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FT-IR spectrum of Moringa oleifera seeds. The arrows indicate the maximum signal obtained [36]. 

FT-IR spectrum of Moringa oleifera seeds. The arrows indicate the maximum signal obtained [36]. 

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... spectroscopy is an important technique in the qualitative analysis of organic com- pounds, widely used in the areas of natural products, organic synthesis and transformations. It is applied as a tool to elucidate the functional groups which may be present in substances [31], particularly with respect to the availability of the main groups involved in adsorption phenomena. Figure 7 shows FT-IR spectra for Moringa oleifera seeds which verify the presence of many functional groups, indicating the complex nature of this material. The bandwidth centered at 3420 cm -1 may be attributed to the stretching of OH bonds present in proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates and lignin units [32]. Due to the high content of protein present in the seed there is also a contribution in this region from N-H stretching of the amide bond. The peaks present at 2923 cm -1 and 2852 cm -1 , respectively, correspond to asymmetric and symmetric stretching of the C-H bond of the CH 2 group. Due to the high intensity of these bands it is possible to assign them to the predominantly lipid component of the seed, which is present in a high proportion similar to that of protein [33]. In the region of 1800-1500 cm -1 a number of overlapping bands are observed and between 1750 and 1630 cm -1 this can be attributed to C=O stretching. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the seed, the carbonyl group may be bonded to different neighbor- hoods as part of the fatty acids of the lipid portion or amides of the protein portion. The carbonyl component that appears due to the presence of lipids can be seen at 1740 and 1715 cm -1 , as can be observed in the infrared spectra as small peaks, and the shoulders forming part of the main band that appears at 1658 cm -1 are attributed to the carbonyl amides present in the protein portion. The peak observed at 1587 cm -1 may be attributed to stretching connecting CN and also the deformation of the N-H bond present in the proteins of seeds [34,35]. Among the various techniques for material characterization, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique is recommended for the evaluation of the presence of crystalline phases present in natural materials. In general, we can classify materials as amorphous, semicrystalline or crystalline. Figure 8 shows the XRD patterns for M. oleifera seeds. The XRD pattern for crushed seeds, due to the high amount of oils and proteins present in the composition of the material which represent around 69% of the total mass [36], shows unresolved signals (predominantly amorphous). For this reason intact seeds are analyzed, constituting a complex matrix com- prised of a wide variation of substances including proteins, lipid structures and, to a lesser extent, carbohydrates. It was possible to separate a broad peak at around 2θ equals 10º. The presence of this peak is probably associated with the diffraction of the protein constituent surrounded by other components which have a more amorphous pattern [37]. The amorphous nature of the biosorbent suggests that the metal ion could more easily penetrate the biosorbent ...

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... Moringa oleifera Lam. is native to the north of India and grows well in tropical regions. It has been extensively studied because it is rich in amino acids, antioxidants, phytohormones, and minerals (Araújo et al. 2013). The content of compounds in Moringa extract depends on extraction techniques. ...
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