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Factors affecting acceptance and uptake of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism.

Factors affecting acceptance and uptake of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism.

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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a novel brand of transport that promises to replace private cars with multimodal personalised mobility packages enabled by a digital platform capable of integrating travel planning, booking and ticketing, and real-time information services. It is an intervention that through its digitisation, connectivity, informatio...

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... study identifies and analyses the five key themes that underpin MaaS and its potential to inspire (or not) travel behavioural change. Car dependence, Trust, Human Element Externalities, Value and Cost, each with a number of distinctive dimensions expressed as their sub-themes, shown on Fig. 3, in cases interlinked and difficult to isolate per se, underpin people's acceptance and potential uptake of MaaS. While the idea of MaaS received generally positive commentary, with participants willing to see the system in action, many still looked at MaaS through the lens of Car Dependence. So, the potential modal shift was not ...

Citations

... Hirschhorn et al. (2019) qualitatively investigate possible governance approaches for PT drawing on three use cases. Using semi-structured interviews in three cities, Alyavina et al. (2020) find car dependence, value, and cost as crucial factors affecting MaaS usage. Empirically, more integrated modes, thus increased flexibility, are found to be more attractive for customers (Guidon et al., 2020;Kamargianni et al., 2016;Strömberg et al., 2018;Sochor et al., 2015;Karlsson et al., 2016), especially when taking account of mode-chains (Song et al., 2021) and seamlessness for PT (Lee et al., 2022;Hensher and Xi, 2022;Matyas and Kamargianni, 2019b). ...
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Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) bundle design has recently gained increasing attention. Previous work has identified socio-demographics and current travel behaviour as drivers towards adopting MaaS bundles. Yet, the focus has been on (scientific) trials in one specific area or on one specific service. We extend this work by analysing the influence of transport supply and mobility behaviour on preferences for MaaS bundles in multiple cities. To this end, we conduct a stated preference experiment in 83 cities in Germany. Respondents choose between two MaaS bundle options and one pay-as-you-go option. Besides public transport, we include shared e-scooters and bikes or carsharing and ridepooling in the bundles. To integrate city characteristics we merge this data with supply data from the shared services and data about public transport quality in the respective cities. We find previous shared mobility usage to positively and car usage to negatively influence bundle uptake. While included units are crucial for bundles integrating car-based shared modes, additional prices beyond these units are more important for shared micro-mobility services. The quality of the local transport system and shared mobility supply is an important precondition for MaaS bundle uptake.
... At the local and national levels, MaaS aspires to bridge the gap between public and private transportation carriers, shifting away from personally owned modes of transportation toward providing mobility as a service. The primary idea behind MaaS is integrated and seamless mobility providing travelers with mobility options tailored to their specific travel requirements (Kamargianni et al. 2016;Esztergár-Kiss, 2020;Alyavina et al. 2020;). It is a practical mobility option that most likely will be crucial in the reform of urban transportation in the future. ...
Article
As the population of urban centers grows, there is a significant challenge of adjusting the transportation needs of urban mobility, as well as pursuing environmental protection strategies and ensuring social inclusion. The major bottleneck of urban mobility includes the constant traffic congestion in major cities because of excessive use of private cars. Developing an accessible, attractive transportation system that caters to people's individual mobility needs and preferences is one possible solution to these problems. It is important to have a coordinated system connecting the various modes of transportation so that people's homes and destinations can be reached with ease. The first and last miles of commuters, which are the weakest linkages in the transportation network, should be developed first before the system can be integrated. Shared mobility which involves using a shared vehicle (car, bike, scooter, etc.) often serves as a first or last mile connection to other modes of transportation such as public transit. Understanding the factors that influence the adoption of shared mobility services is crucial to ensuring that they become a significant component of the urban mobility system. This paper provides an overview of existing and emerging last mile solutions, particularly in the concept of shared mobility. The objective of this study is to add and enrich knowledge in the area of shared mobility in bridging the last mile toward an integrated mobility system.
... The study finds that there are three emerging MaaS scenarios including market-driven, public-controlled, and public-private with two critical roles such as MaaS integrators and MaaS operators that public and private can play in MaaS development. Alyavina et al. (2020) investigate the factors underpinning the uptake and potential success of MaaS as a sustainable travel mechanism. The study reveals that the success of MaaS as a sustainable travel mode depends on changing the attitude of users to car ownership and using public transport as a backbone of MaaS models. ...
... These costs vary depending on the mode of transactions since transactions between suppliers and customers, business-to-business or within a firm entail different costs. In this study, it is hypothesized that an individual choosing to use MaaS will incur two transaction costs: (a) resources (effort, time and cost) that might be involved in searching, choosing and using MaaS; and (b) resources (effort, time and cost) that might be involved in redressing the problem that might be encountered using MaaS (Alyavina et al., 2020). In addition to the transaction cost, this study also examines the influence of the comparative cost of getting the same mobility service from a private car (Wang et al., 2012;Yoo et al., 2020). ...
