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FIGURE . Convergent fern-like flattened stems in A) Epiphyllum chrysocardium, B) Weberocereus imitans, C) Epiphyllum anguliger, D) Selenicereus (Cryptocereus) anthonyanus (photos by W. Barthlott, Lotus-Salvinia.de).

FIGURE . Convergent fern-like flattened stems in A) Epiphyllum chrysocardium, B) Weberocereus imitans, C) Epiphyllum anguliger, D) Selenicereus (Cryptocereus) anthonyanus (photos by W. Barthlott, Lotus-Salvinia.de).

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The tribe Hylocereeae are represented by mainly Central American-Mexican epiphytic, hemi-epiphytic and climbing cacti. They are popular due to their spectacular nocturnal flowers and have some importance as crops grown for their edible fruits. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Hylocereeae sampling 60 out of the 63 current...

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... Los hábitos alimenticios de E. variegatoides incluyen el consumo de varios tipos de semillas de cubierta dura o delgada, frutos con pulpa y secos, corteza, flores (Best, 1995;Glantz, 1984;Monge y Hilje, 2006) e incluso se ha reportado el consumo de hongos por parte de un ejemplar en cautiverio (Gómez, 1983). Con base en trabajos realizados en Paraíso, Panamá (Glanz, 1984), en la Hacienda Curú, al suroeste de la Península de Nicoya (Monge y Hilje, 2006) y en Finca Taboga, Parque Nacional Santa Rosa y S. costaricensis (Korotkova et al., 2017) se distribuye en Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. Es una planta trepadora que posee tallos fuertes de hasta 10 cm de ancho, trialados, con flores subapicales, aromáticas y antesis nocturna (Anderson, 2001;Rivas Rossi, 1998 Glanz, 1984 Sapindaceae Cupania sp. ...
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Relevancia Se registra el consumo de botones florales de Selenicereus costaricensis como parte de la dieta de la ardilla Echinosciurus variegatoides y se comenta las implicaciones de su consumo en un área urbana y el papel que pueden desem-peñar como recurso en ambientes estacionales. I present here the photographic record of a variegated squirrel (Echinosciurus variegatoides) when eating a flower bud of the Costa Rican pitahaya (Selenicereus costaricensis) in urban area in San José, Costa Rica. The observation represents the first record of cactus floral herbivory for Echinos-ciurus variegatoides, which increases the number of known species reported as part of the diet for this squirrel species.
... Among different species in Selenicereus, S. monacanthus is one of the most important species due to the presence of betalain in pulp. The fruit quality in dragon fruit is attributed to the presence of sugar, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, phenolic compounds and antioxidants (Korotkova et al., 2017;Priatni and Pradita, 2015). Additionally, the enzymatic activities in fruits during ripening contribute towards overall fruit quality (Lima et al., 2001). ...
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Boron plays crucial role in metabolic processes during fruit ripening and in turn ensures better fruit quality. However limited studies have been conducted to assess the influence of boron on fruit quality of dragon fruit. In the present study, the efficacy of boron was investigated on red-fleshed dragon fruit (Selenicereus monacanthus). Four levels of boron (100 mgL-1, 200 mgL-1, 300 mgL-1 and 400 mgL-1) were applied on 7- and 14-day-old flower buds. The highest pollen germinability, seed weight, fruit weight (274.32 ± 36.72g), pulp content (70.80 ± 1.79%) and pulp firmness (2.74 ± 0.18 N) were recorded when B was applied@300 mg L-1 on 7-day old flower bud. The same treatment also manifested higher soluble solid contents (17.42 ± 0.62 °Brix), sugar content, total carbohydrate (15.92 ± 1.12%), protein (1.33±0.11%), ascorbic acid (112.66 ± 4.98 μg/g), betacyanin (32.86±2.52 μg/g), total phenol (95.26 ± 3.72 μg GAE/ 100g), total flavonoid (37.65 ±2.14 mg QE/100g) and anti-oxidative activity (27.71±2.14 mM Fe II/100g). Correlation studies elucidated significant positive influence of pollen germinability on fruit weight, pulp content and pulp firmness. The activities of α-amylase, invertase and sucrose synthase enzymes were significantly upregulated with the application of B 300mg L-1 on 7-day old flower bud. On the other hand, the activities of cell wall degrading enzymes such as cellulase, polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase were reduced with increasing levels of boron. The principal component analysis (PCA) illustrated the maximal proximity of most of the quality attributes with B 300 mgL-1, applied at 7-day old flower bud stage, thus exemplifying it as the best treatment.
