Factor F4 (multifaceted nature of integration) variables with corresponding categories of content analysis regarding science teachers' definitions of integrated education (IE). Frequencies (%) are shown based on occurrences (n = 127) per category.

Factor F4 (multifaceted nature of integration) variables with corresponding categories of content analysis regarding science teachers' definitions of integrated education (IE). Frequencies (%) are shown based on occurrences (n = 127) per category.

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To understand how integrated science education (ISE) can be transferred into successful classroom practices, it is important to understand teachers’ perceptions and self-efficacy. The focus of this study is twofold: (1) to understand how teachers perceive ISE and (2) to assess if science teachers’ perceptions of and experiences with integrated educ...

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Context 1
... F4, the multifaceted nature of ISE, consisted of five items, which explained 5.06% of the total variance with factor loadings ranging from 0.45 to 0.68 (see Table A2 in Appendix A). One variable (in integrated education, one must apply the skills and knowledge learned within the context of everyday life), with a primary loading 0.55, had a cross-loading of 0.30 for the challenge factor. ...
Context 2
... analysis of the way science teachers choose to define integrated education further elucidated the diverse nature of ISE (see Table 2). The variable stating integrated education as student-centred approach characterised factor F4 the most; in contrast, this characterisation did not appear equally in teachers' definitions of integrated education in the content analysis. ...
Context 3
... 2, the relevance of ISE, explained 16.43% of the total variance and included five variables underlining different dimensions of relevance, with factor loadings ranging from 0.61 to 0.86 (see Table A2 in Appendix A). Based on the factor variables, the science teachers reported that ISE is personally relevant (I would like to use more integrated approaches in my teaching, 0.86), vocationally relevant (I think integrated education is a suitable method to teach the subjects I am teaching, 0.69) and socially relevant (integrated education helps students to understand the interconnected nature of issues better than traditional education, 0.68). ...
Context 4
... factor analysis identified the challenges of ISE as a latent factor (F3) comprised of four items that explained 7.94% of the variance, with factor loadings ranging from 0.46 to 0.86 (see Table A2 in Appendix A). The variables explaining the challenge factor for the most part emphasise ISE as a time-consuming and laborious method. ...
Context 5
... self-efficacy for ISE was emphasised as a key factor explaining most (23.04%) of the total variance in teachers' perceptions of ISE. It consisted of seven items with factor loadings ranging from −0.60 to −0.86 (see Table A2 in Appendix A). All items referred to high self-efficacy statements, such as 'I possess a sufficient amount of knowledge to implement integrated education' (−0.86), and were negatively loaded, thus indicating that the latent factor is actually opposite: low self-efficacy. ...
Context 6
... funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript or in the decision to publish the results. Table A2. Factor loadings and extracted communalities of exploratory factor analysis regarding science teachers' perceptions of integrated education (IE). ...

