bioavailability and stability of active compounds. This work aims to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of this structured oil in nanoemulsions and nanostructured lipid carriers to expand the applicability of the crude oil. None of the samples had a cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 and HepG2 cell lines at the concentrations tested. Structured lipids acted protecting against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Additionally, no consumption of glutathione has been observed in both cells, and the compounds present in buriti oil are possibly acting as antioxidants. Thus, nanoparticles prepared with interesterified buriti oil had low cytotoxicity and high oxidative stability, with great potential for future applications.
... On the other hand, a hydroalcoholic fraction of buriti oil displayed higher antioxidant activity when compared to canola oil [37]. Additionally, Speranza et al. [39,40] evaluated the ORAC antioxidant capacity of the crude buriti oil ( Table 2). ...
... Physicochemical changes in TAGs caused by the interesterification reaction result in a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, leading to the formation of tri-unsaturated TAGs that are rich in oleic acid and thereby reduce the melting range of buriti oil. Furthermore, the substitution of palmitic acid for oleic acid at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TAG in structured buriti oil [26] might have contributed to the reduction in droplet size. The lower the melting range of a structured lipid, the lower its viscosity, which directly affects droplet size. ...
... These results can be explained by the fact that structured buriti oil has a higher content of unsaturated TAGs than its unstructured equivalent and thus has lower melting point and viscosity. These physicochemical properties influence droplet formation and stability [26]. Interestingly, nanoemulsions exhibited a specific aggregation behavior that may be related to polymorphic changes during storage. ...
... Because emulsified lipids are highly susceptible to oxidation, combined antioxidant strategies are required to delay oxidation reactions and improve shelf-life. This knowledge served as a basis for developing structured nanoemulsions of buriti oil: it has excellent antioxidant, functional, and biological properties [26,43]. Subsequent experiments were performed using NBO and NBO 24h stored at room temperature, as samples were shown to be less stable at 4 C. ...
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Buriti oil nanoemulsions were prepared using non-interesterified buriti oil or buriti oil interesterified for 6 or 24 h (NBO, NBO6h, and NBO24 h), respectively. The aim was to investigate the effects of interesterified oils on the physicochemical and biological properties of nanoemulsions. Samples were stored at 4 and 25 °C for 30 days, and their physicochemical properties and biological activities were evaluated. The mean droplet diameter of nanoemulsions ranged from 196 to 270 nm. NBO24 h had the smallest droplet size and was the most stable during the storage period. Furthermore, NBO24 h demonstrating the good oxidative stability, had a high antioxidant capacity, and was less susceptible to droplet aggregation. NBO and NBO24 h had similar biological activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157: H7); bacterial growth was inhibited by at least 60% at 3.12 mg mL-1. The nanoemulsions have interesting properties for the production of pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food formulations with antimicrobial activity.