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Factors influencing access to and utilization of five ANC services and ANC visits.

Factors influencing access to and utilization of five ANC services and ANC visits.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
There is a high prevalence of gender gap in Bangladesh which might affect women’s likelihood to receive maternal healthcare services. In this backdrop, we aim to investigate how gender inequality measured by intrahousehold bargaining power (or autonomy) of women and their attitudes towards intimate partner violence (IPV) affects accessing and utili...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... more likely to receive five ANC services and women with negative attitudes towards IPV were 1.93 (95% CI: 1.46-2.56) times more likely to receive five ANC services (Model 1 in Table 2). Moreover, women with negative attitudes towards IPV were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.19-2.01) ...
Context 2
... women with negative attitudes towards IPV were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.19-2.01) times more likely to attain sufficient ANC visits (Model 3 in Table 2). After adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic features, we found that women having autonomy in decision making were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.98-1.41) ...
Context 3
... adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic features, we found that women having autonomy in decision making were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.98-1.41) times more likely to receive five ANC services (Model 2 in Table 2). While women's negative attitudes towards IPV (which represents equality) were positively associated with women's access to five required ANC services. ...
Context 4
... example, compared to the women with no education, women having higher education were 1.80 (95% CI: 1.04-3.12) times more likely to get five ANC services (Model 2 in Table 2) and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.21-3.21) times more likely to attain sufficient ANC visits (Model 4 in Table 2). ...
Context 5
... more likely to get five ANC services (Model 2 in Table 2) and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.21-3.21) times more likely to attain sufficient ANC visits (Model 4 in Table 2). Moreover, husband's education has a profound role in shaping access to five ANC services as well as sufficient ANC visits. ...

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Citations

... Parental son preference and valuation of sons over daughters are common phenomena in many cultures worldwide, introducing sexbiased economic and demographic inequalities in some societies (Ahmed et al., 2021;Barot, 2012;Vlassoff, 2007). The adverse effects of overvaluing sons include sex differences in immunization coverage, perceptions of illness and need for care, quality of medical care-seeking, medical-care expenditure, and female-biased infant and child mortality in South Asian countries (Chowdhury et al., 2003;Hanifi et al., 2018;Ismail et al., 2019;Najnin et al., 2011;Shah et al., 2014;Subedi et al., 2022;Willis et al., 2009). ...
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Valuation of sons over daughters introduces sex-biased health, economic, and socio-demographic inequalities in many societies. This study aims to examine fetus-sex differences in maternity services and infant sex differences in medical care for terminally ill neonates in Bangladesh, using secondary data from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), maintained by icddr,b since 1966 along with data from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality and Health Care Survey (BMMS) 2016. HDSS follows a well-defined rural population (0.24 million in 2018) to register vital events and migrations and records the use of maternity services for the index birth and medical care-seeking during the terminal illness of each death in verbal autopsy. The BMMS 2016 recorded maternity care and maternal complications for the last live birth of mothers in the same population (n = 27,133). Bivariate analyses estimated the use (in %) of maternity services for the index live births and medical services for terminally ill neonates for each socio-demographic variable. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (AORs) adjusted for socio-demographic variables and clustering of births to the same mothers. HDSS registered 49,827 live births and 1049 neonatal deaths during 2009–2018. We found similar prenatal care-seeking for male and female fetuses but higher facility delivery (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI:1.12–1.23) and C-sections (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI:1.15–1.25) for male fetus pregnancies, differences that remain after adjusting for maternal complications. Sex differences persisted in seeking care for terminally ill neonates. Trained provider consultation (AOR = 1.46, CI:1.00–2.12); hospital admissions (AOR = 1.43, CI:1.01–2.03); and dying in hospital (AOR = 1.91, CI:1.31–2.78) were all higher for male neonates. Other variables positively associated with delivery care and medical care-seeking were lower birth order of the child, higher maternal education, and higher family wealth status. Policy and decision-makers need to be aware of gender disparities in maternity care and care of sick neonates and plan remedial actions.