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Facial Expressions of Trump and Clinton Facebook-Meme Pages.

Facial Expressions of Trump and Clinton Facebook-Meme Pages.

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Using content analysis, this study examines how citizens may use memes to share grassroots political ideas in a social media group setting during elections. Specifically, it offers a glimpse at the types of meme-related Facebook pages that emerged during the 2016 presidential election with an emphasis on representations of the two front-runner cand...

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... this category, the candidate's face was devoid of a smile or goofy look. The appearance of being happy was the next most common cate- gory with 25 pages (23.6%) in our sample falling in this cat- egory, followed by none in which 21 pages (19.8%) fell in this category (Table 2). Another prominent facial expression for the candidates was goofy (n = 18, 17.0%). ...

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... Scholarship has tried to catch up to this moving target with descriptive and conceptual work undertaken by Milner (2012Milner ( , 2013, Shifman (2013Shifman ( , 2014, and others, often taking a qualitative approach to exploring media forms' cultural meanings (e.g., Rodley, 2016;Wetherbee, 2015). Some quantitative work has focused on their diffusion (Huntington, 2013) and usage (Chagas, et al., 2019;Martínez-Rolán, & Piñeiro-Otero, 2016;Moody-Ramirez & Church, 2019), but researchers seem to have neglected political memes from basic media effects and political psychology perspectives. This may be due in part to their deceptive appearance of triviality. ...
... For these reasons, citizens may be wary of political memes and be motivated to reject their claims (Banning & Sweetser, 2007;Gunther & Thorson, 1992;Paradise & Sullivan, 2012). Like political advertising, they tend to malign or ridicule political figures or parties (Chagas et al., 2019;da Silva & Garcia, 2012;Moody-Ramirez & Church, 2019), and so may motivate greater backlash among partisans who feel attacked (Becker et al., 2010;Veenstra et al., 2015). ...
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If citizens systematically respond differently to claims conveyed by memes, their effects on the broader information ecosystem may be underestimated. This US-based study (N = 598) uses a 2 (partisan news/meme format) x 2 (congenial/uncongenial message) design to examine perceptions of partisan memes’ influence on self and others, and the format’s effect on willingness to share disagreement in the context of partisan claims about corruption surrounding biofuels operations. Results indicate that meme format enhances individuals’ tendency to see messages as less influential on oneself than on others and individuals less intent to share disagreement with claims presented in meme format. This decrease is mediated by the decrease in perceived influence over self. These findings call attention to the role format differences may play in the psychological processes underlying political discussion as it becomes increasingly mediated and visual.
... Although there have been several studies on memes (Preez, Lombard;Foster, 2014;Guenther, et.al., 2020;Moody-Ramirez, Church, 2019;Bellar, et.al., 2013;Lopicic, 2014) there are fewer studies on Countryballs (Prochazka, 2016;2020a, 2020bEnverga III, 2019;Arvidsson, et.al. 2021), and these studies haven't examined how diasporic identities are included in Countryball. ...
... Whereas some topics attract attention only momentarily (e.g., racism), others, centered around more fundamental fundamental political subjects (e.g., rallies, particular candidates and political ideologies), remain consistently active over time. The rapid decline of communities around specific topics has been observed on Twitter as well [98]. ...
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... Whereas some topics attract attention only momentarily (e.g., racism), others, centered around more fundamental fundamental political subjects (e.g., rallies, particular candidates and political ideologies), remain consistently active over time. The rapid decline of communities around specific topics has been observed on Twitter as well [98]. ...
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... The aftermath of the "Great Meme War," the internet-based warfare campaigns waged by supporters of various political candidates in the 2016 American Presidential election, led to an increase in research focused on the securing of strategic goals through the use of memes as a form of disinformation (Mayer, 2018;McKew, 2018;Meyer, 2018;Moody-Ramirez & Church, 2019;Piata, 2016;Ross & Rivers, 2017). The term "meme" was coined by evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins (1976) to refer to units of cultural information spread by imitation, replicating in a similar way to genes, with cultural ideas passing from parent to child in the same way as biological traits. ...
Chapter