... It is reported to have originated in Mexico and cultivated extensively in Central and tropical South America, Southeast Asia and China. Among different species of Selenicereus, S. undatus, S. monacanthus, S. costaricensis and S. megalanthus are cultivated commercially (Gunasena, Pushpakumara, and Kariyawasam 2007;Korotkova, Borsch, and Arias 2017). Fruits of S. undatus are characterized with red peel and white pulp, whereas S. monacanthus and S. costaricensis have red pulp due to the presence of betalain pigment. ...
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... The genus Deamia Britton & Rose (1920: 212), having recently been reinstated (Korotkova et al. 2017) is distributed in the Mesoamerican region and adjacent areas (slightly further north in Mexico). It is characterized by its scandent or epiphytic and often pendent habit, with determinate growth, deposition of a hard and brittle cuticular wax on stems, spines (some finer, hairlike-trichome spines-and more sinuous or flexible than others) on flowers, red to pale red fruits with white pulp (Korotkova et al. 2017, Cerén et al. 2018. ...
... The genus Deamia Britton & Rose (1920: 212), having recently been reinstated (Korotkova et al. 2017) is distributed in the Mesoamerican region and adjacent areas (slightly further north in Mexico). It is characterized by its scandent or epiphytic and often pendent habit, with determinate growth, deposition of a hard and brittle cuticular wax on stems, spines (some finer, hairlike-trichome spines-and more sinuous or flexible than others) on flowers, red to pale red fruits with white pulp (Korotkova et al. 2017, Cerén et al. 2018. The genus includes three species; Deamia chontalensis (Alexander 1950: 132) Doweld [2002Doweld [ ('2001: 41], D. montalvoae Cerén et al. (2018: 253), and D. testudo (Karw. ...
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Deamia funis sp. nov. (Cactaceae) from Nicaragua, in the Mesoamerican region, is described and illustrated based on morphological data. The new species is characterized by its often long, dangling (ropey), and relatively narrow, multiribbed stems with relatively small flowers like those of D. chontalensis, but with the stigma exerted among or slightly beyond the anthers as occurs in D. montalvoae and D. testudo.
... Among different species in Selenicereus, S. monacanthus is one of the most important species due to the presence of betalain in pulp. The fruit quality in dragon fruit is attributed to the presence of sugar, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, phenolic compounds and antioxidants (Korotkova et al., 2017;Priatni and Pradita, 2015). Additionally, the enzymatic activities in fruits during ripening contribute towards overall fruit quality (Lima et al., 2001). ...
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Boron plays crucial role in metabolic processes during fruit ripening and in turn ensures better fruit quality. However limited studies have been conducted to assess the influence of boron on fruit quality of dragon fruit. In the present study, the efficacy of boron was investigated on red-fleshed dragon fruit (Selenicereus monacanthus). Four levels of boron (100 mgL-1, 200 mgL-1, 300 mgL-1 and 400 mgL-1) were applied on 7- and 14-day-old flower buds. The highest pollen germinability, seed weight, fruit weight (274.32 ± 36.72g), pulp content (70.80 ± 1.79%) and pulp firmness (2.74 ± 0.18 N) were recorded when B was applied@300 mg L-1 on 7-day old flower bud. The same treatment also manifested higher soluble solid contents (17.42 ± 0.62 °Brix), sugar content, total carbohydrate (15.92 ± 1.12%), protein (1.33±0.11%), ascorbic acid (112.66 ± 4.98 µg/g), betacyanin (32.86±2.52 µg/g), total phenol (95.26 ± 3.72 µg GAE/ 100g), total flavonoid (37.65 ±2.14 mg QE/100g) and anti-oxidative activity (27.71±2.14 mM Fe II/100g). Correlation studies elucidated significant positive influence of pollen germinability on fruit weight, pulp content and pulp firmness. The activities of α-amylase, invertase and sucrose synthase enzymes were significantly upregulated with the application of B 300 mg L-1 on 7-day old flower bud. On the other hand, the activities of cell wall degrading enzymes such as cellulase, polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase were reduced with increasing levels of boron. The principal component analysis (PCA) illustrated the maximal proximity of most of the quality attributes with B 300 mgL-1, applied at 7-day old flower bud stage, thus exemplifying it as the best treatment.