Citations

... Considering teachers' selfefficacy and concerns about STEM education, Geng et al. (2019) showed that teachers need professional development, pedagogical assistance and curricular tools to apply STEM education in the classroom effectively. A study by Haatainen et al. (2021) demonstrated that teachers' opinions on integrated education and self-efficacy were linked to their experiences with integrated activities and teamwork. In her study, Webb (2015) concluded that mastery of experiences and cultivating a growth attitude through embracing the engineering design process were primarily responsible for selfefficacy increases. ...
... Previous research reported that individuals' experience of specific topics enhanced their self-efficacy of these topics (Chen et al., 2021;Haatainen et al., 2021;Srikoom & Faikhamta, 2018;Webb, 2015). More specifically, previous research indicated that science teachers' self-efficacy in STEM education and teaching with engineering design was associated with their experience in teaching science using these approaches (Chen et al., 2021), and this teaching experience influenced their self-efficacy, beliefs, and attitude about STEM education (Srikoom & Faikhamta, 2018). ...
... Student teachers were also practicing integrating the engineering design model and STEM education into the Omani national science curriculum they were teaching in the micro-teaching session. This integration practice is an important characteristic of STEM education and engineering design curriculum (Roehrig et al., 2021) and is associated with high self-efficacy in teaching integrated activities (Haatainen et al., 2021). ...
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The school system in Oman faces a problem in educating students in integrated science, technology, engineering and mathematics activities. This statement, in part, stems from science teachers’ preparation programs. This study was aimed to close a research gap in Oman by investigating science pre-service (trainee/student) teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for teaching science by using engineering design processes. A self-efficacy beliefs for teaching as engineering design questionnaire was developed and utilized for measuring science trainee teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for teaching science by engineering design methods. A descriptive approach with quantitative data collection was used as a design of the study. A sample of 73 students at Sultan Qaboos University participated voluntarily. The results showed that student teachers believed themselves to be highly successful in teaching science. BSc program trainee teachers had higher perceptions of themselves as highly successful in teaching science with regard to personal self-efficacy beliefs and in two scales in outcome expectations for science teaching in the new manner than did trainee teachers with a teacher qualification diploma. Regarding gender and major, there was no statistically significant difference in trainee teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs. Contributions to research and future perspectives of the study findings on improving science teaching and learning are discussed.
... In a general framework, 21st century skills can be categorized into three main groups: life and career skills; learning and innovation skills; and information, media and technology skills [4]. Binkley and his colleagues [22] went further, using four categories labelled as ways of thinking, ways of working, tools for working and living in the world, and identified ten skill components, namely: creativity and innovation; critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, learning to learn, metacognition communication, collaboration, information literacy, ITC literacy, citizenship, life and career and personal and social responsibility [23,24]. ...
... This is especially the case since previous studies have shown that students' perceived self-efficacy remains low, e.g., related to the utilization of problem-solving skills [12,35]. This is in line with previous research, which has emphasized that the integration and connecting of skills to knowledge can have a positive effect on the development of students' 21st century skills, such as problem solving and decision making [8,15,24]. For this, it is important to further research how students conceptualize core ideas and link knowledge and 21st century skills to these. ...
Article
Interdisciplinary science learning can play a central role in promoting students’ 21st century skills. However, students tend to have low perceived self-efficacy towards 21st century skills, thus limiting the application of their actual scientific competence. This study seeks, based on a 1.5-year intervention study, to promote students’ perceived self-efficacy towards 21st century skills through science learning compared to a non-experimental group. During the intervention, everyday life-related scenarios were utilized, with students guided to create core idea maps. Data on students’ perceived self-efficacy were collected before and after the intervention. Results showed that students’ perceived self-efficacy towards 21st century skills changed in a significantly positively way after the intervention.
... The results discussed here were obtained as a part of a larger survey about science teachers' perceptions about integrated education and arts integration practices. The results of teachers' perceptions of integrated education are reported elsewhere (Haatainen, Turkka, & Aksela, 2017). The survey collected background information (sex, major and minor subjects being teached, experience, etc.). ...
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Numerous case studies suggest that integrating art and science education could engage students with creative projects and encourage students to express science in multitude of ways. However, little is known about art integration practices in everyday science teaching. With a qualitative e-survey, this study explores the art integration of science teachers (n = 66). A pedagogical model for science teachers’ art integration emerged from a qualitative content analysis conducted on examples of art integration. In the model, art integration is characterised as integration through content and activities. Whilst the links in the content were facilitated either directly between concepts and ideas or indirectly through themes or artefacts, the integration through activity often connected an activity in one domain and a concept, idea or artefact in the other domain with the exception of some activities that could belong to both domains. Moreover, the examples of art integration in everyday classroom did not include expression of emotions often associated with art. In addition, quantitative part of the survey confirmed that integration is infrequent in all mapped areas. The findings of this study have implications for science teacher education that should offer opportunities for more consistent art integration.