Ethnographers must now confront the multi-sited, digital and mobile nature of social, cultural and economic life. As a result, the use of digital ethnography, traditional ethnographic methods modified to interact with online communities and environments, has steadily increased in anthropology and the social sciences. Criminologists are beginning to make use of the approach in response to the increasing need to account for the complex digital features of contemporary forms of criminality, victimization, policing and punishment. In this chapter, we outline some selected details of our experiences as ethnographers conducting criminological research in virtual worlds. We cover key issues that range from practical challenges and ethical quandaries through analytical capabilities to epistemological issues in the hope our reflections go some way in helping budding digital ethnographers in criminology.
... Authors in [23] studied very active users in the context of political discussions. US presidential elections were also widely studied: for example, authors in [24] examined how Facebook users used memes to share political ideas during the 2016 elections, and authors in [25] studied the tendency in Twitter for individuals to interact with those expressing similar opinions during the 2012 elections. In our previous paper [9] and [26], we studied the peculiarity of user interactions with political profiles on Instagram during the Brazilian and European elections (in 2018 and 2019, respectively). ...
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... Therefore the Internet meme can act as a powerful medium for persuasion techniques that preach an ideology or way of thinking. (Moody-Ramirez and Church, 2019) On the other hand, the term "propaganda" is defined as a form of communication that employs persuasive strategies and attempts to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist (Jowett and O'donnell, 2018). With the rise of social media, a new form of propaganda rises called "Computational Propaganda." ...
... The encounter was filmed and uploaded to YouTube. Less than a week later, images of Schulte on the phone were placed into everyday contexts in which Black people were harmlessly enjoying their lives (Lee, 2018;Mohdin, 2018). The BBQ Becky meme is characterized by Black people engaged in an activity, Schulte positioned to the side, with the phone to her ear, calling the police. ...
... In Lievrouw's (2006) conceptualization, activist memes represent an element of participatory new media culture that intervenes in, and responds to, mainstream media culture (p. 1). Political and activist memes can produce alternative narratives, new meaning, political groupings (Frazer & Carlson, 2017;Gal et al., 2016), and have demonstrated power to influence social movements (Hristova, 2014;Moody-Ramirez & Church, 2019). For example, Turkish youth created protest art memes in the Gezi Park movement that extended literacy of political processes and helped communicate marginalized political perspectives (Bozkuş, 2016). ...
... Resulting memes provide fodder for trans-platform conversations about the lived experience of oppression-generating the hashtags: #livingwhileBlack #workingwhileBlack, and a slew of others referencing distinct and recent racialized incidents in which Black citizens were casually criminalized while engaging in lawful leisurely activities. In turn, these conversations have increased discourse, adding fuel to the BLM movement (Carney, 2016;Lee, 2018;Mohdin, 2018;Richardson, 2020). These memes demonstrate the explicit creation of counternarratives by circulating imagery that subverts intended White supremacist ideology and rejects positioning as Black docile bodies, suggesting that Black memes matter in the struggle against racial injustice. ...
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“BBQ Becky” and “Karen” memes reference real-world incidents in which Black individuals were harassed by White women in public spaces. In what I term the BBQ Becky meme genre, Black meme creators use humor, satire, and strategic positioning to perform a set of interrelated social commentaries on the behavior of White women. By conducting a visual Critical Technocultural Discourse Analysis (CTDA) of BBQ Becky memes, I argue that Becky and Karen memes are a cultural critique of White surveillance and White racial dominance. I find that memes in the BBQ Becky meme genre call attention to, and reject, White women’s surveillance and regulation of Black bodies in public spaces—making an important connection between racialized surveillance of the past and contemporary acts of “casual” racism. This meme genre also disrupts White supremacist logics and performative racial ignorance by framing Karens and Beckys as racist—not just disgruntled or entitled. Finally, in a subversion and reversal of power dynamics, Karen and BBQ Becky memes police White supremacy and explicitly call for consequences, providing Black communities with a form of agency. Hence, I conclude that Black memes matter in the struggle for racial equity.
... The analysis of how the general populace reacted in social media during significant events is nothing new as well. Moody-Ramirez and Church [5] discusses how citizens of the United States of America (USA) have used memes in Facebook to convey their political opinions the during the 2016 USA presidential elections. The research by Sandoval-Almazan and Valle-Cruz [6] presents the behaviour of Facebook users during a local government campaign of the Central State of Mexico in 2017. ...
... These calculations between each unique pair of sources were then summed to get the final co-occurrence scores between topics as in (5). Here, C k,l denotes the total cooccurrence score between the topics k and l. ...
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