... tropi cos. org/ Name/ 50251 405? tab= accep tedna mes, accessed on 14/11/2020) [2,3]), anthocyanins and betalains co-accumulate, and hence both contribute to peel and pulp colour formation. Transcriptome sequencing, metabolome analysis, and qPCR were carried out. ...
... The pulp in mature fruits is a combination of cells from the funiculus, endocarp and some of the innermost enlarged layers of the mesocarp that produced mucilage collapsed (Almeida et al. 2018). Based on a molecular phylogeny of tribe Hylocereeae, the delimitation of the closely related genera Hylocereus, Weberocereus and Selenicereus changed drastically (Korotkova et al. 2017). Species previously included in Hylocereus and four species of Weberocereus were merged into Selenicereus (Korotkova et al. 2017). ...
... Based on a molecular phylogeny of tribe Hylocereeae, the delimitation of the closely related genera Hylocereus, Weberocereus and Selenicereus changed drastically (Korotkova et al. 2017). Species previously included in Hylocereus and four species of Weberocereus were merged into Selenicereus (Korotkova et al. 2017). The distribution of this group ranges from northern Mexico to South America and the Antilles (Bauer 2003; Barthlott et al. 2015) (Fig. 2). ...
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Diverse tools and approaches are currently utilized to propose conservation strategies for ecosystems, areas and individual taxa. Here, ecological niche-based modeling, identification of areas of endemism, and diverse methods to determine conservation status are carried out to detect endangered species in Selenicereus. This genus in the Cactaceae has epiphytic species that are known for their edible fruit, called pitahayas or dragon fruit. With the exception of two species (S. grandiflorus and S. undatus), the other 21 studied species in Selenicereus were identified as threatened. Unique ecological niches were identified for these species, with implications for conservation. The most significant areas of species richness and endemism occur in Central America in unprotected areas, followed by other important regions in southern Mexico, which in contrast lie within reserves. Seasonal climates are characteristic of Selenicereus species commonly distributed in seasonally tropical dry forests and coastal vegetation, in areas in Central America where land transformation is rampant.
... El ordenamiento jerárquico está basado en el sistema de clasificación taxonómica adoptado en trabajos recientes (Hunt et al., 2006;Ostolaza, 2014). Los géneros y especies están ordenados alfabéticamente según los últimos cambios taxonómicos (Bauer, 2003;Charles, 2012;Guiggi, 2016;Loaiza y Roque, 2016;Korotkova et al., 2017;Lodé, 2019). En la mayoría de las especies se incluyen observaciones y comentarios sobre la taxonomía, incluyendo información sobre cambios recientes; además de observaciones personales para el caso de algunas especies cuyos cambios taxonómicos no se acepta como válidos. ...
... Se asignan por primera vez nombres comunes para todas las especies nativas y endémicas reportadas en Ecuador, tomando como referencia el significado etimológico del nombre científico (Britton y Rose, 1909, 1913Backeberg, 1931Backeberg, , 1959Madsen, 1989;Kimnach, 1993;Crook y Mottram, 1996Bauer, 2002Bauer, , 2003Crook y Mottram, 2003;Eggli y Newton, 2004;Korotkova et al., 2017), la localidad tipo de cada especie y su principal característica morfológica, además de algunos términos comunes utilizados a nivel nacional. Los acrónimos de los herbarios nacionales e internacionales consultados y que poseen especímenes de cactáceas en su colección son los siguientes: Herbario de la Universidad de Aarhus (AAU), Herbario de la Universidad Estatal de Arizona (ASU), Herbario del Jardín Botánico y Museo Botánico de Berlín -Dahlem (BGBM), Herbario de la Academia de Ciencias de California (CAS), Herbario de la Universidad de California, Davis (DAV), Herbario del Jardín Botánico del Desierto (DES), Herbario de la Universidad San Francisco de Quito (ESF), Escuela Superior Politécnica de Chimborazo (ESPOCH), Herbario del Field Museum of Natural History (F), Herbario de la Universidad de Gothenburg (GB), Herbario de la Universidad de Harvard (GH), Herbario de la Universidad de Guayaquil (GUAY), Herbario del Jardín Botánico de Huntington (HNT), Herbario de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja (HUTPL), Herbario del Real Jardín Botánico de Kew (K), Herbario de la Universidad Nacional de Loja (LOJA), Herbario del Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (MA), Herbario del Museo Botánico Municipal (MBM), Herbario del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile (MNHN), Missouri Botanical Garden (MO), Herbario del Jardín Botánico de Nueva York (NY), Herbario del Museo de Historia Natural de Paris (P), Herbario de la Universidad Central del Ecuador (QAP), Herbario de la Universidad Católica de Quito (QCA), Herbario Nacional del Ecuador (QCNE), Herbario del Museo Sueco de Historia Natural (S), Herbario del Jardín Botánico Marie Selby (SEL), Herbario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo (SPF), Herbario de la Universidad de California (UC), Herbario de la Universidad del Azuay (UDA), Herbario del Museo de Botánica de la Evolución (UPS), Herbario Nacional de Estados Unidos (US), Herbario Estatal de Wisconsin (WIS) y Herbario de la Colección de Plantas Suculentas de Zurich (ZSS). ...