... To facilitate transactions, digital platforms require the appropriate architecture, design, governance, and regulations to maximise public trust (Tomaino et al., 2020) and minimise friction in the delivery of products and services (Ruggieri et al., 2018, Hirschhorn et al., 2019. In the area of MaaS, studies have indicated that consumers' safety, trust, and service administration concerns can either facilitate or inhibit the acceptance and success of MaaS (Alyavina et al., 2020;Matyas, 2020). These concerns can be closely related to the public or private or public-private partnership approaches for developing MaaS (Smith et al., 2018) and highlight the importance of MaaS platform ownership and governance (Smith et al., 2018;Brunswickera and Schecterb, 2019). ...
Article
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) has gained popularity as a means of sustainable urban transport which makes the understanding of MaaS use critical for its design and promotion. Studies have contributed to the growing understanding of MaaS, its design features, and consumers’ willingness to pay for MaaS in general, without recourse to the differences in traveling for work, social and general purposes. This paper develops and tests models to predict MaaS use by applying artificial neural network analysis, following the cross industry standard process and data mining framework. It also estimates separate models for social, general, and work trips, using 33 input variables reflecting network externality, transaction cost, behaviour, institutional, environmental concern, personal travel, and socio-economic factors. Data are collected from a survey of 331 Australians. The study reveals different sets of socio-economic factors, the impact of Covid-19, and personal travel factors as key predictors of MaaS use for general, social, and work trips with an average prediction accuracy of 68%, 68%, and 75% respectively. The findings can be used to inform strategies and policies on how to attract a user base with respect to socio-economic and personal travel factors for promoting MaaS use.
... Therefore, being a relatively new concept, there is still no clear consensus upon what 'Mobility as a Service' means and which are the exact goals to be attained through this concept (Lyons, Hammond & Mackay, 2020;Alyavina, Nikitas and Njoya, 2020). To better clarify the topic, we, therefore, propose a summarizing recent definitions of the emerging concept in Table 1. ...
Article
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Our study aims to provide scientific research to the disrupting peer-to-peer asset utilisation practices of emergent organisations, testing the robustness of said business models for gradual adoption into organisational design norms. The tourism industry, the optimum platform to host our hypothesis and findings, hosts two successful business models that have been popularly adopted worldwide: home-sharing and car-sharing platforms. Disseminating these innovative business models by means of thorough scientific qualitative research through secondary data collection will result in a descriptive study of the peer-to-peer asset utilisation model that can be adopted by parallel industries. The peer-to-peer models studies came into existence from asset availability or excess demand, coercing the regulatory systems that govern the industries they disrupt into adapting for them. Norms and regulations restrain these newly formed systems into complying with more than the economic outcomes of business processes, forcing their evolution onto a sustainable path. Apart from other studies in the field, our research stresses the utility of "Home Sharing" and "Mobility as a Service" (MaaS) as common grounds between corporations and the communities they serve. Private asset owners can thus either compete with businesses, or the public can collaborate with the economic environment for mutual advantages. The findings of this study have practical implications in organisation design management, as our research reveals that asset and inventory ownership can easily be substituted by available external resources, benefiting the community while improving financial yield. Abstract. Our study aims to provide scientific research to the disrupting peer-to-peer asset utilisation practices of emergent organisations, testing the robustness of said business models for gradual adoption into organisational design norms. The tourism industry, the optimum platform to host our hypothesis and findings, hosts two successful business models that have been popularly adopted worldwide: home-sharing and car-sharing platforms. Disseminating these innovative business models by means of thorough scientific qualitative research through secondary data collection will result in a descriptive study of the peer-to-peer asset utilisation model that can be adopted by parallel industries. More precisely, we propose a clear illustration of peer-to-peer real estate and Mobility as a Service concepts towards forming more sustainable business models. We find that efficient disruptive businesses gradually become the new norm in organisation design. The peer-to-peer models studies came into existence from asset availability or excess demand, coercing the regulatory systems that govern the industries they disrupt into adapting for them. Norms and regulations restrain these newly formed systems into complying with more than the economic outcomes of business processes, forcing their evolution onto a sustainable path. Apart from other studies in the field, our research stresses the utility of "Home Sharing" and "Mobility as a Service" (MaaS) as common grounds between corporations and the communities they serve. Private asset owners can thus either compete with businesses, or the public can collaborate with the economic environment for mutual advantages. The findings of this study have practical implications in organisation design management, as our research reveals that asset and inventory ownership can easily be substituted by available external resources, benefiting the community while improving financial yield.
