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Factors affecting adaptation to extreme heat in rural communities within a socio-ecological model. 

Factors affecting adaptation to extreme heat in rural communities within a socio-ecological model. 

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Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on li...

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Context 1
... process of heat-adaptation will require supportive policy development across a number of areas, as indicated in the model (Figure 2). Current health policy in South Australia includes maintaining vulnerable client lists, and educating and monitoring these groups during extreme heat, and these policies, together with media attention to heat-health risks, may explain the level of community heat awareness described by participants in this study. Ongoing provision of evidence-based health advice will continue to be important, together with training for primary health care providers who are well placed to deliver tailored advice to individual ...
Context 2
... study has drawn on the experiences of health service providers to examine the impact of extreme heat, and the factors that influence how people in rural communities adapt, framing these within a socio-ecological model (Figure 2). While there are many similarities across communities, it is clear that heat experiences are inseparable from contextual factors, particularly the local climate and geography, so that a local approach to the development of heat-adaptation strategies is warranted. Although participants described instances of heat-related illness in their communities, their narratives placed a major emphasis on the social impact of heat, both at the interpersonal and community levels. In smaller communities they described limited public spaces to provide a cool meeting place or refuge during the heat, and for elderly residents in particular, extended periods of heat can make them housebound and detract from their quality of life. Banwell et al. [39] have proposed that a reliance on air-conditioning is "drawing people from their social networks on the verandas back inside their homes," which concurs with our findings in rural communities. It may be possible for local Councils or businesses to provide cool refuges within small towns; however barriers to access may be difficult to overcome, bearing in mind that both heat and fire risk can discourage travel in rural ...

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... Only a limited number of studies concentrated purely on the sensitivity aspect (Fig. 3b). The low number of heatwave sensitivity-related studies could be attributed to: (1) challenges associated with quantifying the epidemiological effects of heatwaves (Li et al., 2018); (2) the limited amount of data available regarding the health impacts of heatwaves of various age groups (Nitschke et al., 2013;Xu et al., 2017); and (3) the difficulty in understanding the effects of different heat adaptation techniques on public health based on differing demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds (Hansen et al., 2011(Hansen et al., , 2013(Hansen et al., , 2014Hatvani--Kovacs et al., 2016a;Williams et al., 2013). ...
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... Extremely high temperatures, strongly correlated with heat wave episodes, are widely considered a serious problem contributing to hospital admissions' increases ( Davis et al., 2003 ;Williams et al., 2013b ;Bobb et al., 2014 ;Hansen et al., 2015 ;Schuster et al., 2017 ;Herrmann and Sauerborn, 2018;McCall et al., 2019 ). This heat issue has particularly created a greater impact on more susceptible population groups both physically and economically. ...
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... Ottawa charter action areas.Figure 2. Factors influencing heat adaptation[88]. ...
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