... Epiphyllum hookeri subsp. columbiense (Weber) -19792) (Bauer, 2003;Korotkova et al., 2017). ...
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Se presenta una lista actualizada de las cactáceas nativas del Ecuador Continental, incluyendo por primera vez nombres comunes para todas las especies reportadas, mapas de distribución a nivel nacional y el estado de conservación vigente en base a la última evaluación realizada por la UICN. Se reportan 41 especies nativas, en dos subfamilias, siete tribus y 16 géneros. Seis especies y ocho subespecies son reconocidas como endémicas para el país. La mayor diversidad de especies se concentra en la región sur entre las provincias de Azuay, Loja y El Oro, con el 58.5% del total de las especies reportadas. Se comentan los cambios taxonómicos de algunas especies ocurridos en los últimos años y finalmente, se analiza la situación de cinco especies introducidas. La información presentada representa una alta diversidad en relación a la extensión territorial del Ecuador Continental
... Phylogenetic analyses carried out in the Cactaceae subfamilies have revealed that some traditional classifications at the generic level are not representative of real phylogenetic relationships between species considered to belong to certain genera. Some examples include phylogenetic analyses carried out in the tribes Cacteae (Vázquez-Sánchez et al. 2013) and Hylocereeae (Korotkova et al. 2017), as well as the genera Astrophytum (Vázquez-Lobo et al. 2015), Cephalocereus (Tapia et al. 2017), Opuntia (Majure et al. 2012b) and Pereskia (Butterworth & Wallace 2005). Phylogenetic relationships for the above mentioned tribes and genera are better understood, but there are still other groups in this family in which relationships at the genus or species level have not been resolved due to processes such as incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) or hybridization (Majure et al. 2012b, Copetti et al. 2017, Granados-Aguilar et al. 2021. ...
Article
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Background: Hybridization in nature occurs in numerous botanical families. In particular, the Cactaceae family contains lots of genera in which hybridization is reported. Questions: What are the patterns of reported natural hybridization in Cactaceae and their probable causes? Are there phylogenetic and evolutionary implications related to hybridization, particularly in Opuntioideae? Data description: A total of 62 articles about natural hybridization and classical Cactaceae literature were reviewed. Study site and dates: From 1900 to June 2021 Methods: A search for articles was performed in Web of Science and Google Scholar with the keywords "Cactaceae hybridization", for time span "1900 to 2021" and included information from classic family-specific monographs. Results: Natural hybrids in Cactaceae occur in subfamilies, Cactoideae and Opuntioideae. There is evidence of nonselective mechanisms of reproductive isolation, but only for few taxa. For Cactoideae members the main approach used was morphological description, and the tribe with the highest number of natural hybrids was Trichocereeae. In Opuntioideae, the reviewed articles performed mostly chromosome counts, morphometric and phylogenetic analyses, and showed the highest number of natural hybrids. Conclusions: It has been suggested that hybridization impacts the evolution of Cactoideae and Opuntioideae, but few studies have formally tested this hypothesis. In Cactoideae, we found only descriptive evidences of hybridization; therefore, previous statements suggesting an important role of hybridization in the evolution of Cactoideae should be supported by performing formal analyses. For the postulation that hybridization impacts the evolution of Opuntioideae, we found formal evidence supporting hybridization hypothesis unlike what we found in Cactoideae.
... All Hylocereus species are now included in this genus (Korotkova et al., 2017) Figure 11) and was initially thought to be that species until it flowered. ...
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A total of twenty-one taxa of Cactaceae, including hybrids, are newly recognised or reevaluated for the area defined for the Cacti of Eastern Brazil, some being described for the first time. Other taxonomic changes are noted together with various range extensions and many of the plants concerned are illustrated.