... Based on five core themes of car dependence, trust, human element externalities, value, and cost, four participant subgroups were identified as car shedders, car accessors, simplifiers, and economizers by Alyavina et al. (2020). It could be argued that MaaS has the potential to reduce the demand for private car and enable people to change their mode choices and travel patterns, based on the empirical findings by Strömberg et al. (2018). ...
Preprint
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Mobility-as-a-Service can be customized in various forms depending on the regional and activity travel contexts. Unlike the previous studies dealing with the daily trip and general characteristics of MaaS, this study focuses on more specific contexts like MaaS in tourism transport. An online survey and stated preference experiments were conducted for the first time in China to evaluate consumer preference for different MaaS packages bundled with tourism service, and six discrete choice models were constructed which reflects the interaction of propensity to consume with other attributes. Survey results indicate that MaaS in tourism will find a promising market in China, and more than 50 percent of respondents would choose to use MaaS packages. MaaS consumers can be divided into three categories based on average propensity to consume that conservative consumer group has the highest proportion of the sample, followed by moderate consumer group and aggressive consumer group. Model estimations illustrate those factors affecting whether to subscribe to the MaaS package mainly include MaaS app-related attributes, social environment, and the living location of the respondents; individual socio-demographics, tour preference, and daily travel habits have influences on their choice behaviors of MaaS service pattern. It also reveals that the interaction items of propensity to consume and package-related attributes (i.e., subscription price, period of validity, and tourism preferential price) play significant and heterogeneous roles to consumer interests and preferences for MaaS in tourism.
... Yet such aspirations can only be achieved if all transport users benefit through an inclusive mobility service, regardless of their socio-economic status, such as gender, age, or (dis)ability. Such an approach would improve accessibility to employment opportunities, training and education facilities, healthcare services, and recreational activities both for commuting and non-commuting travel (Alyavina et al., 2020;Nikitas et al., 2017;Polydoropoulou et al., 2020b;. Not considering the needs of specific user groups, in this case VSGs, will have a negative impact on MaaS adoption, since a similar trend has been found by studies on autonomous vehicles (Kyriakidis et al., 2020;Polydoropoulou et al., 2021). ...
Article
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According to UN statistics, the population of people in vulnerable social groups, namely elderly people, people with disabilities, and low-income populations, has increased over the recent decades. It is projected that this trend will continue in the future. Thus, their mobility and access to transport services are important areas to study. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a digital platform (smartphone application) that aims to encourage more sustainable travel. MaaS is promoted as being accessible to all user groups. However, there are limited studies linking MaaS with vulnerable social groups and their particular needs. This paper comprehensively reviews studies on the emergence of such platforms since 2014 until today to identify the research gaps with respect to vulnerable social groups. A framework and MaaS Inclusion Index (MaaSINI) are then proposed to evaluate the inclusion in MaaS services, focusing on vulnerable social groups’ needs at a service level instead of a city/area level. The framework and policy recommendations proposed in this study will make a significant contribution in guiding stakeholders and policymakers in implementing accessible-for-all-users MaaS services targeting sustainable and inclusive transport.
... Via a digital platform or interface it enables users to plan, book, and pay for multiple types of mobility needs. Ideally, in order to offer user centric mobility services, MaaS allows for personalization and customization (Alyavina et al., 2020;Utriainen and Pöllänen, 2018;Jittrapirom et al., 2017). However, despite numerous potential benefits and advantages, progress from MaaS pilots to large-scale implementation has been relatively slow (Karlsson et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Mobility as a Service (MaaS) refers to the concept of integrating new mobility services electronically, thereby enabling users to access various public and private transport services via a single digital platform. Through MaaS, service providers aim at developing an integrated service that caters to various demands by mobility users. Personal data such as travel behavior is key in this context, because it allows the development, customization, and personalization of mobility services. Hence, for MaaS to become successful, service providers need to collect users' personal information, and users need to accept data collection. In turn, privacy concerns represent a potential hurdle for the success of MaaS. Therefore, understanding privacy concerns from the users' side can help MaaS providers to increase the users' willingness to share their information. This study aims to add on to earlier research findings on privacy concerns by shedding light on new dimensions emerging from the MaaS service. Understanding privacy concerns from the users' side is key in that regard, as it may enable improved service and system development. A sequential mixed-methods approach is used to collect, analyze, and “mix” both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The primary findings are as follows: (1) Privacy concerns specific to the mobility data collection context exist; (2) users are not necessarily personally worried about their privacy even though they claim privacy is an issue; (3) in contrast to traditional privacy thinking, users' trust in mobility service providers may override their privacy concerns. The study's results indicate trust is the key to MaaS adoption. Policy recommendations are explored in the end.
... Equity considerations have been extensively investigated in the transportation literature, in particular regarding specific target groups, such as the elderly, children, and minority groups (see, e.g., Marcellini and Allen, 2004;Odgaard et al. 2005;Rosenbloom 2010;Di Ciommo et al. 2016;Di Ciommo and Shiftan 2017). Such distributional effects are not only characterised by specific socio-economic groups, but are also place-specific (both origin and destination) (see also Kang et al. 2004;Sun et al. 2011;Lamsfus et al. 2015;Alyavina et al. 2020;Dueñas 2021). In our study we have addressed, in particular, the empirical heterogeneity in spatial patterns of leisure mobility in the greater Stockholm area in Sweden. ...
Preprint
Leisure mobility forms an important part of people's spatial activity and mobility spectrum. This study aims to analyse the inequality dimensions of spatial mobility of individuals who seek to move to recreational and leisure destinations (often 'green' and 'blue') on designated days. The study traces-through the use of spatially dependent multilevel models-the mobility patterns of people from the greater Stockholm area, using individual pseudonymised mobile phone data and other publicly accessible data. We find significant socio-demographic inequalities in the observed residents' spatial leisure choices, where less affluent groups display especially low variation in mobility when comparing between weekdays, weekends, vacation season and work-periods.
... Although sustainable mobility projects are typically considered as part of soft and small-scale interventions mainly focusing on aesthetics, in practice, they are the outcome of a deeper process. Their goal is to create a new resource-efficient ethos in transport provision (Nikitas et.al., 2019), promote social equity (Zhao and Yu, 2020), support environmental preservation (Alyavina et al., 2020), boost economic efficiency (Canitez, 2020) and introduce people-centric and holistic policy practices genuinely applicable to cities (Sdoukopoulos, et.al., 2019). Indeed, in such projects, motor traffic is usually re-organised and emphasis is set on public transport and non-motorised mobility (cyclists and users of micromobility) while pedestrian movement is strengthened. ...
Article
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COVID-19, the most wide-spread and disruptive pandemic in over a century, enforced emergency urban design responses meaning to recalibrate transport provision globally. This is the first work that systematically evaluates the ‘public acceptance’ as a proxy for ‘policy success’ and ‘potential for longer-term viability’ of the high-profile sustainable transport intervention package introduced in 2020 in the capital city of Greece known as the Great Walk of Athens (GWA). This is achieved through a twin statistical analysis of an e-survey that looked into the attitudes and urban mobility experiences of Athenians accessing the area of the trial daily. The research enabled a comparison between the pre- and post-implementation traffic situations and provided details about specific measures packaged in the GWA project. Our results suggest that walking and cycling uptake were only marginally improved. Traffic delays for car users were considerable. Car usage declined somewhat, with the exception of ride-sharing. Public transport ridership numbers suffered a lot because of concerns about sharing closed space with many others during a pandemic. Men and people on low income were more likely to agree with the ‘change’. Naturally this was the case for people identified as primarily cyclists and pedestrians. The most impactful package elements in terms of car lane sacrifices (i.e., the redevelopment of Panepistimiou Street) had the lowest acceptability rates. A key reason that underpinned people's hesitation to approve the GWA initiative was the lack of public consultation in the decision-making that shaped the project. Our study provides evidence-based generalisable lessons for similar metropolitan environments looking to implement more or evaluate for possibly making permanent ‘rushed’ anti-Covid street redevelopment measures.
... If designed correctly, the introduction of MaaS could result in a shift towards the use of transport services instead of private vehicles, especially for commuting and repetitive trips [10,117]. However, MaaS can also lead to a switch from public transport to less sustainable modes of transport such as car sharing or ride sharing, so observing the magnitude of both effects is important in order to be able to make an assessment of the sustainability of MaaS [27,43]. ...
Article
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The number of publications about mobility as a service (MaaS) has increased rapidly in the past years, spreading into various fields. In this paper, a total of 127 scientific publications about MaaS are reviewed and categorized into an overarching thematic framework in order to highlight key areas of research and further potential. Three research questions are highlighted in this review: (1) which topics are discussed in the existing MaaS literature? (2) what are the main results in the specific fields? and (3) where are gaps for further research? Publications have focused substantially on the topics of the market, users, data and technology, and the impact on the transportation system. The review shows that, regarding the concept, multi-level approaches have been established for the organization and cooperation of the actors involved, showing different levels of integration of public and private actors on a regional and supra-regional level. Various groups have already been identified as potential users, but the relatively low willingness to pay and the requirements regarding the individualization of mobility services pose problems that have not yet been solved. There is also a constant and unsolved challenge regarding the sensitive motion data that must be stored and processed. Significant research is still needed, including assessments of the impact of MaaS and what effects the service will have on the established use of transport modes, as well as how packages need to be designed and priced in order to optimally reach users.